(49) 1. LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE-LAURAGUAIS, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles de (1768-1851)
Birth. August 14, 1768, Castle of Auzeville, diocese of Toulous, France. Third of the four children of Gabriel de La Tour de Saint-Paulet, seigneur de Saint-Paulet, and Marie Angélique Augustine Armande d'Aumale (1735-1774). The other children were Adélaïde de La Tour-Saint-Paulet; Joseph Denis Édouard Bernard, called de La Tour de Lauragais de La Tour de Saint-Paulet, baron of the Empire (1767-1841); and Charles de La Tour-Saint-Paulet (1770-1822).
Education. Studied at Saint-Sulpice Seminary, Paris. He was baron of the Empire from 1768 until 1851. He received the subdiaconate on sous-diaconat March 4, 1791; and the diaconate on April 22, 1792.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1792. He was apparently taken from the house of an aunt in Aumale in Amiens and he was arrested twice and then released. After the 9th Thermidor, he abandoned the ecclesiastical habit to become a secretary, with the rank of an officer, at the home of a military man, but he resumed it as early as 1801. Vicar of Amiens.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Arras, May 6, 1802. He took the oath of fidelity to the Emperor on May 9. Consecrated, Sunday May 16, 1802, church of Saint-Roch, Paris, by Jean-Baptiste Bessuéjouls de Roquelaure, archbishop of Mechelen, assisted by Jean-Baptiste de Maillé, bishop of Rennes, and by Étienne Fallot de Beaumont, bishop of Gand. At thirty three, he became the youngest bishop of France after the signing of the Concordat of 1801.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 23, 1839. Declined the nominations to Avignon, Lyon, Cambrai and Paris (1840). He was decorate with thw grand-cross of the Légion d’honneur in 1843. Received the red hat on February 12, 1846; and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura on April 16, 1846. Did not participate in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX.
Death. July 20, 1851, Arras. Exposed and buried in the chaepl of the Virgin in the cathedral of Arras.
Bibliography. Catéchisme du diocèse d'Arras, publié par ordre de monseigneur Hugues-Robert Jean Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, évêque d'Arras, pour être enseigné dans son diocèse. Boulogne : Ve Olivier-Dolet, 1815; fifteen editions were published between 1815 and 1840; Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 371-371; La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Constitutions et règlement général du séminaire épiscopal d'Arras. Arras, 1809; La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Mandement de Son Eminence Mgr le Cardinal, évêque d'Arras, invitant ses diocésains a offrir a Sa Sainteté un hommage digne d'elle, et que sa situation actuelle permet de déposer respectueusement a ses pieds. Arras : A. Brissy, 1849; La Tour d'Auvergne Lauraguais, Hugues-Robert-Jean-Charles. Mandement pour le carême de l'an de grâce 1846. Des intérêts temporels et des intérêts éternels. Arras : Brissy, 1846; Planque, Désire. Oraison funèbre de son Eminence Mgr. Hugues-Robert-Jean Charles de la Tour-d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, évêque d'Arras, prononcée dans l'Église Cathédrale, le 22 octobre 1851. Arras : Brissy, 1851; Lacroix, Georges. Un cardinal de l'Église d'Arras : Charles de La Tour d'Auvergne. 49 ans d'épiscopat concordataire. Lens : Imp. Centrale de l’Artois, 1965; Lesueur, Émile. Le Cardinal de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais, le roi des évêques, 1768-1851. Paris : Payot, 1927; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 39 and 93.
Webgraphy. Biography, in French, Wikipédia; his genealogy, in French, Geneanet; his engraving, arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; 14 août 1768 : naissance de Charles de La Tour d’Auvergne, évêque et cardinal d’Arras, Les Archives du Pas-de-Calais.
(50) 2. MASTAI FERRETTI, Giovanni Maria (1792-1878)
Birth. May 13, 1792, Senigaglia. Ninth child of Count Girolamo Mastai Ferretti and Caterina Sollazzi. Baptized on the same day of his birth, his full name was Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. Great-grand nephew of Cardinal Pietro Girolamo Guglielmi (1759).
Education. Piarist College, Volterra (classical education, 1802-1809); went to Rome to study philosophy and theology but had to leave in 1810 because of the political disturbances; returned in 1814; asked for admission to the Papal Noble Guard; because of epileptic seizures, was refused admission; Roman Seminary, Rome (theology, 1814-1818). His epileptic condition disappeared.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 10, 1819, Rome. Spiritual director of the orphan asylum Tata Giovanni, Rome. Auditor of the apostolic delegation in Chile, 1823-1825. In Rome, canon of S. Maria in Via Lata; director of San Michele hospital.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Spoleto, May 21, 1827. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 1, 1827. Consecrated, June 3, 1827, church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, by Cardinal Francesco Xaverio Castiglioni, bishop of Frascati, assisted by Giacomo Sinibaldi, titular Archbishop of Damietta and by Antonio Piatti, titular archbishop of Trebisonda. Transferred to the see of Imola, with personal title of archbishop, December 17, 1832.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of December 14, 1840; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, December 17, 1840. Participated in the conclave of 1846 and was elected pope.
