(19) 1. TOURNON, Can. Reg. of Saint Augustine, François de (1489-1562)
Birth. 1489, château of Tournon, France. Fifth child -second son- of Jacques II de Tournon and Jeanne de Polignac. At 12, he was destined by his family to the ecclesiastical state; took the habit of the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine.
Education. Studied at the Abbey of Saint-Antoine de Viennois.
Early life. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Antoine de Viennois, 1509-1512. Abbot of Chaise-de-Dieu, 1519.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Embrun, July 30, 1518. Consecrated (no information found). Invested with the commanderie of Feurs, he met King François I of France in Lyon for the first time. After King François I was defeated at Pavia in 1525 and taken captive to Madrid, the regent and a council set up to obtain the liberation of the king sent Archbishop Tournon, together with Jean de Selve, first president of the parlement of Paris, to Madrid to obtain his release; after long negotiations, the archbishop signed the Treaty of Madrid on January 14, 1526, by which the king was freed and France ceded Burgundy to Emperor Charles V; the archbishop accompanied the king to France; after his liberation the king relied completely on the archbishop. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bourges, January 8, 1526; occupied the see until June 27, 1537. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Germain des Prés. The archbishop returned to Spain in 1530 to obtain the freedom of the Dauphin François and his brother Prince Henri de Orléans, future King Henri II, who had been retained as hostages by Emperor Charles V; the archbishop also took part in the negotiations to modify the Treaty of Madrid and promoted the Peace of Cambrai. Sometime later, the archbishop went back to Spain to arrange the marriage of Princess Eleanor of Austria, sister of Emperor Charles V, to King François I; she was the widow of Manuel El Grande, king of Portugal; and King François was the widower of Claudine de France; the archbishop escorted the princess to France and presided over the ceremony in Capitieux, city near Bazas.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1530; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, May 16, 1530. The cardinal was sent to Rome to avoid the threat of excommunication against the French king; and then from Rome he went to England to try to convince King Henry VIII Tudor of England not to break with the pope; at that time, Pope Clement VII, influenced by the emperor, excommunicated King Henry. Participated in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. Abbot of St-Germain-des-Prés, 1534. In other diplomatic negotiations, the cardinal was able to realign France with the Italian princes. The invasion of Provence by the imperial troops in 1536, as response to the entrance of the French troops into Savoy, made Marshal Anne de Montmorency be charged with the response against the invaders; Cardinal de Tournon was named by the French king his lieutenant-general, with extensive power, to direct from Lyon all the war operations; the cardinal, who until then had been a diplomat, excelled in these new charges; Provence was repossessed by the French, Piedmont was invaded and all of Italy was freed of the imperial control; the cardinal had provided for the needs of the troops and had replenished the funds of the state. Abbot of Tournus, 1537; and of Saint Florent de Saumur, 1537-1538. In 1538, Cardinal de Tournon represented the French king in the conferences of Nice between Pope Paul III and the emperor. Administrator of the metropolitan see of Auch, June 14, 1538; resigned before April 22, 1551. He was elected superior general of his order in 1542. The cardinal surrounded himself with erudites such as Denis Lambin, Marc-Antoine Muret and Vincenzo Lauro, future cardinal; and participated in the protection that the king gave to the letters and sciences; he also increased the holding of the king's library and established the royal printing press. After the death of King François I in 1547, the cardinal devoted himself more particularly to the development of the Collège de Tournon, which he had founded in 1536; the fight against the Reformation and the introduction of the Jesuits in France. Sent to Rome in 1547, he participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III; and negotiated a treaty with the new Pope Julius III; he spent eight years in Italy serving the interests of France. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina, February 28, 1550. Named archbishop of Lyon, May 11, 1551; occupied the see until his death. Abbot commendatario of Tournon, Ambournai, Aisnai, and Saint-Antoine. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Returned to France in 1555 but was sent back to Rome to try to align Pope Paul IV with France in the war that the Guise were trying to incite against Spain; but the cardinal did not lend himself to ambitions of the princes of Lorraine and of the nephews of the pope, the Carafas; his efforts to keep the peace failed; the hostilities started and the defeat in the battle of Saint-Quentin placed France in a perilous situation. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV; he was very close to being elected pope. On July 10, 1559, King Henri II of France died (on June 30 the monarch had been mortally wounded in a tournament by the Count of Montgomery, Captain of the Scots Guard) and the cardinal was recalled from Rome. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 13, 1560. In 1561, he presided over the Coloquy of Poissy; there he reprimended the insolence of Théodore de Béze. He has been called "le Richelieu de François 1er" by later historians; he filled the functions of foreign minister of the king without ever receiving the title of minister, or even of counselor.
