(28) 1. NOAILLES, Louis-Antoine de (1651-1729)
Birth. May 27, 1651, in the castle of Pénières, Cros-de-Montvert, diocese of Saint-Fleur, France. Second child of Anne-André de Noailles, first duke de Noailles, captain-general of Roussillon, and Anne-Louise Boyer, lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne of Austria. His older brother was Gastom. He was destined to the ecclesiastical state from his infancy by his family.
Education. Studied at Collège du Plessis, Paris, where he obtained a master's in theology and was a condisciple of François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon; and later, at La Sorbonne University, Paris, earning a doctorate in theology, on March 14, 1676.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1675. Abbot commendatario of Aubrac, diocese of Rodez. Nominated to the episcopate by King Louis XIV of France on February 24, 1679. He was nominated to the episcopate by the king of France, Louis XIV, on February 24, 1679, at the request of Duke Gaston de Noailles, his brother, and Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon, a friend of the family and second wife of King Louis XIV of France.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cahors, March 17, 1679. Consecrated, June 18, 1679, church of Saint-Antoine des Champs, Paris, by François de Harlay de Champvallon, archbishop of Paris, assisted by Dominique de Ligni, bishop of Meaux, and by Hardouin de La Hoguette, bishop of Saint-Brieuc. Nominated by the king of France, Louis XIV, on June 21, 1680, he was transferred to the see of Châlons-sur-Marne, March 17, 1681, which he accepted at the express order of Pope Innocent XI. Peer of France. In 1681, he attended the Assembly of the Clergy; and in 1682, he also attended the assembly in which the Four Articles of the Declaration of the Clergy of France were adopted; the declaration constituted the origin of Gallicanism. Nominated by the king of France, Louis XIV, he was promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Paris, September 19, 1695. King Louis XIV of France requested his promotion to the cardinalate
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 21, 1700; with an apostolic brief dated Jul 3, 1700, the pope sent him the red biretta. President of the General Assembly of the Clergy. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Received the red hat on December 18, 1701; and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, January 3, 1701. Prior of Navarre, 1704. President of La Sorbonne University, 1710, and honorary dean of its faculty of law. Opposed Quietism and tried to mediate between Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet and Fénelon, but later, refused to accept the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius although he claimed not to be a Jansenist and had condemned its five essential propositions. Prohibited by King Louis XIV in 1714 to appear in the royal court. Recalled by the regent after the death of the king. Did not participate in the conclave of 1721, which elected Pope Innocent XIII. Did not participate in the conclave of 1724, which elected Pope Benedict XIII. A few months before his death, on October 11, 1728, he unconditionally accepted the bull Unigenitus Dei Filius; and published an order restoring to the Jesuist the powers that he had taken away. In the secret consistory of November 8, 1728, the pope announced to the cardinals that Cardinal Noailles had accepted the bull of Pope Clement XI and had returned to the church from which he had been separated by the bull Pastoralis. Opted for the title of S. Sisto, March 3, 1729. Excepting the Jansenist controversy, his episcopal ministry was worthy of praise and recognition. He realized important works in the cathedral of Notre-Dame; rebuilt at his own expense the archiepiscopal palace; founded a minor seminary for the clerics in 1696; celebrated a diocesan synod in 1697; established weekly public conferences on morals; blessed the first stone of the new main altar of Notre-Dame; placed the first stone of the new church of Saint-Louis-en-l'Ile; finally, he consecrated forty eight bishops, which was a record. If his politics were questionable, his works were those of a good shepherd.
Death. May 4, 1729, before dawn, in his archiepiscopal palace, in Paris (1). Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Paris; and buried in the main nave of the cathedral of Notre-Dame, in front of the chapel of Notre-Dame des Sept-Douleurs, where is his monument, by Adolphe Geoffroy Dechaume (2).
Bibliography. Les archevêques de Paris (1622-2002). Paris : Letouzey & Ané, 2002, p. 24-25; Barthélemy, Eduard de. Le Cardinal de Noailles, évêque de Châlons, archevêque de Paris d'après sa correspondance inédite, 1651-1728. Paris : L. Techener, 1886; Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre .... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857 ; Facsimile edition. Farnborough ; Gregg, 1969, col. 1268-1270; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 72-73; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 429-430; Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801. Paris , Alphonse Picard ; Mamers : G. Fleury et A. Dangin, 1891, p. 284 and 318; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen V (1667-1730). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1952, pp. 27, 47, 51, 150, 151, and 307.
