(1) 1. ENCKENVOIRT, Willem van (1464-1534)
Birth. 1464, Utrecht (1), Netherlands. Originally from Maastricht. His last name is also listed as Enckevort and Enckenwoert.
Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, 1505).
Early life. Destined to the ecclesiastical state at an early age. Sent to Rome around 1489, when he appears listed among the Curia officials. In 1495, he entered the papal court. He received prebends in Aken, Xanten, Tongues, Hatch, Maastricht, 's-Hertogenbosch, Antwerp, Malines and Utrecht; he was an absentee prebendary. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Antwerp. Canon of the cathedral chapter of St-Lambert in Liège. Provost of Saint-Rombaud, Malines. Dean of Saint-jean-Baptiste of Bois-le-Duc. Provost of the cathedral chapter of Saint-Sauveur of Utrecht; Cardinal Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel van Utrecht, future Pope Adrian VI, resigned the benefice in his favor. Notary of the Sacred Roman Rota in 1500. Apostolic scribe in 1503. Protonotary apostolic in 1506. From 1509 until 1517, he was the provisor of the foundation of the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome; and from 1499 until 1522 he had an active share in the rebuilding of that church. Named count palatine by Pope Leo X in 1514. Datary of His Holiness, 1522-1523; collaborated with the reform efforts of the pope and tried to moralize the dicastery by appointing good officials such as Johannes Betchen, from Cologne, to the post of sub-datary; the pope instructed him not to grant more than one benefice to the same applicant and thus, volumes of requests remained in the archive of the Datary; it is said that with his rigidity and consciousness, he answered to the requestors of benefices Videbimus (We shall see) (2).
Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Priest in Schijndel.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa, March 11, 1523; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of September 10, 1523; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, September 10, 1523. He was the second cardinal of the Netherlands (3); several of the cardinals opposed his promotion because of his "Northern rigidity" (4). Pope Adrian VI named him executor of his testament. Did not participate in the conclave of 1523, which elected Pope Clement VII. During the sack of Rome by imperial troops in 1527, he had to pay 40,000 scudi to Captain Odone to preserve his house and properties. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1529 to January 24, 1530. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Utrecht, October 1, 1529; occupied the see until his death; took possession by procurator; never visited his see because of his age and governed it through an administrator, Jacques Utening. He attended the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in Bologna on February 24, 1530. He was a close friend and collaborator of Pope Adrian VI (5). He built in the choir of S. Maria dell'Anima a beautiful tomb-monument for Pope Adrian VI; and for the decoration of the Brabant chapel hired the Mechelse painter Michiel Coxcie.
Death. July 19, 1534, Rome (6). Buried in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome (7); he wanted his tomb, designed by Giovanni Mangoni, to be opposite that of Pope Adrian, but later, in 1575, it had to be moved to the front wall to make room for the monument for Karl-Friedrich, erfprins van Kleefs-Guliks-Bergse (+ 1575). It still can be seen next to the main entrance aisle.
Bibliography. Gnann, Achim. "Cardinal Wilhelm van Enckenvoirt as Patron of the Arts in Rome" in Fragmenta : Journal of the Royal Netherlands Institute in Rome, Volume 4 (2010), 149-160; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 870-871; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 79-80; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1451-1452; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 18, 63, 186 and 316; Storti, Nicola. La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni. Napoli : Athena Mediterranea Editrice, 1969, pp. 166-167.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Dutch, Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Deel 2 (1912), p. 435-437; his tomb, church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, The Australian National University; another view of his tomb, The Australian National University; mural by Michiel Coxcie in which Saint Barbara presents Cardinal Enckevoirt to the Most Holy Trinity, church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome; his portrait and biography, in Dutch, RKK; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 79; and Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1451. His biography in Dutch, linked above, says that he was born in Mierlo, North Brabant; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 870, says that he was born in Mierle, town of Brabant, near Bois-le-Duc.
(2) Storti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni, p. 167, citing Ludwig von Pastor, History of the popes : from the close of the Middle Ages, drawn from the secret archives of the Vatican and other original sources. 40 vols. (St. Louis, MO : Herder, 1923-1953), IV, 63.
(3) The first one was Adriaan Florenszoon Dedel van Utrecht, future Pope Adrian VI. There were no more cardinals in the Netherlands until the promotion of Jan de Jong, archbishop of Utrecht, in the consistory of February 18, 1946.
(4) Storti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni, p. 167.
(5) Storti, La storia e il diritto della Dataria Apostolica dalle origini ai nostri giorni, p. 167, citing Pastor, History of the popes, IV, 63, calls him "half of the heart and of the soul of Adrian VI".
(6) Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 871, says that he was 90 years old when he died.
