The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Innocent XII (1691-1700)
Consistory of December 12, 1695 (I)

(1) 1. MORIGIA, B., Giacomo Antonio (1633-1708)

Birth. Between January and February 1633, in the territory of the diocese of Novara (1). Seventh of the eight children of Giovanni Battista Morigia and Angela Porra (Porro). The other children were Felice, Virginia, Savina, Faustina, Carlo Cesare, Corona and Giovanni Angelo. He was registered in in the parish of S. Maurizio della Costa on February 20, 1633. His first name is also listed as Jacopo. His baptismal name was Giovanni Ippolito.

Education. He was student at the school Arcimboldi of Milano, annexed to the church of S. Alessandro, of the fathers of the Congregation of of the Regular Clerics of Saint Paul (Barnabite). He participated in the Accademia degli Infiammati of the Barnabites. He decided to enter the Order of the Barnabites in 1651. His request of admission was presented by the provost of S. Alessandro, Father Aimone Corio, to the superior general, Father Giovenale Falconio, on April 1, 1651. In that same month, he was received, already tonsured, in the Congregation; and on the following May 7, he was sent to the Barnabite house of S. Maria al Carrobiolo in Monza to do the novitiate. On July 9, he received the habit from Father Tobia Muti, provost of the community of Monza, and changed his name to Giacomo Antonio, in memory of his ancestor Giacomo Antonio Morigia (Milan 1497-1546), who was one of the three founders of the Barnabites and its first superior general. In the Church of Carrobiolo, on July 22, 1652, he made his solemn profession of the vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, at the hands of Father Falconio. Then, he was sent to study theology and philosophy at the Barnabite Collegio of S. Maria di Canepanova in Pavia. In December 1654, he received the four minor orders from Bishop Francesco Biglia of Pavia; and from the same prelate, he received the subdiaconate on March 13, 1655; and on the following December 18, the diaconate. On August 28, 1657, he was admitted to the presbyterate.

Priesthood. Ordained before the end of 1657. He was named vicar of the Barnabite Collegio S. Aureliano of Montù (now Montù Beccaria) on May 24, 1658. The following year, he was transferred to Collegio S. Paolo of Macerata, also directed by the Barnabites, where he taught theology and philosophy. He obtained the fame of an excellent preacher and he was often invited to give public speeches: in February 1659, in the cathedral of that city, he had the funeral oration for Bishop Papirio de Silvestri. On July 2, of that year, together with the provost of Macerata, Father Paolo Antonio Landriani, he was sent to S. Severino Marche to examine the students of philosophy of the local Barnabite collegio. On October 20, 1660, he was transferred to Collegio S. Alessandro in Milan, where he styed for a long time, occupying several positions: first, he was lector of Logic; and later, from December 10, 1662, lector of Scholastic Theology. In 1664, in S. Marco of Milan, he delivered the funeral eulogy in the exequies of the bishop of Catanzaro, Filippo Visconti; in 1666, in S. Alessandro, in the presence of the governor of Milan, he pronounced the funeral eulogy of King Felipe IV of Spain (Orazione funebre nelle solenni esequie di mons. Filippo Visconti... vescovo di Catanzaro celebrate... nella chiesa di S. Marco di Milano..., Milan 1664; Pietosi tributi resi alla grand'anima di Filippo IV, Milan 1666; L'aquila volante, orazione funebre per Filippo IV, Milan 1666). On November 13, 1667, he ceased as lector and occupied the office of lezionista of the duomo of Milan. In December 1668, he was chosen by Superior General Father Romolo Marchelli, to go to Parma to convey the greetings and gratitude of the Congregation to Duke Ranuccio II for the church and the house he offered to the Barnabites. On November 5, 1669, he resumed the teaching of Scholastic Theology; in 1670-1671, he held the post of provost of the Barnabite collegio of Lodi; and, from 1672 to 1674, he returned to teaching Moral Theology at S. Alessandro. He had just been nominated, for the second time, provost of Collegio of Lodi, when, on May 20, 1674, he was called to Florence by Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici with the charge of theologian of the court. He arrived in the city the following June and established himself in the Barnabite Collegio S. Carlo, of which, he was elected superior on June 25, 1677; and confirmed on June 26, 1681. At the same time, on July 3, 1675, he accepted the charge of preceptor of Prince Ferdinando de' Medici, first-born of the grand duke. Because of his good services to the Medici family, in 1681, Cosimo III intervened in his favor before the pope to obtain for him the bishopric of San Miniato.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Miniato, September 1, 1681. Consecrated, September 14, 1681, church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome, by Cardinal Gaspare Carpegna, assisted by Giacomo de Angelis, former archbishop of Urbino, and by Angelo della Noce, former archbishop of Rossano. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, February 15, 1683. He took possession of his see on February 18, 1683, through his procurator, Archdeacon Luigi Strozzi; on the following April 6, he solemnly entered the cathedral. He received the pallium in the metropolitan cathedral of Florence on March 8, 1683 from Bishop Filippo Neri degli Altoviti of Fiesole. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, July 15, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1695; published in the consistory of December 19, 1698; e went to Rome in the spring of 1699; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, April 11, 1699. He was the first cardinal of the Order of the Barnabites. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, April 20, 1699. Member of the SS.CC. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, Rites, and Propaganda Fide. He returned to Florence and was involved in a diplomatic incident with Grand Duke Cosimo III on the occasion of Corpus Christi of 1699; bothered by serious delay of the grand duke in the traditional procession of this festival, the cardinal ordered to proceed without further delay, then left the city for the papal court where, On October 23, 1699, he offered his resignation from the government of the archbishop. Legate a latere for the opening and closing of the holy door of the patriarchal Liberian basilica in the Jubilar Holy Year of 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Transferred to the see of Pavia, with personal title of archbishop, January 24, 1701. Received the pallium on February 21, 1701.

Death. October 8, 1708, Pavia. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Pavia (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 26-29; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, XLVI, 298-299; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, V, 21, 44, 203, 269 and 306; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 635.