Death. April 22, 1562, Saint-Germain, Laye. Buried in the choir of the abbey of St-Germain-des-Prés; in 1720 his remains were translated to the chapel of Collège de Tournon (1), now Lycée dE'tat Gabriel Fauré, Tournon-sur-Rhône.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 1572-1585; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 114-118; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1474-1475; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 20-21, 56, 58, 65, 135, 125 and 190.
Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in French; larger image of the same portrait; his portrait , as donor, in "Triptyque de la Resurrection du Christ" by Giovanni Capassini, Musée du Louvre, Paris; same portrait, in black and white, Lycée d'Etat Gabriel Fauré, formerly Collège de Tournon, Tournon-sur-Rhône, France; his engraving, Cabinet des estampes, Bibliothéque Nationale, Paris; his portrait by école de Jean Clouet, Musée Condé, Chantilly, France; his statue in front of Lycée d'tat Gabriel Fauré, formerly Collège de Tournon, Tournon-sur-Rhône, France; his arms in a missal; and chapel of Lycée d'Etat Gabriel Fauré, formerly Collège de Tournon, Tournon-sur-Rhône, France, where he is buried.
(1) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1586:
(20) 2. CLES, Bernhard von (1485-1539)
Birth. March 11, 1485, Cles, Non Valley, diocese of Trent. Of a noble family. One of the nine children of Hildebrand von Cles and Dorothea Fuchs. He is also listed as Bernardo Klesio; and Bernardo Cles; and his last name as Clesius; and de Closs.
Education. Studied rhetoric in Verona from 1497 to 1504; the, studied at the University of Bologna from 1504-1511; sindico generale of the university; obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on May 15, 1511.
Early life. In 1509, he started his ecclesiastical career. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Trent, 1512. Apostolic notary, 1512. Procurator of the German nation. Bishop George Neideck of Trent nominated him counsellor and sent him to Trent to govern the principality in his absence while he was regent of Tirol. Counselor of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in Innsbruck, 1513. Major archdeacon of Trent.
Sacred orders. On ugust 7, 1509 he received the minor orders; and later, the subdiaconate.
Episcopate. Elected unanimously by the cathedral chapter prince-bishop of Trent, June 1514; his election was confirmed by Pope Leo X on September 25, 1514. He had to postpone his return to Trent because of his many duties linked to his international political role; he took up the position of prince-bishop on September 8, 1515.
Priesthood, Ordained, September 8, 1515, Trent; and made his solemn entrance into the city on that same day. Consecrated, December 10, 1515, cathedral of S. Vigilio, Trent, by Michele Iorba, titular bishop of Argolicen or Arethusa, auxiliary of Trent and of Brixen, assisted by Johannes Kneissel, titular bishop of Belinas or Abila in Syria, auxiliary of Brixen, and by the auxiliary bishop of Feltre. The prince-bishop promoted an extensive renovation of the city and principality: the reconstruction of the church of S. Maria Maggiore in Renaissance style; the widening of the main streets; the decorating of the house facades; the building of the Shrine of the Virgin Mary in Civezzano; the expansion of the castles of Stenico and Toblino in his property; the reconstruction of the parish church and the improvements to the family castle in Cles in the Non valley. He organized the compilation of registers and rationalized and increased the episcopal library; he also organized the diocesan archive giving it Codex Clesuanus. In 1519, at the death of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, he was called to be part of the regency ad interim, until the nomination of Charles of Hapsburg as emperor with the name Charles V. The Peasants' War started in May 1525 and was repressed with determination by the prince-bishop. King Ferdinand I of the Romans named him president of the Privy Council in 1526. Two years later, in 1528, he was named supreme chancellor, position of the highest prestige in the Austrian court. In that same year, the prince-bishop promulgated the Statutum Tridentinum in a new text which remained in force until 1807; it had eleven volumes that collected the documentary sources of the laws and feuds of the principality and formed a code which carried his name. He personally supervised the rebuilding and decoration of the Magno Palazzo at Buonconsiglio Castle, from 1528 to 1536; the prince-bishop employed some of the best artists of the time, such as Dosso Dossi and his brother Battista, Girolamo Romanino, Marcello Fogolino, Vincenzo Grandi, Alessio Longhi and Zaccaria Zacchi. He was present, as representative of King Ferdinand, at the coronation of Emperor Charles V at the cathedral of S. Petronio, Bologna, in 1530.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1530; received the red hat and the title of S. Stefano in Monte Celio, May 16, 1530. He was the first prince-bishop of Trent to become cardinal. Named president of the privy council, 1533. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. In 1537-1538, he conducted the first pastoral visit in the history of the diocese before the Council, of which written record remains. Administrator of the see of Brixen, May 21, 1539; he took possession of the see on July 13, 1539 and died a few days later. He was responsible for the preparation of the most important religious and political event in the history of Trent, the general council. His ideal was a Catholic Europe ruled by the Hapsburgs.
