(65) 1. GUISE DE LORRAINE, Charles I de (1524-1574)
Birth. February 17, 1524 (1), Joinville, France. Second son of Duke Claude de Guise and Antoinette de Bourbon-Vendôme. He was duke of Chevreuse. He is also known as the first Cardinal of Guise; as the second Cardinal of Lorraine; and in 1550, after the death of his uncle, Jean de Lorraine (1518), as the first Cardinal of Lorraine. Brother of Cardinal Louis I de Guise de Lorraine (1553). Uncle of Cardinal Louis II de Guise (1578). Grand-uncle of Cardinal Louis III de Guise (1615).
Education. Studied at Collège de Navarre, Paris (theology). He was a skilled orator.
Early life. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Urbain, diocese of Châlons. Abbot commendatario of the Benedictine monastery of Trecas.
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Reims, February 6, 1538; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27; obtained the pallium, March 13, 1538. Consecrated, February 8, 1546, Castle of Joinville, by Cardinal Claude de Longwy de Givry, bishop Langres and administrator of Potiers and of Amiens. Crowned King Henri II of France, July 26, 1547.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of July 27, 1547; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, November 4, 1547. Named coadjutor with right of succession of his uncle Cardinal Jean de Lorraine, bishop of Metz, retaining the see of Reims, November 16, 1547; his coadjutorship was revalidated, August 25, 1548; succeeded to the see of Metz, May 18, 1550 and took the title of Cardinal of Lorraine; resigned the government of the see, April 22, 1551. He protected François Rabelais and Pierre de Ronsard and founded the University of Reims, 1547-1549. Abbot commendatario of Cormery, 1547-1550. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Martin de Laon, 1548-1564. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Abbot commendatario of Marmoutier; of Saint-Rémi de Reims; of Cluny and of Fécamp, 1550. He was a member of the royal council. His ecclesiastical patronage was extensive and he was easily the wealthiest prelate in France. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Opted for the title of S. Apollinare, December 11, 1555. Legate natus of France and duke of Chevreuse, 1555. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Denis from 1557. As archbishop of Reims, he crowned Kings François II in 1559 and Charles IX in 1561. During the reign of King François II, together with his brother François, duke de Guise, he was the virtual head of government; their policy provoked the Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise. In 1559, he helped negotiate the Peace of Château-Cambrésis. Did not participate in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. After the accession of King Charles IX in 1560, Queen Catalina de Médici, who was the regent of her son, tried to reduce the Guise influence and the cardinal became less influential in state affairs; he continued to exert religious influence over Catalina. At the colloquy of Poissy, 1561, he defended the Catholic viewpoint against the Calvinist position of Theodore Beza. Participated in the Council of Trent, 1562-1563, championing the Gallican cause; he presented, on January 2, 1563, reform articles that petitioned for the authorization at once of communion under both species and prayers in the vernacular; Pope Pius IV was indignant, and the cardinal accused Rome of being the source of all abuses; later, the cardinal's understanding with the pope ensured the fruitful culmination and closure of the council; while on a visit to Rome in September 1563, the cardinal, intent perhaps on securing the pope's assistance for the realization of the political ambitions of the Guises, professed opinions less decidedly Gallican; he did not succeed in having the conciliar decrees promulgated in France in 1564. He persecuted the Huguenots, but he proposed a French national council to look for a compromise with them; this was a means of threatening Pope Pius IV to secure liberties and privileges for the Gallican church. Did not participate in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. He retired from court in 1570. Went to the conclave of 1572 but arrived when the new Pope Gregory XIII had already been elected. He participated in the negotiations for the marriage between King Charles IX and Elizabeth of Austria, and for the one of Margaret Valois with Henri, prince of Navarre.
Death. December 25 (3), 1574, Avignon, where he had gone to meet King Henri III, who was returning from his coronation as king of Poland. Transferred to Reims and buried in the tomb he had built in its metropolitan cathedral.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, cols. 652-653; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 284-287; Carroll, Stuart. Martyrs and murderers : the Guise family and the making of Europe. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2011; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1560-1561; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 30, 60, 61, 242 and 285; Evennett, Henry Outram. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the Council of Trent : a study in the Counter-Reformation. Cambridge [England] : The University Press, 1930; Leflon, Jean. Le Cardinal de Lorraine et la fondation du Séminaire de Reims en 1564. Reims : Imprimerie du Nord-Est, 1965.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; House of Guise and his biography by Georges Goyau, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his genealogy, A2; his portrait, attributed to Domenico Teotocopoulos, El Greco; his portrait by Thierry Bellange, musée national du chbteau de Pau, Pau, France; his engraving by an anonymous artist, Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle, Calais, France; engraving by Jakobus Harrewijn; another engraving; another engraving; his portrait by François Clouet, musée Condé Chantilly, France; same portrait and biographical profile, in French; another copy of the same portrait; and his effigy on a medallion commemorating the founding of the University of Reims.