Webgraphy. Biography by Filippo Crucitti , in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 76 (2012), Treccani; his engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving by Louis David and Arnauld Van Westerhaut, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; engravings, arms and biographical data, in Italian, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is according to his first biography in Italian, linked above. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Chiesa Romana, VIII, 26, indicates that he entered the order of the Barnabites in 1651, when he was thirteen years old so he would have been born in 1638. Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni, XLVI, 298, says that he entered the Barnabites in at 13 in 1651; and in XLVI, 299, says that he died in 1708 at 70, therefore, according to him, he must have been born in 1638. Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 203, says that he was 48 years old when he was named bishop of San Miniato in 1681.
(2) This is the simple inscription on his tomb, kindly provided in a photograph by Mr. Mark West, from London:
IACOBVS ANTONIVS MORIGIA
MDCCI     MDCCVIII

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tanarasa.jpg

(2) 2. TANARA, Sebastiano Antonio
(1650-1724)

Birth. April 10, 1650, Rome (1). Second child of Cesare Tanara and Laura di Carpegna; the other siblings were Franciotto and Diana. Nephew of Cardinal Ulderico Carpegna (1633). Uncle of Cardinal Alessandro Tanara (1743). His last name is also listed as Tanari.

Education. Studied at the University of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on April 10, 1671. After graduation, went to Paris with Nuncio Pietro Bargellini and later visited several European cities and regions. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure, May 21, 1674.

Early life. Called to Rome by his uncle. Protonotary apostolic in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Internuncio in Flanders, 1675-1687. Sent in a secret mission to King James II of England, who had converted to Catholicism.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Damasco, with dispensation for only having received the tonsure, April 28, 1687. Nuncio in Cologne, April 30, 1687. Granted dispensation to receive the sacred orders and the presbyterate outside Ember days, May 23, 1687. Consecrated, July 13, 1687, church of Sainte Gudule, Brussels, by Alphonse de Berghes, archbishop of Malines, assisted by Jean van Beughem, bishop of Anvers, and by Pierre Van den Perre, bishop of Namur. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 21, 1689. Nuncio in Portugal, May 26, 1690; delivered the fascie sent by Pope Alexander VIII for the newborn Infant Prince of Brazil, son of the king of Portugal. Nuncio in Austria, March 15, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, May 21, 1696. Abbot of Nonantola. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Legate in Urbino, April 23, 1703; legation prorogated for a triennium, May 23, 1705; prorogated for a second time, April 27, 1709; and for a third time, May 14, 1712. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Frascati, April 1, 1715. Prefect of the S.C. of the Ecclesiastical Immunity from 1716? until his death. Opted for the suburbicarian see of Ostia e Velletri, proper of the dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 3, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII; he had to leave the conclave because of a serious illness on April 15, 1724.

Death. May 5, 1724, around 5 :30 a.m., in his Roman palace, during the sede vacante. Transferred on May 7 to the church of S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church, in the pavement under a marble slab with a simple inscription (2). Later, his compatriot and close friend Pope Benedict XIV placed, in the atrium to the sacristy, a decorous inscription with a marble bust of the cardinal.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 29-31; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. ; Squicciarini, Donato. Nunzi apostolici a Vienna. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, pp. 147-148; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 928.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, diocese of Frascati; engravings and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in S. Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; and his funeral monument in the same church, iccd immagini, Fototeca Nazionale.

(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 180, but the archive of the cathedral of Frascati indicates that he was born in Bologna in 1651 while other authors such as Grandi, and Moroni, say that he was born in 1649 in Rome of the noble Bolognese family of the marquis della Serra. Cardella, Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa, VIII, 29, says that he was born in Rome because his parents, from Bologna, were visiting the city for the Holy Year Jubilee of 1650. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on July 8, 1650.
(2) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O    ·     M
SEBASTIANO ANTONIO TANARI BONONIENSI
S · R · E · PRESBYERO CARDINALI
QUI PRIMO BRUXELLIS INTERNUNTIS
MOX APUD UBIOS LUSITANUS ET LEOPOLDUM CÆSAREM
SEDIS APOSTOLICÆ NUNTIUS
AB INNOCENTIO XII · INTER CARDINALES ADSCITUS EST
INDE LEGATIONI URBINATENSI EJUSQUE ECCLESIÆ
ARCHIEPISCOPALI ADMINISTRANDÆ DIU PRÆFIT
DEMUM OSTIENSIS AC VELITERNUS EPISCOPUS
ET SACRI COLLEGIJ DECANUS
OBIJT ROMÆ IV · NONAS MAIJ MDCCXXIV · ÆT · ANN · LXXIV
ET IN HAC ÆDE S · MARIÆ DE VICTORIA SEPULTUS
BENEDICTUS XIV · P · M
CIVI OPTIMO ET AMICO BENEVOLENTISSIMO
MONUMENTUM POS ·
PONTIFICATVS ANNO III

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(3) 3. BONCOMPAGNI, Giacomo (1652-1731)

Birth. May 15, 1652, Isola, diocese of Sora. His first name is also listed as Jacopo; and his last name as Buoncompagni. Of the family of the dukes of Sora. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Boncompagni (1621); nephew of Cardinal Girolamo Boncompagni, archbishop of Bologna (1664); grand-uncle of Cardinal Gregorio Salviati (1777). Relative of Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo (1706).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on March 30, 1676.

Early life. Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta at a very young age. Willing to enter the ecclesiastical state, went to Rome. Governor of Orvieto in 1676. Vice-governor of Fermo in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII (1689-1691).

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Bologna, with dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, April 17, 1690. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 4, 1690. Consecrated, May 7, 1690, church of S. Marco, Rome, by Cardinal Gasparo Carpegna.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Via, January 2, 1696. Legate a latere to bless the marriage of future Emperor Joseph I of Austria and Wilhelmina-Amalia von Brunswick-Lünenberg. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. Opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano, retaining the administration of the archdiocese of Bologna, June 12, 1724. Participated in the conclave of 1730, which elected Pope Clement XII.