Death. July 30 (1), 1539, Brixen, of a coronary arrest (2). On August 4, 1539, his remains were transferred to Trent and buried in its cathedral (3).
Bibliography. Bernardo Clesio e il suo tempo. 2 vols. A cura di Paolo Prodi. Roma : Bulzoni, 1988, c1987. (Biblioteca del Cinquecento ; 39; ). Convegno internazionale di studi 'Bernardo Clesio e il suo tempo,' Trento, 29 maggio-1 giugno 1985."; Bonazza, Rolando. ; Festi, Roberto. ; Fontanari, Carlo. Architettura rinascimentale in alta Valsugana : i palazzi rinascimentali al tempo del Cardinale Bernardo Cles (1485-1539) ; i rapporti con l'ambiente trentino e l'influenza della trattatistica. Pergine : A.S.P., 1983; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 318-319; Castelnuovo, Enrico. ; Bellabarba, Marco. ; Lupo, Michelangelo. Gli Arazzi del cardinale : Bernardo Cles e il Ciclo della passione di Pieter van Aelst. Trento, : Temi editrice, 1990 (Storia dell'arte e della cultura); Castelnuovo, Enrico. ; Bacchi, Andrea. Il Castello del Buonconsiglio. 2 vols. Trento : Temi, 1995-1996. (Storia dell'arte e della cultura). Contents: v. 1. Percorso nel Magno Palazzo -- v. 2. Dimora dei principi vescovi di Trento : persone e tempi di una storia; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1475; Chini, Ezio ; De Gramatica, Francesca. Il Magno Palazzo di Bernardo Cles, Principe Vescovo di Trento. Trento : Provincia autonoma di Trento : Servizio beni culturali : Museo provinciale d'arte, 1985; Clesio, Bernardo, 1485-1539. ; Ausserer, Karl; ed.; Gerola, Giuseppe ; coed. I documenti clesiani del Buon consiglio. Venezia : La R. Deputazione Editrice, 1925. (Miscellanea di storia veneto-tridentina, ed. per cura della R. Deputazione veneto-tridentina di storia patria.; [ser. IV], v.1; Variation: Miscellanea di storia veneta.; ser. IV ; v.1); Cristoforetti, Giovanni. La Visita pastorale del cardinale Bernardo Clesio alla diocesi di Trento, 1537-1538. Bologna : Edizioni Dehoniane ; Trento : Istituto di scienze religiose in Trento, 1989. (Istituto di scienze religiose in Trento. Series maior ; 2; Variation: Istituto di scienze religiose in Trento; Series maior ; v2); Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 71, 141, and 318; Gabrielli, Luca ; Burns, Howard. Il Magno palazzo del cardinale Bernardo Cles : architettura ed arti decorative nei documenti di un cantiere rinascimentale (1527-1536). Trento : Società di studi trentini di scienze storiche, 2004. (Collana di monografie ; 64; Variation: Collana di monografie (Società di studi trentini di scienze storiche) ; 64); Mattioli, Pietro Andrea, 1500-1577. ; Bertoluzza, Aldo. Il magno palazzo del cardinale di Trento. 2 vols. Calliano [Trento] : Manfrini editori, 1984, 1539. Note: Photographic reprint of the 1539 ed.; Menestrina, Francesco ; Clesio, Bernardo, 1485-1539. Bernardo Clesio e i ristauri del palazzo di Cavalese. Società tipografica editrice trentina, 1904. Note: Estratto dal Fasc III della Tridentum 1904; Primerano, Domenica. Bernardo Clesio, signore del Rinascimento. Fotografia, Studio Lambda. Trento : Casa Editrice Publiux, 1984; Tisot, Renato ; Clesio, Bernardo, 1485-1539. Ricerche sulla vita e sull'epistolario del cardinale Bernardo Cles (1485-1539). Trento, Società studi trentini di scienze storiche, 1969. (Collana di monografie, 18; Variation: Società di studi trentini di scienze storiche; Collana di monografie ; 18). Note): "Carteggio inedito di Bernardo Cles coi signori di Milano"; Vareschi, Severino. "Cles, Bernhard von (1485-1539)." Die Bischöfe des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, 1448 bis 1648 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz, unter Mitwirkung von Clemens Brodkorb. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1996, pp. 106-109.