Webgraphy. Biography by Antoine Dégert, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait, engraving and biography, in French, L'Èglise Catholique à Paris, diocèse de Paris; portraits, arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; portrait, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography by Josef Johannes Schmid, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his epsicopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., Apostolic Succession in the Roman Catholic Church, in English; his portrait by an unknown artist, French School, 18th Century, Museum Châteaux de Versailles et de Trianon, France; his portrait by Hyacinthe Rigaud, Wikimedia; his engraving by Johann Gottfried Krügner, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin his engraving by Hyacinthe Rigaud, Wikimedia; Maison de Noailles, in French, Wikipedia.
(1) This is according to all the sources consulted, excepte, Jean, Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801, p. 284, which says that he died on May 3, 1729.
(2) This is the text of his epitaph, engraved in a black marble slab, which was removed in 1793, during the French Revolution, taken from Berton, Dictionnaire des cardinaux, col. 1270:
Birth. May 25, 1652 (1), Vienna. Baptized on the following day. Uncle of Cardinal Joseph Dominicus von Lamberg (1737).
Education. Studied in Vienna and Passau; University of Siena, Siena (doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, August 13, 1673).
Early life. Took part in the war against the Turks. Austrian ambassador in several countries, among them Poland. Received the ecclesiastical tonsure and the minor orders, January 29, 1668; subdiaconate, September 13, 1684; received the diaconate (no date found). Canon of the cathedral chapters of Passau, Salzburg and Olomouc. Imperial councilor.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Passau by its cathedral chapter, May 25, 1689. Preconized, with dispensation for only having received the diaconate, January 11, 1690. Granted dispensation to receive the episcopal consecration from a bishop and two abbots, January 14, 1690. Consecrated, May 14, 1690, Passau, by Cardinal Leopold von Kollonitsch, archbishop of Kalocsa (no information found about the co-consecrators). Principal commissary of the realm in Regensburg. Imperial plenipotentiary to the Diet of Regensburg.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 21, 1700. Participated in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI. Received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, January 3, 1701. Commissioned to visit several Italian princes to ask them to take arms against France in the War of the Spanish Succession. Councilor to Emperors Leopold, Joseph I, and Charles VI.
Death. October 21, 1712, in the cloister of St. Emmeram, Regensburg. Exposed in the cathedral of Passau and and buried in the chapel he built for himself in the cloister of that cathedral.
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 73-74.
Webgraphy. Biographical data, in German, Stadtarchiv Passau; portrait, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his engraving by Elias Christoph Heiss (Stecher, Verleger), Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Virtuelles Kupferstichkabinett, Deutsche Biographie.
(1) This is according to Stadtarchiv Passau, linked above; and his biography in German from Wikipedia, also linked above. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, V, 308, indicates that he was baptized on May 26, 1652. Zedler, Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenschafften und Künste, indicates that he was born on November 26, 1651. Both Boislisle, in his notes to the Mémoires de Saint-Simon, VII, 151; and Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Bd. 17, coincide with Zedler.
(30) 3. BORJA-CENTELLES Y PONCE DE LEÓN, Francisco Antonio de (1659-1702)
Birth. March 27, 1659, Sassari, Sardinia. Third of the nine children of Francisco Carlos Pascual de Borja y Centelles, ninth duke of Gandia. Brother of Cardinal Carlos de Borja-Centelles y Ponce de León (1720).
Education. Studied at the University of Orihuela; and at the University of Alcalá de Henares, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Priesthood. Ordained (no information found). Professor of Instituta, Decretales and Sexta, University of Alcalá de Henares. Archdeacon of Calatrava and canon prebendary of the cathedral chapter of Toledo. Member and regent (acting president) of the Council of Aragon. Councilor of State.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 21, 1700; never went to Rome to receive the red hat and the title. Did not participate in the conclave of 1700, which elected Pope Clement XI, because while en route to Rome; he was recalled to Madrid due to the death of King Carlos II.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Calahorra-La Calzada, July 18, 1701. Consecrated, July 31, 1701 (?), in Rome, (no information found concerning the consecrators). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Burgos, April 3, 1702; he died on that same day.