(7) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1451-1452: VVILLELMO ENCKENVORTIO Brabantino Sanct. Ro. Eccl. Presbytero Card. qui plurimir Romanæ Republicæ magistratibus, & Germaniæ procuratione integerrime functus ab Hadriano VI. Pont. Maximo, cuius item res administraverat libellis dandis, & Ecclesiæ Dertusensi præfectus, & in Cardinalium Collegium, claro benivolentiæ indicio traflatis in eum pristinæ suæ dignitatis insignibus, solus cooptatus. Deinde etiam a Clemente VII. Ecclesia Traeictiensi honestatus est. Carolo V. Imperatori libentiss. quem ab illo coronam Imperii accipientem inunxit, quique beneficiorum memor Hadriani cadaver e Petri Basilica in hanc ædem cuius construendæ, & ornandæ adiutor fuit, sepulchro posito transferri curavis, in egenos, & in omnes homines beneficentissimus. Ioannes Dominicus Tranensis, Antonius Sanseverinus Cardd. & Petrus Vorstius Episcopus Aquensis, Andreas Castillo scriptor Apostolicus ex testamento posuere. Vixit annos LXX. mortem obiit M. D. XXXIV.
Birth. Ca. 1470, Królewiec, Poland. Son of Marcin von Lossainen, commandant of the castle and city of Reszel (Ermland) and Elżbieta Kocielecka from the Polish nobility. As a child he was taken hostage by the Teutonic Knights in revenge for his father's defense of Reszel. His last name is also listed as von Lossainen, von Lusian, de Lusian, de Lossainen, from Łęźany, and Tetinger de Lossainensis.
Education. Initial studies probably in Królewiec; studies in Cologne, from 1486; University of Bologna, Bologna from 1490 (doctorate in canon law, May 23, 1500); also studied in Ferrara in 1491.
Early life. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Ermland, 1490; in the chapter he was a colleague of Nikolaus Copernicus, famous astronomer. Legal counselor of Bishop Łukasz Watzenrode of Ermland.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ermland by its cathedral chapter, April 5, 1512; election confirmed by King Zygmunt Stary of Poland, July 6, 1512; and by the pope August 27, 1512. Consecrated, December 5, 1512, in Piotrków Trybunalski, by Jan Łaski, archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland.
Priesthood. Shortly after his election, he was ordained a priest.
Cardinalate. According to some authors (1), he was created cardinal by Pope Adrian VI at the end of 1522 or beginning of 1523. He died shortly after; the cardinal's hat had already been sent to his see but the bishop had died before it reached Lidzbark Warmiñski, the episcopal residence.
Death. January 30, 1523, in Lidzbark Warmiñski. Buried in the cathedral in Frombork.
Bibliography. Biskup, Marian. "Fabian Luzjañski", in: "Polish Biographical Dictionary. Wrocław-Warszawa 1973, XVIII, 162-166; Borawska, Teresa. "Fabian Luzjañski", in: "Słownik biograficzny Pomorza Nadwilañskiego. Gdañsk 1997, III, 93-94; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 327; Oracki, Tadeusz. "Fabian Luzjañski", in: "Prus Książecych i Ziemi Malborskiej od polowy XV do konca XVIII wieku. 2 vols. Olsztyn : Wydawn. "Pojezierze", 1984-1988. (Biblioteka Olsztynska ; nr 11, 15;), II, 19-20.
Webgraph. Biography, in Polish; brief biographical data, in Polish; biography, in Polish; Copernico in Polonia, in Italian; Ermland, the diocese and its bishops, in German.
(1) Biographical information about Bishop Luzjañski may be found in works about Copernicus such as Bartoszewicz, Julian. "Wspomnienie o Koperniku". (About Copernicus), in: Rocznik Warszawski 1852, Warszawa : 1852, p.187; Bartoszewicz, Julian. "Życiorys Mikołaja Kopernika." (Biographical Sketch about Copernicus), in: "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" by Copernicus, Warszawa 1854, pp. 226-227; Grzybowski, Stanisław. Mikołaj Kopernik., Warszawa : Ksiazka i Wiedza, 1972 (Biblioteczka popularnonaukowa swiatowid), p. 208; Kesten, Herman. Kopernik i jego czasy. (Copernicus and his times), Warszawa 1961, p. 341; Polkowski, Ignacy. Żywot Mikołaja Kopernika. (Life of Nikolaus Copernicus), Gniezno : Drukiem J.B. Langiego, 1873, p. 194; Prowe, Leopold Friedrich. Nicolaus Coppernicus, Berlin : Weidmann, 1883-1884, p. 155-156 (in German); Sawidż-Zabłocki, Wojnisław Kazimierz. Mikołaja Kopernika życie obywatelskie w Polsce. (Life of Copernicus as Polish citizen), Wilno : 1873, p. 29; Sikorski, Jerzy. Prywatne życie Mikołaja Kopernika. (Secret life of Copernicus), 2d ed. Olsztyn :Pojezierze, 1985, p. 202; Wasiutyñski, Jeremi. Kopernik. Twórca nowego nieba (Copernicus. Creator of new heaven), Warszawa : Przeworski, 1938, p. 320; Zins, Henryk. "W kręgu Mikołaja Kopernika" (In the circle of Copernicus), Lublin : Wydawn. Lubelskie 1966, p. 71.
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