Webgraphy. Biography by Gerhard Rill, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 26 (1982), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Trentino Cultura; his portraits, palace, tapestry and biography, in Italian, istituti.vivoscuola.it; his portrait by Barthel Bruyn, kunst- und ausstellungshalle der bundesrepublik deutschland; his image, fresco by Dosso Dossi, istituti.vivoscuola.it; his image, fresco by Girolamo Romanino, Trentino Cultura; his portraits and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his portrait by Sigismondo Nardi (1902), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait (1800-1899), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his portrait by Davide Frioli (1928), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his image in a bassrelief by Luigi Degasperi (1950), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his sepulchral monument attributed to Giadomenico, Paolo and Simone Carneri (1579-1599), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb); his tombstone attributed to Giadomenico, Paolo and Simone Carneri (1579-1599), diocese of Trento, Beni Ecclesiastici in Web (BeWeb).
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted except his epitaph, transcribed below in note 3, which says that he died on July 28, 1539.
(2) This is according to his fourth biography in Italian, linked above; the second one, also linked above, says that he died of "morbus gallicus".
(3) This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Andrea Vittorelli, in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1475:
(21) 3. GORREVOD, Louis de (ca. 1473-1535)
Birth. Ca. 1473, Piedmont. Of a collateral branch of the counts of Pont-de-Vaux, Bresse, who took the name of a castle to the south of the place. Second child of Jean de Gorrevod and Jeanne de Loriol-Challes. His last name is also listed as Gorrevod de Challant. Relative of quasi Pseudocardinal Louis I de Gorrevod (1394).
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Protonotary apostolic. Almoner of the duke of Savoy. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Genève, January 27, 1499.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, August 9, 1499. Consecrated (no information found). Abbot commendataire of the Benedictine abbey of Saint-Pierre de Bessua, diocese of Langres. Continued residing in Genève. In 1501, he blessed the marriage of Duke Philibert of Savoy and Marguerite of Austria in Romainmôtier. Abbot commandataire of Ambronay. Between 1507 and 1509, occasionally substituted for the auxiliary bishop of Genève, François Brunaud. Ambassador of Savoy to the V Lateran Council, which took place from 1512-1517; he strongly supported the rights of the pope. In 1515, the diocese of Bourg-en-Bress was erected and Bishop de Gorrevod was elected its first ordinary (1). He made a solemn entry in the city at the end of the year, promising to establish his residence in Bourg. But, in 1516, the diocese of Bourg was suppressed. Nevertheless, Bishop de Gorrevod obtained from Pope Leo X the authorization to assign the funds of indulgences collected to Bourg to pay for the construction of the church of Our Lady. And he contributed, with his brother Laurent, to the construction of a vault in the church. In 1521, Pope Leo X restored the diocese and Bishop de Gorrevod became its ordinary again. In May 1531, Cardinal-legate de Gorrevod accepted Bourg's triumphal reception and celebrated a high mass on the square of the market, with the participation of a large crowd. However, at the end of that year, the suppression of the diocese was decided on and, in spite of the resistance of the Bressans, was officialized by a bull of Pope Paul III in 1534. Cardinal de Gorrevod had to give up the Bressan see. Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1530; received the red hat and the title of S. Cesareo in Palatio, May 16, 1530. Named papal legate in all the states of Savoy, December 5, 1530. Resigned the government of the see in favor of his nephew Jean-Philibert de Challes on April 10, 1532. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III.