Death. April 3, 1702 (1), Calahorra. Exposed and buried (no information found).
Bibliography. Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. 9 vols. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1794, VIII, 74.
Webgraphy. His genealogy, E1 F3, Geneaology EU.
(1) Gran Enciclopedia Española indicates that he died on April 4, 1702.
(30) 3. PAOLI, O.Carm., Angelo (1642-1720)
Birth. September 1, 1642, Argigliano, Tuscany, Italy, the son of Angelo Paoli and Santa Morelli. His baptismal name was Francesco. The parents were devout peasants and had seven children. As a young man he spent the greater part of his leisure time in teaching Catholic doctrine to the poor children of his village.
Education. He attended the grammar school of Minucciano. Joined the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Carmelites) on November 27, 1660, at the convent of Cerignano, Fivizzano, together with his brother Tommaso; and made his novitiate at the convent of S. Nicola, Siena; he took the name Angelo; the following year, he emitted his solemn vows and went to to the convent of S, Maria del Carmine, Pisa, where he studied philosophy for five years; then, he studied theology at the Carmelite convent of Florence. He took his religious vows on December 18, 1661.
Priesthood. Ordained, January 1667, basilica of S. Maria del Carmine, Florence; he celebrated his first mass in that basilica on January 7. He remained in Florence as organist and sacristan until 1674, when he had to return to his family in Argigliano, for health reasons. On August 15, 1674, a "miracle" was attributed to him when he distributed bread to the poor with no end; to escape the notoriety, he retreated to the mountains of Garfagnana and lived as a hermit with the shepherds; every day at dawn, he climbed to the shrine of S. Pellegrino to celebrate mass. Then, he lived in Pistoia devoting himself again to help the poor. Between December 1676 and October 1677, he was pastor in at Corniola di Empoli, where there was a Carmelite community; he often went on foot to visit the sick of the hospital of Pistoia. He was back in Siena between 1677 and 1680; and also in the city of Santa Caterina, where he devoted himself to works of charity. Those were difficult years, due to a famine, and Friar Amgelo, with the permission of his superiors, organized a soup kitchen in the garden of the convent for the poor, who flocked from the countryside also. In 1680, he was sent to Montecatini with the task of teaching grammar to the novices, but often there, too, he was busy assisting the needy. In 1682, he was destined to Cerignano; left at night, as he used to do not receive thanks; after a few months, he was sacristan, organist, and lector at Fivizzano, but above all, he devoted himself to people in need. To find a little quiet and solitary prayer he went to a nearby cave.
After five years, the father general of the Order called him to Rome. Father Angelo took only his breviary, the hood and a white bag with a little bread, and set off into the night. He passed through Argigliano to greet his old father and brothers; and went to Siena to say goodbye to his brother, Father Tommaso. In 1687, the minister general of the order called him to Rome, where he arrived on March 12, after a long and adventurous journey; he was received with joy in the convent of Ss. Martino ai Monti, as his reputation had preceded him. In July 1687, he visited the hospital at the Lateran; when he saw so much human and spiritual misery in those patients, he asked his superiors permission to dedicate his spare time from the office that he held to care for the sick; he was granted permission provided he would not neglect the training of novices who were under his responsibility; he had the care of the two S. Giovanni Laterano hospitals, for men and for women. For thirty-three years he was the Roman "father of the poor". At his table were fed up to three hundred poor per day. He took care of the sick who were discharged from the hospital but were not able to work and opened a convalescent home on the street that led from the Colosseum to the patriarchal Lateran basilica. He organized at that time innovative and efficient services. His apostolate was also in the prisons of the Via Giulia and the families of prisoners. In 1689, he was entrusted with the spiritual assistance of the conservatorio della Beatissima Vergine, at the Arch of S. Vito, founded by the noblewoman Livia Viperteschi for the education of girls. His fame was such that he was also called to resolve disputes outside of Rome; the Carthusian monks of Trisulti asked him to talk to young people who had doubts about their vocation. He established ties of friendship and cooperation with nobles and clergy, including the Theatine Cardinal Giuseppe Maria Tomasi, future saint. At that convent, he was master of novices; and also bursar, sacristan and organist. The Colosseum, the shrine of the martyrs of the early days, was almost collapsing from neglect and a refuge for people of ill repute. Father Angelo turned to Pope Clement XI, who was his friend, and received the funds for some works and to close the gates with a cancel; he then raised three crosses in front of which even today the Stations of the Cross are celebrated; also, on Monte Testaccio, he put three crosses, as he had done in the Apuan Alps, in Lunigiana, his original land. His devotion to the cross was strong throughout his life, dedicating himself to translate it into charity to the next, involving other people who understood the value of his example of living the Gospel. He said: "those seeking God should visit him among the poor." He was counselor and guest of princes and of other important people of Rome, cardinals and high prelates held him in high esteem.