Death. March 24, 1731, in the convent of the Theatines, Rome. Transferred on March 27, 1731, to the church of S. Andrea delle Valle, Rome, where the funeral took place. Buried in that church, temporarily, until his body was translated to the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna and buried in front of the chapels of the Relics and of S. Rocco, next to his uncle Cardinal Girolamo.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 31-32; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Bologna : Grafica Emiliana, 1975, (Collana storico-ecclesiastica; 3), pp. 460-467; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 841.

Webgraphy. His engraving by N. Dorigny and A. Lesma, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his engravings, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(4) 4. CAVALLERINI, Giovanni Giacomo (1639-1699)

Birth. February 16, 1639, Rome. His first name is also listed as Gian Iagopo. Roman noble of a family originally from Modena. His parents were Guarnerio Cavallerini, distinguished juris consult, and Veturia Bonaventura.

Education. Received from the Jesuits his basic education; later, he studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Lawyer of the Roman Curia. Entered the ecclesiastical state. Domestic prelate in the pontificate of Pope Alexander VIII who named him lieutenant of the auditor of the papal chamber, post that he occupied for twenty years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Received the minor orders, March 19, 1692; subdiaconate, March 23, 1692; diaconate, March 25, 1692.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 30, 1692.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Nicea, June 25, 1692. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 29, 1692. Consecrated, June 30, 1692, convent of the nuns of Santi Domenico e Sisto Magnapoli, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada, assisted by Michelangelo Mattei, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, and by Baldassare Cenci, titular archbishop of Larissa. Nuncio in France, July 1, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, May 21, 1696. Prefect of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, May 16, 1696.

Death. February 18, 1699, at noon, in his Roman palace, after a brief illness. Exposed in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, where the funeral took place on February 19, 1699, at 9 p.m., and buried in front of the chapel of S. Paolo in that same church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 32-33; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.

Webgraphy. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Carlo ai Catinari, Rome.

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(5) 5. CACCIA, Federico (1635-1699)

Birth. 1635, Milan. Of a noble Novarese family. Son of Camillo Caccia and Orsola Casati.

Education. Studied at the University of Pavia, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Member of Collegio de' nobili giurisconsulti of Milan. Moved to Rome and became consistorial lawyer in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Rector of the Archgimnasium of Rome for four years. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. Lieutenant of the Holy Office. Almoner of Pope Innocent XI. Had earlier declined appointments to the episcopal sees of Lucca, Novara and Cremona.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Laodicea, January 2, 1693, retaing the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota under the title of lieutenant. Consecrated, January 4, 1693, church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, by Cardinal Galeazzo Marescotti, assisted by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira, and by Stefano Menatti, titular bishop of Cirene. Nuncio in Spain, January 5, 1693. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, January 6, 1693. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan, April 13, 1693, retaing the auditorship of the Sacred Roman Rota under the title of lieutenant. He was granted the pallium on July 20, 1693.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; the pope sent him the red biretta with an apostolic brief of December 22, 1695; received the red hat on July 23, 1696; and the title of S. Pudenziana, August 13, 1696.

Death. January 14, 1699, at 8 a.m., in the archiepiscopal palace of Milan. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, and buried in front of the altar of the Madonna del Albero in that same cathedral. Left all his possessions to the poor.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 33-34; Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 244-246; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, III, 1, 85 and 95; Moroni, Gaetano. Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica da S. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni. 103 vols. in 53. Venezia : Tipografia Emiliana, 1840-1861, VI, 187-188; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 19, 51, 235 and 263.

Webgraphy. Biography by Vittor Ivo Comparato, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 15 (1972), Treccani; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.

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(6) 6. VERME, Taddeo Luigi dal (1641-1717)

Birth. February 16, 1641, Piacenza. Baptized the following day. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Giovanni Maria dal Verme, count of Sanguineto, and Ottavia Meli-Lupi di Soragna, of the marquises of Soragna. Nephew of Cardinal Savo Millini (1681) and relative of Cardinals Girolamo Farnese (1657) and Mario Alberizzi (1675).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law on January 26, 1688.

Early life. Received the clerical tonsure in 1650 when he was nine years old. Resigned his primogeniture in 1664 to become a priest. Went to Rome in 1664 and accompanied Nuncio Mario Alberici to Vienna.

Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Prefect of the episcopal palace of Fano. Declined several times the promotion offered by the duke of Parma to the episcopal see of that city. Pope Innocent XI obligated him to accept the see of Fano.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Fano, December 20, 1688. Consecrated, January, 2, 1689, Rome (no further information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695, with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the title of S. Alessio, January 2, 1696. Transferred to the see of Imola, January 2, 1696. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Transferred to the see of Ferrara, March 14, 1702.

Death. January 12, 1717, Ferrara. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ferrara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 34-36; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, V, 19, 43, 198 and 201.

Webgraphy. His engravings, Araldica Vaticana.

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(7) 7. CENCI, seniore, Baldassare (1648-1709)

Birth. 1648, Rome. Youngest of the five children of Virginio Cenci and Maria Vittoria Verospi. Uncle of Cardinal Baldassare Cenci, iuniore (1761). Other cardinals of the family are Tiberio Cenci (1645) and Serafino Cenci (1734).

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.

Early life. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace. Vice-legate in Avignon, September 26, 1685.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 26, 1691.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Larissa, August 27, 1691. Consecrated, September 30, 1691, patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Fabrizio Spada, assisted by Ercole Visconti, titular archbishop of Damietta, and by Michelangelo Mattei, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli. Prefect of the Cubiculi of His Holiness, August 28, 1691. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, December 3, 1691.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 12, 1695; published in the consistory of November 11, 1697; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 2, 1697. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Fermo, November 20, 1697. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI.

Death. May 26, 1709, at 5 p.m., in the archiepiscopal palace of Fermo. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Fermo, and buried in the chapel of the Madonna in that cathedral.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 37-38; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 218.

