The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)
Consistory of November 14, 1644 (I)

(1) 1. PAMPHILJ, Camillo Francesco Maria (1622-1666)

Birth. February 21, 1622, Naples. Son of Pamphilio Pamphili and Olimpia Maidalchini. Two days after his birth, he was baptized in the Church della Carità; his godfather was Michele Antonio Orsini, duke of Gravina, and his godmother, Giovanna Ruffo, princess of Scilla. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Pamphili (1604). Nephew of Pope Innocent X. Father of Cardinal Benedetto Pamphilj, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1681). Other cardinals of the Pamphilj family were Camillo Astalli-Pamphilj (1650); Giuseppe Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); Antonio Maria Doria Pamphilj (1785); and Giorgio Doria Pamphilj (1816). His last name is also listed as Pamphili.

Education. Studied liberal arts and poetry as well as philosophy, mathematics and architecture.

Early life. Named general of the pontifical army by Pope Innocent X as soon as he was elected to the pontificate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 14, 1644; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 12, 1644. Cardinal nipote. Legate in Avignon, December 12, 1644. Granted dispensation to be a cardinal deacon without having to receive the sacred orders, to conduct himself as a cardinal deacon in consistories and capellis pontificiis and other public acts, and to have active and passive voice in conclaves as if he had received the sacred orders, ceremonies by motu proprio of January 13, 1645; prorogated, October 18, 1645. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Grace, October 10, 1645. Against his mother's wishes, resigned the cardinalate on January 21, 1647. Married Olympia Aldobrandini, princess of Rossano, widow of prince Borghese, on February 10, 1647. She gave him in dowry her feudal possessions.They had five children, two boys and three girls: Giovanni Battista, Anna, Flaminia, Benedetto and Teresa.

Death. July 26, 1666, in his Roman palace in Via Lata. Exposed and buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 51-53.

Webgraphy. Biography by Benedetta Borello, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 80 (2014), Treccani; his portrait by Giusto Sustermans, Palazzo Pitti, Appartamenti Reali, Florence.

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(2) 2. MEDICI, Giancarlo de' (1611-1663)

Birth. July 24, 1611, Florence. Third child of Cosimo II and Maria Maddalena of Austria. Younger brother of Grand duke Ferdinando II of Tuscany. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Ferdinando de' Medici (1563). Nephew of Cardinal Carlo de' Medici (1615). Brother of Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici (1667). His first name is also listed as Giovan Carlo.

Education. (No information found).

Early life. Following the family tradition, entered the ecclesiastical state.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 14, 1644; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria Nuova, March 20, 1645. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII. Together with Cardinal Friedrich von Hesse-Darmstadt, named legate before Queen Christina of Sweden, who had converted to Catholicism and arrived in Rome on November 24, 1655. Opted for the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, March 6, 1656. Returned to Florence and remained there until his death. Collaborated with his brothers Matthias, Leopoldo and Ferdinando in the government of the grand duchy. Passionate about science, letters and above all music. Founded the Accademia degli Immobili and contributed to the construction of Teatro della Pergola, inaugurated in 1658. Together with his brothers, worked with enthusiasm and dedication in the growth and enrichment of the Galleria Palatina di Palazzo Pitti, which received the collection of paintings of palazzo di Urbino, obtained by the inheritance of Grand duchess Vittoria Della Rovere.

Death. January 23, 1663, of an apoplexy, in Florence. Buried in the tomb of the grand dukes in the church of S. Lorenzo, Florence.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 51.

Webgraphy. His portraits and biography, in Italian, Ideato e curato da Walter Bernardi; his portrait, sec. XVII (1644), ambito geografico: Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi, Palazzo Mansi, via Galli Tassi, Lucca (LU); his portrait by Justus Sustermans (1597-1681), Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze, Italia; his portrait, sec. XVII, 1640-1660, Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi, Palazzo Mansi, via Galli Tassi, Lucca (LU).

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(3) 3. CECCHINI, Domenico (1589-1656)

Birth. February 7, 1589 (1), Rome, of patrician family. Son of Domizio Cecchini and Fausta Capizucchi.

Education. Initial studies in Rome; then, attended the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Early life. Returned to Rome and learned the practice of the Roman Curia under Giambattista Pamphilj and Alessandro Ludovisi, auditors of the Sacred Roman Rota and future cardinals and popes. Consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Gregory XV (1621-1623). Auditor of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, nephew of Pope Gregory XV. Privy chamberlain. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Rector of the Arch gymnasium of Rome. Voter of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature in the pontificate of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644). Chaplain of His Holiness. Auditor of causes of the Apostolic Palace. Auditor of the Tribunal of the Sacred Roman Rota 1643. Consultor of the Supreme S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition. Datary of His Holiness, September 15, 1644.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of November 14, 1644; published in the consistory of March 6, 1645; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, April 24, 1645. Fell into disgrace in 1649 for his confrontation with the powerful Donna Olympia Maidalchini. Pro-datary of His Holiness. One of the cardinal judges of the cause of Cornelius Janssen, bishop of Ypres. Participated in the conclave of 1655, which elected Pope Alexander VII.

Death. May 1, 1656, at 3 a.m., suddenly, of an apoplexy, in the Roman palace in Campo Marzio, Monte Citorio, where he resided. Exposed and buried in the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 53-54.

Webgraphy. Biography by Luisa Bertoni, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 23 (1979), Treccani.

(1) Johann Peter von Ludewig ; Carl Günther Ludovici ; Johann Heinrich Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon Aller Wissenschafften und Künste, Halle; Leipzig : Zedler, 1754, says that he was born in 1587.

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(4) 4. FARNESE, Francesco Maria (1619-1647)

Birth. August 15,1619, Parma. Youngest of the nine children of Duke Ranuccio I Farenese and Margherita Aldobrandini. Grand nephew of Cardinals Alessandro Farnese, iuniore (1534) and Ranuccio Farnese, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1545). Nephew of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese (1591). Great-great grandson of Pope Paul III.

Education. When he was just two years old, he lost his father and was entrusted to Jesuit Father Orazio Smeraldi who became his official teacher and confessor, and who from 1637 was rector of "Collegio dei Nobili" of Parma. Studied law and humanities.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of November 14, 1644; published in the consistory of December 4, 1645; he never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the deaconry.

Death. July 12, 1647, after six months of penosa e ostinata malatia, in Parma. Exposed and buried the church of the Capuchins, Parma. News of his death reached Rome on July 16, 1647.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, VII, 70-71.

Webgraphy. Biography by Stefano Andretta, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 45 (1995), Treccani; his genealogy, B3 D2 E9, Genealogy EU.

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