Death. April 22, 1535 (2), Saint-Jean de Maurienne. Buried in the chapel he had built in the cathedral of Saint-Jean de Maurienne.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1024; Burnier, Eugène. "Les constitutions du Cardinal Louis II de Gorrevod, évêque de Maurienne et prince (1506). Étude historique." Mémoires et documents de la Societé Savoisienne d'Histoire de d'Archéologie. VIII (1863), 225-271; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 119-120; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1476; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, 188; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 61 and 238; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 453; Weber, Christoph . Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800). Frankfurt am Main ; New York : Peter Lang, 1996, p. 390; Zedler, Johann Heinrich, and Carl Günther Ludovici. Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste. 64 v. Graz, Adakemische Druck, 1961- . Reprint. Originally published : Halle : J. H. Zedler, 1732-50. Vols. 19-64 ed. by Carl Günther Ludovici, XI, 255.
Webgraphy. Biographical profile, in French; biography, in French; brief biographical data, in German; biography, in German, click on "Gorgodylene:, and then on "Image 145".
(1) This is according to his biography in French, linked above. Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1024, also mentions that Pope Leo X established the diocese of Bourg in 1515 and that he appointed Bishop de Gorrevod its ordinary; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 119, says that in 1499 he was named to the vescovado di S. Giovanni di Moriena, coll'amministrazione della Chiesa di Bourges, come scrivono alcuni, del che però nella Gallia cristiana nella serie de' Prelati della medesima no apparisce nè orma, nè vestigio (bishopric of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, with the administration of the Church of Bourges, as some write, of whom, in Gallia Christiana in the series of prelates of the same does not appear neither trace nor vestige); Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, XI, 255, mentions that he was named bishop of Bourg by Pope Leo X in 1515; neither Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, V, 453 nor Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 188 and III, 21 and 238, make any mention of that new diocese; Pius Bonifatius Gams. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. (Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957) does not mention the diocese at all.
(2) This is according to his brief biographical data in German, linked above; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, II, 188, and III 21 and 61; Weber, Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte, V, 453; Weber, Senatus divinus : verborgene Strukturen im Kardinalskollegium der frühen Neuzeit (1500-1800), p. 390; his biography in French, linked above, says that he died in 1535; his biographical profile in French, linked above, says that he died in 1535, vraisemblablement (likely); Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1024, says that he died in 1537 and that he had prepared his testament two years earlier; his biography in German, linked above, also says that he died in 1537.
(22) 4. LOAYSA Y MENDOZA, O.P., García de (1478-1546)
Birth. 1478, Talavera de la Reina, archdiocese of Toledo, Spain. Of a noble family. Son of Pedro de Loaysa and Catalina de Mendoza. One of his brothers, Jerónimo de Loaysa, was archbishop of Lima; and another, Domingo de Mendoza, who adopted his mother's last name as it was at times done then, was a Dominican friar. His first name is also listed as Garcías, Garsias, Garzia, Juan and Francisco; and his last name as Loaisa and Loyasa.
Education. Entered the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at the convent of San Esteban, Salamanca, November 25, 1496; because of poor health, he was sent to the convent of Peñafiel; his health improved and he was allowed to profess in the order. Studied at the convent of Santo Tomás, Ávila; and then was sent to Valladolid to Colegio de San Gregorio; there he was later lector and twice rector; he was the most esteemed professor.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). In 1512, he was given the title of maestro in theology. In the following six years he was prior of the convents of Ávila and Valladolid; definitor; provincial vicar; provincial of Spain; and vicar general of the order in the absence of Cardinal Tommaso de Vio, O.P., master general. Confessor of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Counselor of the Inquisition from 1517. Elected master general of his order, May 23, 1518; in the general chapter celebrated in S. Maria sopra Minerva, Rome, in the first ballot he received almost all of the votes of the 50 electors. As master general, his slogan was poverty and study; he gave an extraordinary impulse to the devotion of the Rosary; the first grace granted by Pope Adrian VI was in favor of the Rosary, at the request of Fr. Loaysa; and the confraternities of the Rosary proliferated everywhere. After visiting the convents of Naples and Sicily, he went to Spain, arriving in Navarra on November 1, 1520. He established his general headquarters at his favorite convent in Valladolid. The revolt of the comuneros was going on and in some places it was being led by Dominican friars; the emperor requested Fr. Loaysa to intervene; he immediately acted and severely punished four of the rebellious leaders who were masters in theology; in the provincial chapter celebrated in Salamanca, they were deprived of their degrees and condemned to prison. He later visited numerous convents of the province of Spain trying to pacify the spirits and strengthen the observance. He promoted and supported the reforming plans of Fray Juan