Webgraphy. His engravings and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(8) 8. FERRARI, O.P., Tommaso Maria (1649-1716)

Birth. November 20, 1647, Maduria (now Casalnuovo). Youngest of the six children of Francesco Ferrari and Vittoria Bruni. His baptismal name was Pier Agostino. The other siblings were Alfonso, Giovanni, Vincenzo, Giovanna and Anna Lucrezia.

Education. After initial studies under the guidance of paternal uncle and Father X. Troiani, O.P., he entered, when he was fifteen years old, the Order of Preachers (Dominicans) at the Convent of Ss. Rosario in Manduria, and he took the name Tommaso Maria. He moved to Lecce, in Puglia, to do the novitiate in the convent of Ss. Annunziata. During the first year, two of his brother, who had also joined the Dominican Order, died during the novitiate, his parents asked him to abandon the religious life and return home but he refused. In 1663, he took his religious vows and brilliantly finished his secondary education under the guidance of Father Giovanni Pietro Galatola. He expressed to his superiors his desire to attend the studies in theology in a monastery where the students of that faculty were not exempted from the exact observance of monastic discipline. Accordingly, Archbishop Gabriel Adarzo de Santander of Otranto obtained from the superiors permission for Tommaso Maria to enter the Dominican Convent of S. Maria della Sanità in Naples. There, under the guidance of Father Filippo Maria Tarantino, O.P., he gave such an early and brilliant demonstration of his erudition that in 1672, he was sent by the prior to comple the regular usual ratio studiorum in Rome, where the Superior General of the Dominican Order, Juan Tomás de Rocaberti, and a panel of theologians examined him long to finally appoint him lector of philosophy and theology.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1673, he was appointed lector of philosophy in the convent of S. Tommaso, Naples, where he also held the office of master of students. In 1677, took place the general meetings of his Order in Rome (occasion in which each of the provincials of the different regions of Europe took with them the most talented members of their communities to hold a public theological dispute), the Naples Provincial chose Father Tommaso Maria for this test. On that occasion he discussed the topics assigned so skillfully that, by acclamation, he was awarded his doctorate in theology and his name was entered in the number of the twelve masters of his congregation. In 1678 he was named bachelor professor of theology at the same Collegio of S. Tommaso, of which, in 1680, he became the moderator of doctrinal disputes, a position that was renewed at the three-year period. But on July 5, 1685 the Procurator General appointed him regent in the convent of San Domenico in Bologna, which at the time constituted one of the most important centers of studies of the Dominican Order. During his stay in Bologna, he entertained friendly relations with the papal legate, Cardinal Antonio Pignatelli (future Pope Innocent XII), who persuaded Pope Innocent XI to appoint him on November 1, 1688 Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace. He was also acting apostolic preacher of the Sacred Palace during the illness of the preacher. Because of his new position, he established close ties with Pope Innocent XI, whose rigor in matters of doctrine was very appropriate to his own. In that same time period, he became friend of other important prelates such as Prospero Lambertini, future Pope Benedict XIV; Cardinals Girolamo Casanate and Lorenzo Casoni; and Theatine Father Giovanni Maria Tommasi, whose attitude decidedly hostile to the Society of Jesus at the time earned him the accusation of Jansenism. He also maintained good relations with the General of the Jesuits, Father Tirso Gonzalez, who, in 1690, chose him as arbitrator to settle a matter of theological order that opposed him to his brethren, because of his uncompromising attitude antiprobabilist. From 1689 to 1692, he assiduously participated in the work of the SS.CC. of the Index and of the Holy Office, and in respect to the issues of the Chinese rites, of Probabilism and of Jansenism, he took, concerning the last question a conciliatory attitude and he tried to defend by all means some notable characters, accused by the most conservative members of the Roman Curia to be followers of the doctrine of Jansen such as the French Dominican Father Noel Alexandre, the Augustinian Italian Father Enrico Noris, future cardinal, and Pierre Codde, Holland's apostolic vicar. In 1692, he was elected member of the Arcadian Academy with the name of Filarete Nutino.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Clemente, January 2, 1696. He was member of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, of the Index, of Bishops and Regular, and of Rites. Named prefect of the S.C. of the Index in 1700, occupied the post until his death. In 1699 he was part of the commission called to examine the book by François Fénelon, Explication des maximes des saints sur la vie intérieure, whose finished work, especially at the behest of Girolamo Casanate and despite a disguised opposition of Cardinal Ferrari ended with a condemnation of the theological doctrine contained in it: Quietism. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. In 1701, he was part of the commission composed of Cardinals Enrico Noris, Galeazzo Marescotti, Giovanni Maria Gabrielli and Giuseppe Spinelli, formed to study the compatibility of Catholic worship and Chinese rites. While this question had, since the 16th century, had seen strong opposing views between Dominicans and Jesuits: the first, relentless defenders of Catholic orthodoxy even in its cultic aspects; the second, open to an attitude of more elastic and tactical tolerances. The work of this commission, which continued for three years, and to which the Cardinal Ferrari provided an important contribution to the composition of a weighty manuscript, paradigmatically entitled Responsa theologica super quaestionibus de ritibus Sinicis, only ended on January 17, 1704. On that date a decree was issued that condemned as idolaters those Chinese Catholics who obdurately continued to profess the Catholic faith with local traditions and rituals. The contents of Cardinal Ferrari's work were, almost verbatim, included by Pope Clement XI in the bull Ex illa die issued in 1707. He was camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from January 14, 1704 until January 26, 1705.

