(2) 1. ALLUCINGOLI, Uberto (?-before 1185)
Birth. (No date found), Lucca. Of a patrician family. Nephew of Pope Lucius III.
Education. (No informtion found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso in the consistory celebrated at the beginning of 1182 (1).
Death. Before 1185 (2), (no place found). Buried (no information found).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1792, I, pt. 2, 142-143; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, I, col. 1114; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151.
(1) This is according to "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928, p. 151; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt. 2, 142; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, I, col. 1114, say that he was created cardinal in December 1181.
(2) According to Antoine Aubery, Histoire générale des cardinaux (5 vols. Paris : Jost & Soly, 1642-1649), he died during the pontificate of Pope Lucius III; Mas-Latrie, Trésor de chronologie d'histoire et de géographie pour l'étude et l'emploi des documents du moyen âge (Paris: Librairie Victor Palmé, 1889), p. 1188; says that he died ca. 1202; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' Cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, I, pt.2, 143, indicates that his death occurred ca. 1186.
(3) 2. ETHERIANUS, Ugo (ca. 1115-1182)
Birth. Ca. 1115, Pisa. His last name is also listed as Ætherianus, Eretrianus, Etterianus and Heterianus.
Education. He studied in Paris, where he received a thorough training.
Early life. In 1161, he went to the court of Emperor Manuel I Comnenus in Constantinople, where his brother Leone followed him five years later. As a staunch opponent of Demetrius of Lampe, he wrote to the Synod of Constantinople in April 1166 criticizing the errors of the Greek Church (1). His theological works, De sancto et immortali Deo (or De haresibus quas Graeci in Latinos devolvunt); De minorstate Filii hominis; Adversus Pstharenos; and Liber de anima corpore jam exuta sive de regressu animarum ab inferis ad clerum Pisanum, caught the attention of German theologians Gerhoh von Reichersberg and Peter von Vienna. He probably also wrote a short work, De Graecorum malis consuetudinibus. A Liber de immortali Deo, which has been lost. As a counselor to the imperial court, he had influence on the emperor's religious union politics.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria in the consistory celebrated at the beginning of 1182. Signed a papal bull dated July 14, 1182.
Death. December 7, 1182, Constantinople. Buried (no information found).
Bibliography. "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. Les cardinaux du XIIè siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1928. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1928, p. 151; Mango, Cyril. "The Conciliar Edict of 1166." Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 17, (1963), 315-330.
Links. Biography, in German; biography, in English.
(1) The emperor at the time was investigating the doctrinal views of Demetrius of Lampe, which were debated at the local council of Constantinople in 1166-1167; the council met under the presidency of the emperor to address the interpretation of John 14.28: "My father is greater than I"; Demetrius of Lampe, a Roman (Byzantine) diplomat recently returned from the West, had raised the issue to the emperor's attention; Demetrius ridiculed the way the verse was interpreted there: Christ was inferior to his father in his humanity, but equal in his divinity. The emperor thought the Western interpretation made good sense; he had the support of the patriarch, Luke Chrysoberges; the emperor, aided by the Latin theologian Etherianus, was adamant in rejecting the new doctrine: the Johannine text should be understood, he argued, as applying specifically to the human nature of Christ; the council started on March 2; those who refused to submit to the synod's decisions had their property confiscated or were exiled; anathemas were directed against Constantine the Bulgarian, formerly Metropolitan of Corfu, and John Irenicus, by the synod in 1166; a leading dissenter from the Emperor's doctrine was his nephew Alexios Kontostephanos.
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