Hurtado de Mendoza, authorizing the foundation of several convents of strict observancy and thus the convents of Talavera, Atocha, Ocaña, Villaescusa de Haro, Mombeltran and Aranda were established; the convent of San Esteban of Salamanca reached a vanguard position that made it as famous and influential in a few years. Inquisitor general of Castilla and Aragón, March 1522. President of the Council of the Inquisition, August 1522 to September 1523. While he fomented the reform in others, his own religious life was being debilitated (1). From his ascent to the post of general master, with him no longer the observante friar of the first days, his government became arbitrary and authoritarian; the disaffection grew and in Spain, Italy and other parts it was murmured that the Master General Loaysa no longer had his heart in the order; and that his heart was now in the court and in the direct service of the emperor. In order to be nearer the emperor, he did not accompany the new Pope Adrian VI in his trip to Rome; he fixed his residence in his favorite monastery of Valladolid. Emperor Charles V, on his return from Flanders in 1522, settled down himself in that city and became captivated by the smooth ways of the master general. The emperor took him as his confessor. This position changed his life giving him a new direction. Soon he understood that his position of confessor of the emperor was incompatible with the one of general master of the Order of Preachers. He needed to choose and he chose the one of confessor. At the beginning of 1524 he submitted his resignation as master general;retained the post until the next chapter general of the order.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Osma, June 8, 1524. On July 16, 1524, the emperor ordered all the bishops to reside in their dioceses with the exception of the president of the royal council; the archbishop of Sevilla, major inquisitor; and Bishop Loaysa, royal confessor and almoner. First president of the newly established Consejo Real y Supremo de las Indias, August 4, 1524; he occupied the post until his death; he adopted the thesis of Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas, O.P., and suppressed the encomiendas. Consecrated, September 29, 1524, Dominican church of San Pablo, Valladolid, by Alfonso Fonseca Acevedo, archbishop of Toledo; Holy Roman Emperor Charles V attended the ceremony. In the meeting of the Council of State, celebrated after the battle of Pavia, Bishop Loaysa maintained the position of freeing King François I of France without ransom and conditions; the bishop was persuaded that the monarch would respond nobly to the act of generosity. In 1526, Grand Chancellor Mercurino Arborio di Gattianara, future cardinal, reorganized the Council of State and named Bishop Loaysa as one of its permanent members; but they did not understand each other and the animosity between the two was notorious. The influence of Bishop Loaysa with the emperor began to weaken at the beginning of 1528; the emperor did not call him to the meetings of the Council of State; and the following year, when the emperor went to Italy, he took the bishop with him and obtained the latter's promotion to the cardinalate; and later named him Spanish ambassador before the Holy See with residence in Rome.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1530; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, May 16, 1530. The cardinal did not resign himself to stay in Rome and on numerous occasions begged the emperor to allow him to return if not to the court, at least to his see. Transferred to the see of bishop of Sigüenza, February 23, 1532. Finally, after this transfer, the cardinal was allowed by the emperor to return to Spain; he also requested and obtained permission from Pope Clement VII on February 20, 1533 to return to his diocese and to eventually reside in the court; he also obtained permission to transfer the remains of his parents from the church where they had been buried to a new one. On April 25, 1533, the cardinal arrivedin Barcelona; he immediately occupied again the presidency of the Consejo de Indias, which had not been vacant during his absence; he had regularly collected his salary as such; he became again a trusted advisor of the emperor but not his confessor. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. From October 21, 1534, the cardinal attended the Cortes celebrated in Madrid as well as several others held later on. Commissary general the Cruzada, 1536; occupied the post until his death. On April 19, 1536 the cardinal went to Talavera to translate the remains of his parents to the major chapel of the church of the Dominican monastery of San Ginés that he had built; on May 4, he returned to the court. Because of the gout that he suffered, the cardinal was not able to accompany Emperor Charles V in his interviews with the king of France and the pope at Nice in 1538; he was forced to stay convalescing in Barcelona and later went to Sigüenza until the return of the emperor; this was his last visit to that see. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, May 21, 1539. In 1539, the cardinal reached the summit of power when he was named regent of the Indies during the absence of the emperor, which lasted close to two years; he had the power to decree everything that the emperor could decree with a few limitations; it has been a unique case in the history of Spain. He intervened in the elaboration of the first Ordenanzas for the Consejo de Indias and the Instrucciones to the colonial authorities and for the defense of the Indians; they were promulgated in Barcelona on November 20, 1542. In the summer of 1543, he returned to Sevilla in obedience to the order of the emperor and because the climate of the court was not helping his health. Named inquisitor general of Spain, February 1546.