He was involved in a matter of theological character of fundamental importance. With the bull Universi of July 15, 1708 Pope Clement XI had, in fact, condemned the work French Oratorian Pasquier Quesnel, Le Nouveau Testament en françois avec des réflexions morales sur chaque verset, published for the first time in 1671, with the title Abrégé de la morale de l'Evangile, and then gradually increased to the monumental one with a Parisian reprint of 1673, for allegedly contain propositions of Jansenistic character. But a few years after from that provision, Pope Clement XI, under pressure from some of the greatest exponents of the French clergy and the same King Louis XIV, who feared a rebirth of Jansenist theology, after observing that the work formal interdiction had not stopped the spread in France and in the same Italian peninsula (where the book of Quesnel was widely regarded as immune from error), a new commission saw fit to bring together more exactly the propositions to be condemned, without prejudice, on the other hand, of the condemnation of the entire text. Among the members of that commission was Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabroni, who was called to preside over the group which met from February 9 to August 8, 1713, and in which Cardinal Ferrari, because of the frequent absences of Cardinal Giovanni Battista Spada, held in fact the vicarious presidency of the group of theologians, whose meetings lasted from July 6 to December 22, 1712. But the attitude of hostility on several occasions demonstrated by Cardinal Ferrari towards the Jesuits (as for the issue of Chinese rites) and any other doctrine, as Quietism, which could be considered as an attempt of secularization of Christian morality, and especially his friendship with clergymen, such as Girolamo Casanate, Enrico Noris, O.E.S.A., Giuseppe Maria Tomasi di Lampedusa, Theat., Giovanni Bona, O.Cist., and Giuseppe Bianchini (whose desire for a return to the Christian origins of the Church under the sign of the teaching of Augustine is often depicted as a feeling of understanding, if not sympathy, for moralizing needs expressed by the Jansenist movement) made it an extremely delicate position in that commission.

Cardinals Fabroni and Ferrari argued almost immediately. The intolerance of the first was frontally opposed to the moderation of judgment of Cardinal Ferrari. These, in fact, if tended to condemn resolutely, in his reports submitted to the Committee, all the propositions of Quesnel which focused on the difficult issues of Adam's grace and the fallen man from grace, the difference between the old economy and that of the new covenant, on the operation of the faith and its relationship with other theological virtues, excluded with conviction the suspicion of heresy from all the other propositions of the Réflexions morales which concerned points easier to understand and of more immediate interest to the faithful: if it were enough to make worthwhile the action the motive consists of the pains of hell; the need for all Christians to read the Holy Scriptures; the opportunity to defer absolution of the penitent not fully reconciled; the possibility of wrongful convictions by the Church, such as not to be ratified by Christ; and the exclusion of evil from the ecclesial communion. Against the whole corpus of propositions derived from the work of Quesnel, Cardinal Ferrari advised not to prosecute eighty-six of them, while the findings of the Committee (which gave rise to the bull Unigenitus of September 8, 1713) excluded only fifty, one hundred and one weere of identifying as openly heretical. The condemnation of Quesnel contained in the Papal Bull, however, caused, especially in France, not only to rekindle the controversy, which lasted for the entire half of the 18th century, but also their spread in a growing area. The Sorbonne, the Parliament of the French capital, and also a qualified majority of the Assembly of the Gallican Clergy, headed by the Archbishop of Paris, Louis-Antoine de Noailles, in fact, refused to accept the contents of Unigenitus, stating that the teachings of the Reflexions perfectly converged with those of the Church Fathers. Faced with this refusal, Pope Clement XI was forced to bring together, in March 1714, a new commission, responsible for stigmatizing the behavior of the Ultramontane clergy. In it took part Jesuit Gian Battista Tolomei, Capuchin Francesco Maria Carini, the nephew of the pope, Annibale Albani, and again Cardinals Fabroni and Ferrari. On this occasion Cardinal Ferrari placed himself at the head of more tolerant wing of the commission, trying to work with his colleagues to moderate the reaction of the Pope against the bishops of the French Assembly, proposing to Pope Clement XI to send to them a conciliatory Brief. Such mediation failed to prevent, even if only momentarily, that in its meeting on July 27, 1716, the Commission would arrive to a formal condemnation of the work of the Assembly of the Clergy of France, which was postponed until 1718, with the issuance of the Bull Pastoralis offici. But only ten days before that ephemeral victory of the moderate party, the relationship between Cardinals Ferrari and Fabroni had irreparably deteriorated. At its meeting of July 11, 1716, the latter dared in fact to publicly question Cardinal Ferrari's orthodoxy and to advance that his work was formally suspect of heresy. The blow to Cardinal Ferrari of this charge caused to further undermine his already precarious physical condition, compromised by the large amount of work in recent years and by a strict regimen of fasting and corporal penance, leading him to his death in Rome on July 20, 1716, while he was writing an apology to answer the charges of Cardinal Fabroni.

He maintained during his years as a cardinal an extensive diplomatic, politico-religious and cultural correspondence with European Catholic rulers and some personalities of the international world of letters, which continued until his death. Among his correspondents were Emperors Leopold I, Joseph I and Charles VI; King Augustus of Poland; King João V of Portugal; King Louis XIV of France; and the Benedictine Jean Mabillon, who dedicated to the cardinal his Indiculum institutionum veterum Patrum.

Death. August 20, 1716, at 8:30 p.m., Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Sabina, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in that same church (1). There is a street named after him in Manduria.

Bibliography. Arnò, Giambattista. Il card. fr. Tommaso M. Ferrari o. p. manduriano luminare della chiesa nel 700. Manduria : Tip. L. Lacaita, 1942; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 38-43; Ceyssens, Lucien. Le cardinal Thomas-Marie Ferrari, O.P. (1647-1716), victime singulière de la bulle "Unigenitus", in Augustiniana, XXXVII (1987), 317-358; Componimenti fatti nel funerale dell'Eminentiss. e Reverendiss. Signore F. Tommaso Maria Ferrari dell'Ordine de' Predicatori, Cardinale del titolo di S. Clemente, celebrato nella Chiesa di S. Spirito de' PP. del medesimo Ordine à 12. dicembre 1716. In Nap.[oli] : nella stamperia di Felice Mosca, 1717, Google Books; Concina, Daniele. De vita, et rebus gestis P. Thomæ Mariæ Ferrarii Ordinis Prædicatorum S.R.E. Cardinalis Tituli S. Clementis Libri Tres. Auctore P. F. Daniele Concina ejusdem ordinis. Venetiis : Cudit Simon Occhi, MDCCLVII. Superioribus Annuentibus.; Gigli, Giuseppe. Scrittori manduriani. Con prefacione del Cav. Prof. Cosimo de Giorgi. Lecce : Tip. del Cav. G. Spacciante, 1888, pp. 125-151; Jemolo, Arturo Carlo. . Bari : G. Laterza, 1928; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 19, 45 and 59; Schiavoni, Pio Tommaso. I circoli matematici orazione panegirica in applauso della promozione alla porpora dell'eminentiss. e reverendiss. fr. Tomaso Maria Ferrari cardinale di S. Clemente recitata à 15. di genn. 1696. nel duomo di Manduria ... dal p. fr. Pio Tomaso Schiavoni domenicano, lettore maggiore in Gallipoli. ... In Napoli : per Giuseppe Roselli, 1696.