(1) This date is according to the vieux style (old style). The vieux style is a calendar system that did not change the numeral of the year until Easter, although it maintained the rest (days and months) in the general conformation. For example, if the Easter Day of 1525 fell on the 1st of April, all the events which happened between the 1st of January and the 1st of April were dated with the numeral of the previous year, 1524; in fact, Easter was the New Year. For that reason, Cardinal of Lorena was born nominally on the 17th of February of 1524, but when he died, on the 25th of December of 1574 he had not turned, as says in his epitaph (so detailed that it gives even the hour), 50 years of age. Accommodating the vieux style to the habitual one in other countries, it would be necessary to say that, in fact, the cardinal was born the 17th of February of 1525. This system disappeared in the 16th century. Although the testimony of epitaph seems conclusive, some very reliable French sources give 1525 as the date of birth.
(2) This is according to Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, III, 30 and 60; the same source, III, 285; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 652; his biography, linked above; and his genealogy, also linked above, say that he died on December 26, 1575.
(3) This is the text of his epitaph that he composed, transcribed by Ferdinando Ughelli in his addition to Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1561: D. O. M. CAROLVS. S. R. E. PRESBYTER. CARDINALIS. DE. LOTHARINGIA. ARCHIEPISCOPVS. DVX. RHEMENSIS. PRIMVS. PAR. FRANCIÆ. SANCTÆ.. SEDIS. APOSTOLICÆ. LEGATVS. NATVS. DE. MORTE. ET. RESVRRECTIONE. COGITANS. SIBI. VIVENS. POSVIT. ANN. MDLXXIII. PONTIFICATVS. SVI. ANNO. XXXV. VIXIT. ANNOS. XLIX. MENSES. X. DIES. VIII. HORAS. IV. OBIIT. ANNO. DOMINI. MDLXXIV. SEPTIMO. KALENDAS. IANVARI. REQUIESCAT. IN PACE. AMEN. EGO. CREDIDI. QVIA. TV. ES. CHRISTVS. FILIVS. DEI. VIVI. QVI. IN HVNC. MVNDVM. VINISTI.
(66) 2. DELLA ROVERE, Giulio (1533-1578)
Birth. April 5 (1), 1533, Urbino. Son of Duke Francesco Maria I della Rovere of Urbino, and Eleonora Ippolita Gonzaga, princess of Mantua. He is also listed as Giulio Feltrio.
Education. (No information found).
Early life. Cleric of Urbino. He received the title of duke of Sora in 1540. He had three natural children (2).
Sacred orders. (No information found).
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of July 27, 1547; published in the consistory of January 9, 1548; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Pietro in Vincoli, title declared deaconry pro illa vice, April 9, 1548. Abbot commendatario of Saint-Victor de Marseille, 1548-1565.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Urbino e Recanati, September 24, 1548; constituted administrator until reaching the canonical age of 27; resigned the government of the diocese, November 18, 1551. Legate in Umbria and Perugia, July 1548 until 1555. Participated in the conclave of 1549-1550, which elected Pope Julius III. Administrator of the see of Novara, November 18, 1551; resigned the administration, September 10, 1552. Participated in the first conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Marcellus II. Participated in the second conclave of 1555, which elected Pope Paul IV. Abbot commendatario of Casteldurante, 1557. Participated in the conclave of 1559, which elected Pope Pius IV. Transferred to the see of Vicenza, September 13, 1560; resigned the government of the see, April 13, 1566. Named governor of Loreto, December 1564. Abbot commendatario of Fonte Avellana, 1565-1569. Participated in the conclave of 1565-1566, which elected Pope Pius V. Cardinal protodeacon. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was restored to title, February 15, 1566. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Ravenna, March 6, 1566; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated, April 15, 1566, at the church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese assisted by Cardinal Giacomo Savelli and by Cardinal Nicola Caetani de Sermonetta. Cardinal protoprete, August 8, 1567; since he was cardinal protodeacon at the time of his promotion to the order of cardinal priests, he was declared cardinal protoprete with the consent of the other cardinal priests. In 1567, together with 120 lay figures and members of the clergy, he promulgated the statutes of the Confraternità della Buona Morte, at Casteldurante, Urbania. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, April 12, 1570. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Sabina, July 3, 1570. Participated in the conclave of 1572, which elected Pope Gregory XIII. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Palestrina, April 8, 1573. Protector of the basilica of Loreto, 1573.
Death. September 3, 1578, Fossombrone. Buried in the monastery of Santa Chiara, Urbino.
Bibliography. Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous less temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1481; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 287-289; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max.. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, col. 1562; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 30, 56, 57, 58, 68, 260, 283 323 and 333; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 334 and 335.
Webgraphy. Biographical data, in Italian, Magazzeno Storico Verbanese.
(1) This is according to Chacón, Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm, II, col. 1562; Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1481, says that he was born on April 1, 1535.
(2) They were Maria, who died in infancy; Ippolito, marquis of S. Lorenzo in Campo; and Giuliano, referendary of both Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature and prior of Corinaldo.
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