Death. April 22, 1546, Holy Thursday, Madrid. Transferred to Talavera and buried in the Dominican convent of Santo Domingo y San Ginés (1).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 120-121; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1476; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 71, 211, 265 and 296; Goñi, J. "Loaysa, García, de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, Suppl., 426-432; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 37.
Webgraphy. Biography by Henry Joseph Schroeder, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in Spanish, La Página del Arte y la Cultura en Español, Junta de Castilla y Aragón; his portrait with the year of his death and his age; another portrait, La Página del Arte y la Cultura en Español, Junta de Castilla y Aragón; and his signature, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes; his engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) According to Goñi, J. "Loaysa, García, de." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 428, Jan Dantyszek, the Polish ambassador, wrote to Alfonso Valdés, secretary to Grand Chancellor Mercurino Arborio di Gattinara, that Fray Loaysa, while he was master general of the order, had had an illicit relation with Doña Maria de la Torre, who gave him two children.
(2) Fray Loaysa is considered the real founder of the convent of Santo Domingo y San Ginés; this last name is because the old parish of San Ginés was given to the friars to found the convent. In the sides of the presbytery, the tombs of Don Pedro and Doña Catalina, parents of the cardinal, are preserved; and also is the tomb of the cardinal archbishop, which had been transferred by Jiménez de la Llave to the church of El Salvador when the convent and its church passed to private hands, as a result of the confiscation of the Leyes de Amoritzacisn in 1836. The three tombs are of Plateresco style. This is the text of his epitaph transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli, Cist., in his addition to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1476: ILLVSTRISIMVS. HIC. IACET. GARCIAS. A. LOYASA. HISPALENSIS. CARDINALIS. SVPREMI. INQVISITIONIS. SENATVS. NECNON. REGII. INDIARVM. CONSILII. PRÆSIDENS. GENERALISQ. HISPANIÆ. COMMISSARIVS. OBIIT. ANNO DOMINI. MDXLVI.
(25) 5. LÓPEZ DE MENDOZA Y ZÚÑIGA, Íñigo (1489-1535)
Birth. 1489 (1), Miranda de Ebro (2), diocese of Burgos, Spain. Son of the Counts of Miranda, Pedro de Zúñiga y Avellaneda y Catalina de Velasco. He took the last name of his great-grandfather, Íñigo López de Mendoza, marquis of Santillana. Other cardinals of the family were Pedro González de Mendoza (1473); Diego Hurtado de Mendoza y Quiñones (1500); and Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla (1544). His first name is also listed as Inicus, Enneco and Enecus; and his last name as Stunica and Zuniga.
Education. He had already obtained a bachelor's degree in theology when he was admitted to Colegio de San Bartolomé, Salamanca, on October 17, 1498; there he finished his studies with the title of licentiate.
Early life. He was oriented to the ecclesiastical state at a very young age. Cleric of Burgos. As soon as he and his brother, Juan de Zúñiga y Avellaneda, found out that King Felipe el Hermoso of Spain had died, they went to the Low Countries and placed themselves at the service of Prince Carlos, future king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Abbot commendatario of the Premonstratensian abbey of La Vid, May 10, 1516. Named to the lucrative Infantado de Covarrubias.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Coria, with dispensation for not having received the priestly ordination, 1528? (3). Member of the Supreme Council of State. Spanish ambassador before King Henry VIII of England to negotiate a universal peace, September 1526; the ambassador also intervened in the question of the divorce of the English king and Queen Catalina of Aragón, aunt of the emperor-king; on February 6, 1529, the emperor communicated to his ambassador his displeasure for the king's conduct and asked him to let it be known to the king; because of the openness with which the ambassador spoke, the English king incarcerated him; but because of the hostile reaction of the English public opinion, the king ordered the ambassador released and reconciled with him; the last encounter between the king and the ambassador occurred during their farewell interview, when the latter insisted on the right of the emperor to defend his aunt and the former sustained that the emperor did not have the right to intervene in a private matter of his; toward May 1529, the ambassador obtained permission to return to Spain. In April 1528, Ambassador López de Mendoza, through the mediation of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, sent a group of letters of Desiderius Erasmus to Spain. Transferred to the see of Burgos, March 2, 1529. Erasmist Juan de Maldonado presented to Bishop López de Mendoza his treatise Pastor bonus, composed in his honor (4). He accompanied Emperor Charles V in his trip to Italy and while he was there, he was promoted to the cardinalate.