Webgraphy. Biography by Eugenio Di Rienzo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 46 (1996), treccani; engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; his engraving, Dominicus de Rubeis Heres Io.Iacob. de Rubeis formis Romę ad Templum S.M. de Pace cum priu S.P. et Super. perm, Wikimedia; his tomb, Requiem Datenbank; Manduria - Nuovi documenti sul cardinale manduriano Tommaso Maria Ferrari, in preparazione del tricentenario dalla morte by Giuseppe Pio Capogrosso, Manduria Oggi, 18/05/2015 17:20:01 - Manduria - Cultura; Cardinale Ferrari trecento anni dopo by Katja Zaccheo, La Voce de Manduria, 9 novembre 2016 - 7:42; Famiglia Ferraro, Nobili Napoletani; Un cinese a Roma. Il gesuita Fan Shouyi, L'Osservatore Romano, 24 febbraio 2017.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above

D      O      M
F · THOMAS · M · FERRARI
CARDINALIS · S. CLEMENTIS
SACRI ORDINIS
FRATRVM PRÆDICATORVM
OBYT DIE XX AVGVSTI ÆTATIS SVÆ LXIX

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(9) 9. SACRIPANTE, Giuseppe (1642-1727)

Birth. March 19, 1642 (or 1643), Narni (1). Eldest of the four children of Giacinto Sacripante and Vittoria de Basilis. His last name is also listed as Sacripanti. Uncle of Cardinal Carlo Maria Sacripante (1739).

Education. Studied letters, and then, law in Rome.

Early life. Worked with Giacomo Prioli, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, whom he succeeded when the auditor fell gravely ill. Consistorial advocate, 1684. Sub-datary, April 17, 1687; confirmed in his post by the new Pope Alexander VIII, October 10, 1689; and again by Pope Innocent XII, July 16, 1691. Abbreviatore of the Roman Curia, November 6, 1688. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica. Secretary of the Congregations of Avignon and Loreto. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, retaining his post of consistorial lawyer, April 24, 1690. Secretary of Memorials, retaining the subdatary, 1695.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Traspontina, January 2, 1696. Prefect of the S.C. of the Tridentine Council, January 2, 1696 until December 4, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Pro-datary, December 4, 1700. Prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, December 9, 1704 until his death. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, January 26, 1705 until January 25, 1706. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, March 3, 1721. Participated in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Participated in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XII. Opted for the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina, July 31, 1726, Cardinal primoprete.

Death. January 4, 1727, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, where the funeral took place, and buried in the tomb he had built for himself in that same church (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 43-44; Del Re, Nicola. "I cardinali prefetti della sacra congregazione del concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 123-124 Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 19, 46, 48, 50 and 59; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), IV, 850.

Webgraphy. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 19, indicates that he died when he was 84 years old, and Cardella Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Chiesa Romana, VIII, 44, says that he was 85 years old at his death.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D     ·     O     ·     M     ·
IOSEPH S·R·E·CARDINALIS SACRIPANTES
CLEMENTIS XI PONT MAX
PRODATARIVS
ET SACRÆ CONGREGATIONI
DE PROPAGANDA FIDE
PRÆFECTVS
SANCTO IOSEPHO PATRONO SVO
SACELLVM
CENSV ANNO DIVINÆ REI
QVOTIDIE IN EO FACIENDÆ CONSTITVTO
SIBI SVISQVE
SEPULCHRVM
POSVIT
ANNO DNI MDCCXII

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(10) 10. SFONDRATI, O.S.B., Celestino (1644-1696)

Birth. January 10, 1644, Milan. Of an ancient and illustrious family. Son of Marquis Valeriano Sfondrati, commissary general in the Spanish army, and Paola Camilla Marliana. Grand-nephew of Pope Gregory XIV (1590-1591), and grand-nephew of Cardinal Francesco Sfondrati (1544) and nephew of Paolo Emilio Sfondrati (1590).

Education. Studied at the Benedictine school at Rorschach, Bodensee, 1656. Entered the Order of Saint Benedict, April 26, 1660, in the monastery of Sankt Gall (or Saint-Gall), Switzerland; changed his baptismal name, Valentino, to Celestino. Received the minor orders, May 14, 1665; subdiaconate, September 19, 1665; diaconate, September 24, 1667. Taught philosophy and theology at Kempten, while a deacon, 1667. Benedictine University of Salzburg (doctorates in theology, 1679, and canon law).

Priesthood. Ordained, April (or May) 26, 1668. Celebrated his first mass, June 3, 1668. In the monastery of Sankt Gall, professor of philosophy, December 31, 1670; theology, 1671; and master of novices, July 20, 1675. Professor of canon law, Benedictine University of Salzburg, 1679-1683. Returned to Sankt Gall in 1683 and for a brief time was pastor of a small country church near Rorschach. Vicar general of the abbot of Sankt Gall, 1683. The pope called him to Rome on October 30, 1686, to appoint him bishop of Novara. He reluctantly accepted the promotion but did not occupy the see because he was elected prince-abbot of St. Gall, March (or April) 17, 1687. Strongly supported the rights of the Holy See and opposed Gallicanism and Jansenism. Published numerous works in theology, apologetics, and canon law, among other topics.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Cecilia, February 20, 1696.