Cardinalate. According to the official site of the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel, he twice declined the cardinalate offered to him by Popes Innocent XII and Clement XI, because - as he said - "it would have been hurtful to the poor, whom I would not have been able to help". On the morning of January 14, 1720, while he played the organ, he was attacked by fever and taken to his cell. The last illness lasted only a few days.
Death. Saturday, January 20, 1720, at 6.45 am. His funeral was attended by cardinals, bishops, nobles and a multitude of people. The body was carried in procession; the people hung in the streets the tapestries of solemn occasions. He was buried in the left nave of the basilica of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, Rome. Pope Clement XI described him in the inscription in his tomb as "venerable" and "father of the poor".
Beatification. Three years after his death, the informative diocesan process was begun at Florence, Pescia and Rome. The apostolic process was carried on from 1740 till 1753. The heroicity of his virtues was recognized by Pope Pius VI in 1781. In a July 2009 meeting with the prefect of the S.C. for the Causes of Saints, Archbishop Angelo Amato, S.D.B., a miracle was formally approved by Pope Benedict XVI. The beatification was celebrated at the papal Lateran basilica, in Rome, on Sunday April 25, 2010, during a solemn mass presided over by Cardinal Agostino Vallini, vicar general of Rome. Archbishop Amato presided at the rite of beatification (1). His liturgical feast is celebrated on January 20.
Webgraphy. Images and biography by Daniele Bolognini , in Italian, Santi e Beati; his image and biography, in English, Drink from the Wadi Cherith; Office of the Postulator General of the Carmelite Order; Beatification of Carmelite friar Angelo Paoli, in English, The British Province of Carmelite Friars; I commend you my poor and my sick ones by Most Reverend Fernando Millán, O.Carm., Prior General of the Order of Carmelites, in English; Angelo Paoli, Carmelite father of the poor by Father Leopold Glueckert, O. Carm., in English, Between friends, Fall 2010, p. 4-5; Images of Angelo Paoli, Mitra Images, Image Resources On The Net; "Friar Charity" - Blessed Angelo Paoli, Carmelite, in English, video, YouTube; "Frater Carità" - Il Ven. Angelo Paoli, Carmelitano, in Italian, video, YouTube; Blessed Angelo Paoli, Comments by the Prior General Fr Fernando Millán Romeral, in English, video, YouTube.
(1) After the recitation of the Angelus from the window of his office at the Apostolic Palace, at noon, on that day, Pope Benedict XVI said:
Stamani, rispettivamente a Roma e a Barcellona, sono stati proclamati Beati due Sacerdoti: Angelo Paoli, Carmelitano, e José Tous y Soler, Cappuccino. A quest'ultimo farò cenno tra poco. Del beato Angelo Paoli, originario della Lunigiana e vissuto tra i secoli XVII e XVIII, mi piace ricordare che fu apostolo della carità a Roma, soprannominato "padre dei poveri". Si dedicò specialmente ai malati dell'Ospedale San Giovanni, prendendosi cura anche dei convalescenti. Il suo apostolato traeva forza dall'Eucaristia e dalla devozione alla Madonna del Carmine, come pure da un'intensa vita di penitenza. Nell'Anno Sacerdotale, propongo volentieri il suo esempio a tutti i sacerdoti, in modo particolare a quanti appartengono ad Istituti religiosi di vita attiva.
©1998-2016 Salvador Miranda.