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of March 9, 1530. Imperial envoy to Sicily; the pope granted him faculties to intervene in civil affairs, June 14, 1530; he was in Naples on February 4, 1531. By a brief of May 27, 1531, Pope Clement VII granted him faculty to receive the sacred orders. Received the red hat and the title of S. Nicola in Carcere, June 21, 1531 (5). Consecration (no information found). Having successfully accomplished his mission in Sicily, he returned to Rome on April 21, 1532. Between April and October 1532, he corrresponded with Erasmus and obtained and sent him important documents that the Dutch humanist was interested in having. In a bull issued in Bologna on January 13, 1533, the pope expressed that Cardinal López de Mendoza had precedence, according to the bull of his creation, over Cardinal Gabriel de Grammont, who had been promoted in the consistory of June 8, 1530. The cardinal returned to Spain by land and arrived in Barcelona on March 22, 1533. Did not participate in the conclave of 1534, which elected Pope Paul III. The cardinal went back to Burgos and compiled the synodal constitutions of his predecessors, placing them within reach of its clergy in 1534. Soon afterward, he visited all of the diocese; feeling that his end was approaching, he prepared his testament on April 21, 1535; in it, he destined 15,000 or 16,000 ducats for the construction and dowry of a school or a hospital, depending on what the executors believed to be the best; they built Colegio Mayor San Nicolás.
Death. June 9, 1535, at 10 a.m. (6), Tordómar, Burgos. Buried temporarily in the convent of La Aguilera; translated to the main chapel of the church of the convent of La Vid, which he had built together with his brother Francisco de Zúñiga y Avellaneda y Mendoza.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 121-122; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1478; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 21, 75, 143 and 160; Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae. 3 v. in 1. Graz : Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1957, pp. 17 and 30; Goñi, J. "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, Suppl., 452-454; Guitarte Izquierdo, Vidal. Episcopologio Español (1500-1699). Españoles obispos en españa, América, Filipinas y otros países. Rome : Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica, 1994. (Publicaciones del Instituto Español de Historia Eclesiástica; Subsidia; 34), p. 41.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish; Abbey of La vid and his portrait; and biographical data, in English, catholic-hierarchy.
(1) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 143, which says that he was 40 years old when he was transferred to the see of Burgos; Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 41, says that he was born ca. 1498; Goñi, "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 452, also says that he was born ca. 1498 but toward the end of that same page, says that he was forty years old when he was transferred to the see of Burgos on March 2, 1529; and his biographical data in English, linked above says that he was born in 1498.
(2) This is according to Goñi, "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 452; and Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 41; his biography in Spanish, linked above, says that he was born al parecer (apparently) in Peñaranda de Duero, where his parents established their home.
(3) This is according to Guitarte, Episcopologio Español (1500-1699), p. 41; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 160; and Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 30, do not give a date of election; Goñi, "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 452, says that on February 8, 1523, Martín de Salinas, ambassador of Infante Fernando, communicated to the treasurer of Salamanca that the see of Jaén, which had been promised to Íñigo López de Mendoza, had been given to the archbishop of Bari; and adds that, naturally, the latter opposed that decision. Then, López de Mendoza was going to be named bishop of León, but he did not want that see and had to content himself with the see of Coria; the source adds that the date of his promotion is unknown and that he had not been ordained a priest.
(4) According to Goñi, "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 453; the work proposed an ideal of a bishop which was quite reachable: no radicalisms or evangelical poverty; it was enough to remedy the most salient abuses; this ideal prototype was shared by conservative elements of the church, especially in the Roman Curia, in opposition to more advanced programs.
(5)This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 21; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 121, says that he was created cardinal of S. Nicola in Carcere on March 14, 1530, and that he was not published until two years later.
(6) This is according to Goñi, "López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, Íñigo." Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 452, which says that the matter of the date of the death of the cardinal had divided historians of past times but that now there is no doubt that he died on that date according to his epitaph and to a letter from Estefanía de Requeséns to her mother, Hipólita de Liori, in which he gives details of the cardinal's illness and death; Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, IV, 121, says that he died in 1539; Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 21, 75 and 143, says that he died on January 15, 1537, indicating that his successor in the see of Burgos, Juan Álvarez de Toledo, O.P., was named on April 11, 1537; Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae, p. 17, says that he died on June 9, 1539; Guitarte, Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, Suppl., 41, says that the cardinal died on June 9, 1535; his biographical data in English, linked above, says that he died on January 15, 1537.
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