Death. September 4, 1696, in the hospice next to the house of probation of the Society of Jesus, adjoining the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome. Exposed in his title, where the funeral took place on September 6, 1696, and buried in that same church. His heart was brought to the monastery of Sankt Gallen.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 44-46; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; his engraving and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.

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(11) 11. NORIS, O.E.S.A., Enrico (1631-1704)

Birth. August 29, 1631, Verona. Of Irish ancestry (1). His first name is also listed as Errico; and his last name as Nori; and as Norris. His baptismal name was Girolamo.

Education. Initially, he studied at the Jesuit school in Rimini (rhetoric and logic), 1646. Entered the Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine, 1647; novitiate of Rimini; took the name Enrico; after probation, from 1650 to 1654, he studied philosophy amd theology at the Augustinian general study, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Professor of philosophy and theology in Pesaro, 1658-1662; Perugia, 1662-1663; Florence, 1664-1666; Padua, 1666-1671; and Rome, 1671-1672. Magister of theology, 1663. Some of the works he published in 1673, in history and theology, produced much controversy although they had been approved by a special commission in Rome. He even went to Rome to explain his orthodoxy before that commission. Pope Clement X appointed him one of the qualificators of the Holy Office, recognizing his knowledge and orthodox doctrine. In spite of this, more charges were presented accusing him of Jansenism and Bajanismus (2). Grand duke Cosimo III of Tuscany, called him to Florence and named him his personal theologian and professor of church history, University of Pisa, 1674-1692. Declined promotion to the see of Pistoia as well as other promotions offered by Popes Clement X and Innocent XI. First custos of the Vatican library, May 16, 1692.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Agostino, January 2, 1696. Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, March 6, 1700 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI (3). His complete works were published in a five-volume folio by the Ballerini Brothers, Verona, 1729-1741.

Death. February 23, 1704, at 3 p.m., Rome. Exposed in his title, S. Agostino, where the funeral took place; and buried there (4). The Augustinian friars erected a beautiful monument to honor his memory in that church.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 46-49; Martínez, Agustín M. Introducción a la teología del cardenal Enrique Noris, agustino (1631-1704). Santiago, Chile : Imp. Lathrop, 1946; Nicaise, Claude, 1686-1701. Lettres de l'abbi Nicaise au cardinal Noris (1686-1701). Besançon : Typographie et lithographic Jacquin, 1903; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. ; Rojo Martínez, Fernando. "Ensayo bibliográfico de Noris, Bellelli y Berti," Analecta Augustiniana. XXVI (1963), 294-331; Wernicke, Michael Klaus. Kardinal Enrico Noris und siene Verteidigung Augustins. Würzburg : Augustinus-Verlag, 1973.

Webgraphy. Biography by Francis Tourscher, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography by Adolar Zumkeller, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his engraving by Benedetto Fariat (or Farjat), Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; engravings, bust and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; and his tomb in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) According to Martínez, Introducción a la teología del Cardenal Enrique Noris, p. 7, his grandfather, James Noris, was an Irishman who migrated to Cyprus and had to escape when the Turks of Selim II conquered the island in 1570. With his family, he settled in Verona.
(2) On July 31, 1748, Pope Benedict XIV sent a brief to the prefect of the Spanish inquisition ordering the name of Noris to be removed from the list of forbidden books.The pope said that the charges had never been proved; had been rejected several times by the S.C. of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, and had been repudiated by several popes who had recognized and honored him.
(3) William Joseph Battersby, A history of all the abbeys, convents, churches, and other religious houses of the order particularly of the Hermits of St. Augustine in Ireland (Dublin : G. P. Warren, 1856), p. 95, says "On the death of Pope Innocent XII, Cardinal Norris received all the votes of the Cardinals to succeed him as vicar of Jesus Christ ; but owing to his humilty in declining such a wighty charge or the Order of Providence, Clement XI. was elected in his place." None of the sources consulted mention this incident.
(4) This is the text of his epitaph taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

F. ENRICO NORIS VERONENSI
ORDINIS AC TITVLI S. AVGVSTINI
PRESBYTERO CARDINALI
S. R. E. BIBLIOTHECARIO
AVGVSTINIANA EREMOTARVM FAMILIA
THEOLOGO CHRONOLOGO HISTORICO
B. M. P.
HENRICO MONVMENTVM INGENS SESE EXPLICAT ORBIS
PHOENICVM AD LITTVM LITTORE AB HESPERIÆ
INSCRIBVNT TVMVLO QVIDQVID DVXERE PERENNI
AERE ARGENTO AVRO SÆCVLA ET HISTORIÆ
NORISIO MINOR EST TIVLVS TV GRANDIOR ESSE
AVGVSTINE POTES PAR TVMVLO TITVLVS
OBIIT VII. KAL. MARTII ANNO AERAE CHRISTI MDCCIV
AETATIS LXXXIII. EX A. D. IV KAL. SEPTEMBRIS

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(12) 12. SPINOLA, iuniore, Giambattista (1646-1719)

Birth. August 4, 1646, Genoa. Eldest of the six children of Senator Francesco Maria Spinola and Pompilia Cattaneo. The other children were Federico, Isabella, Giorgio (bishop of Albenga), and two other children. Nephew of Cardinals Giulio Spinola (1666); and Giambattista Spinola, seniore (1681). Great-great-grand-uncle of Cardinal Ugo Pietro Spinola (1831). Other cardinals of the various branches of the Spinola family were Agostino Spinola (1527); Filippo Spinola (1583); Orazio Spinola (1606); Agustín Spínola (1621); Giandomenico Spinola (1626); Niccolò Spinola (1715); Giorgio Spinola (1719); Giovanni Battista Spinola (1733); and Girolamo Spinola (1759).

Education. (No information found).

Early life. In 1665 went with his uncle to the nunciature in Austria; the emperor named him chamberlain of honor and knight of the Golden Key. Returned to Rome and was relator of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta and governor of Tivoli, Fano, and Ascoli, in the pontificate of Pope Clement X. Preceptor of the archhospital of S. Spirito in Sassia, Rome, February 28, 1688. Secretary of the S.C. of the Sacred Consulta, October 12, 1689. Governor of Rome and vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, July 28, 1691 until December 12, 1695. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1695 with dispensation for having an uncle in the Sacred College of Cardinals; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, January 2, 1696. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the minor orders, December 12, 1695. Granted dispensation to receive sacred orders outside Ember days and without time intervals between them, January 11, 1696. Legate in Bologna, February 25, 1697. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, November 24, 1698 until his death. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated, pro illa vice, to title, January 25, 1706. Prefect of the S.C. of Ecclesiastical Immunity, 1714-1716?

Death. March 19, 1719, at 2 p.m., of podagra, in his Roman palace. Exposed in the basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, where the funeral took place on March 22, 1719, and buried in the tomb of Cardinal Giulio Spinola, in the Jesuit church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome (1).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 49-50; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, pp. 110-111; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. ; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), II, 921.

Webgraphy. His engraving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale, Requiem Datenbank.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

D · O · M ·
IOANNES BAPTISTA
CARDINALIS SPINVLA
S · R · E · CAMERARIVS
PATRVI CINERIBVS
MORTALITATIS SVÆ
SOCIATO DEPOSITO
AMOREM TALE VIRO
DEBITVM
VEL MORTVVS
TESTATVR
OBIIT DIE XIX MARTII
AN · MDCCXIX

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(13) 13. TARUGI, Domenico (1638-1696)

Birth. 1638, Ferrara. Of a family from Orvieto. His father was auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota. His last name is also listed as Tarusius.

Education. Studied at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in law.

Early life. Practised law in the study of Angelo Celsi, auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota and later cardinal. Auduitor of the nunciature in Portugal, 1670. Auditor of Cardinal Flavio Chigi. Consistorial lawyer, 1682. Civil lieutenant of the auditor of the Chamber, 1689. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace, retaining the office of consistorial lawyer, January 29, 1689. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, 1694.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Scala, January 2, 1696.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ferrara, January 2, 1696. Granted dispensation for not having yet received the sacred orders, January 2, 1696. Consecrated, February 12, 1696, church of S. Maria in Vallicella, Rome, by Cardinal Giacomo Boncompagni, assisted by Michelangelo Mattei, titular Latin patriarch of Antioch, and by Prospero Bottini, titular archbishop of Mira.

Death. December 27, 1696, archiepiscopal palace of Ferrara. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Ferrara.

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 50-51; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. .

Webgraphy. His engraving, Araldica Vaticana.

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(14) 14. LA GRANGE D'ARQUIEN, Henri Albert de (1613-1707)

Birth. September 8, 1613, Calais. His last name is also listed as Lagrance. He was marquis d'Arquien. Of an ancient, noble but impoverished family, established in Berri before 1440, that had given France a marshal and knights of different orders. His father was governor of Calais.

Education. Like his father, he took a military career.

Early life. Married two times and had seven children; his second wife died in 1692. Captain of the cavalry regiment of Gaston, duke of Orléans, son of King Henri IV of France, in 1643; grand master, lieutenant of the regiment, May 1651; fought in Flanders with the regiment; promoted to field marshal, July 1652; captain of the Swiss guard, 1654. In 1672, he joined in Poland his daughter Marie-Casimire who had married, in second nuptials, Jan Sobieski, who became king of Poland on May 20, 1674. After she tried in vain to have her father named duke and peer by King Louis XIV, she turned to Pope Innocent XII and obtained from him the cardinalate for her father.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 12, 1695; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, April 11, 1699. After the death of the Polish king, he and his daughter retired to Rome in 1699. Granted dispensation to receive sacred orders outside of Ember days and without time intervals between them, September 25, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. He died without having received ordination.

Death. May 24, 1707, at 4 p.m., Rome (1). Exposed and buried in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 51-53; Platania, Gaetano ; Langrange d'Arquien, Henri de. Lettere alla corte di Roma del cardinale Enrico de la Grange d'Arquien, suocero di Giovanni Sobieski. Udine : Del Bianco, 1989. (Testi e studi / Biblioteca dell'Accademia di storia e letteratura polacca e slava di Bologna Adamo Mickiewicz ; nuova ser., 4. (Accademia di storia e letteratura polacca e slava di Bologna Adamo Mickiewicz. Biblioteca) ; nuova ser., 4); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp.

Webgraphy. His tomb in the church of S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, Requiem Datenbank; his engraving, Araldica Vaticana; and Ojciec królowej (Father of the Queen), 1979 Polish film directed by Wojciech Solarz in which one of the characters is the cardinal.

(1) Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentoris Aevi, V, 20, n. 9, citing as a source the Archive of the S.C. of Ceremonial, says that he died in Rome on May 24, 1707 at 4:30 p.m. and that he was 107 years old. The epitaph indicates that he died on March 23, 1707 and that he was 105 years and 11 days old. Mémoires de Saint-Simon, vol. XV, pp. 147-148, n.3, says the date of birth in his epitaph is March 13, 1602; that Gazette d'Amsterdam gives December 1604 as the date of his birth; and that according to Recueil des notices of the Sacred College of Cardinals, 1699, he was born on April 3, 1609.
(2) This is the inscription in his tombstone, taken from Requiem Datenbank, linked above:

OSSA
HENRICI DIACONI CARDINALIS
DE LA GRANGE D'ARQVIAN


       This is the text of his epitaph, taken from the same source:
D.     O.     M.
HIC IACET
HENRICVS DE LA GRANGE
MARCHIO D'ARQVIAN
MARIÆ CASIMIRÆ
POLONIARVM REGINA PATER
MAGNI IOANNES III. SOCER
LEGVM ET ELECTORIS PROABVS
ORDINIS S. SPIRITVS EQVES
S. R. E. DIACONVS CARDINALIS
VIXIT ANNOS CV. ET DIES XI.
OBIIT ROMÆ ANNO D. MDCCVII
DIE XXIII MARTII

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