Papacy. Elected Pope Pius IX, June 16, 1846, Quirinal Palace, Rome. Cardinal Karl Kajetan Gaisruck, archbishop of Milan, arrived after the election, thus too late to present the veto of Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria against him. Crowned, June 21, 1846, Rome. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese of Imola, June 21, 1846. Took possession of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, November 9, 1846. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, December 8, 1854. Celebrated the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870, which had to be interrupted because of the Franco-Prussian War; during the council, the dogma of papal infallibility was defined. Lost the territory of the Papal States because of the unification of the Kingdom of Italy, 1870-1871. Created 123 cardinals in 23 consistories. His was the longest pontificate after Saint Peter's.
Death. February 7, 1878, Vatican. Exposed and buried, on February 13, 1878, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica; On July 13, 1881, his remains were transferred to the basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome.
Beatification. The diocesan process of his beatification was started on February 11, 1907 by Pope Pius X. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 3, 2000, together with Pope John XXIII. His feast is celebrated on February 7.
Bibliography. Brennan, Richard. A popular life of our late Holy Father, Pope Pius the Ninth : together with a sketch of his successor, Pope Leo the Thirteenth drawn from the most reliable authorities. Ninth edition. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1878; Chiron, Yves. Pie IX, pape moderne. Bitche : Clovis, 1995; Duffy, Eamon. Ten popes who shook the world. New Haven [Conn.] : Yale University Press, 2011. Contents: St Peter -- Leo the Great -- Gregory the Great -- Gregory VII -- Innocent III -- Paul III -- Pio Nono -- Pius XII -- John XXIII -- John Paul II; Le gouvernement pontifical sous Pie XI. Pratiques romaines et gestion de l'universel. Études réunies par Laura Pettinaroli. Rome : École française de Rome, 2013. (Collection de l'École française de Rome, 467); Hasler, August. How the pope became infallible : Pius IX and the politics of persuasion. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1981. Translation of Wie der Papst unfehlbar wurde. Introd. by Hans Küng ; translated by Peter Heinegg; Howard, Thomas Albert. The Pope and the professor : Pius IX, Ignaz von Döllinger, and the quandary of the modern age. Oxford ; New York, NY : Oxford University Press, 2017; Kelly, John Norman Davidson, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1986, pp. 309-311; Martina, Giacomo. "Pio IX, beato." Enciclopedia dei papi. 3 vols. Roma : Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana, 2000, III, 560-575; Messori, Vittorio. Kidnapped by the Vatican? The unpublished memoirs of Edgardo Mortara. Translated by Michael J. Miller. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2017; More than a prophet : day-by-day with Pio Nono : being timely thoughts to tame the troubled times. Altadena, Calif. : Benziger Sisters, ©1978; Pagano, Sergio. "La mancata pubblicazione dell'opera 'Pio IX e il Risorgimento italiano' di Giuseppe Clementi ed Edoardo Soderini", in Dall'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Città del Vaticano, 2009, pp. 279-434. (Miscellanea di testi, saggi e inventari, IV); Parocchi, Lucido M. Pio IX caro a Dio e agli uomini. A cura di Antonio Piolanti. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1986; Polverari, Alberto. Vita di Pio IX. III. Dal 1861 al 1878. Editrice la postulazione della causa di Pio IX, 1988; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 42, 223 and 351; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 3-23; Serafini, Alberto. Pio Nono: Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti, dalla giovinezza alla morte nei suoi scritti e discorsi editi e inetiti.. 2 vols. Città del Vaticano : Poliglotta Vaticana, 1958; Thornton, Francis Beauchesne. Cross upon cross. The life of Pope Pius IX. New York : Benziger Brothers, 1955.
Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; photograph and biography, primary contributors: Ivor F. Burton and Douglas Woodruff, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; biography also in English; biography by Giacomo Martina, in Italian, Enciclopedia dei papi, Treccani; his episcopal lineage by Charles N. Bransom, Jr., in English, Apostolic Succession & Episcopal Lineages in the Roman Catholic Church; his portrait; his photograph in color; his photodraw, The University of Texas at Austin Library, Austin, United States of America; his effigy on a coin, 1870, numismatica.it; his effigy on a medal, ca. 1850; his effigy on a medal commemorating the First Vatican Council, 1870; his portrait by Giovanni Battista Roberti, Collezione Cianfarani, Rome; gallery of photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his praying statue by Giacometti, the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome; his lithograph by H. Jessen, Antiquariat Hille, Berlin; his portrait, in Arcadia Cleomene Metapeo, Museo di Roma, Palazzo Braschi, Rome; his engraving by Antonio Schiassi; illustrations and biography, in Italian, Istituto di Studi Storici Beato Pio IX, Rome; his portrait; his tomb, basilica of S. Lorenzo fuori le mura, Rome; his statue by Ignazio Jacometti, papal basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, Roman Churches, by Ralph Conde; Beato Pio IX - 7 de febrero by Isabel Orellana Vilches, in Spanish, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 06 de febrero de 2015; L'ultimo Papa Re incontra Padre Pio by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 16/01/216; The lowest point in U.S.-Vatican relations will be hard to beat by Charles Collins, Crux, Rome, May 20, 2017; The man who fought papal infallibility by John W. O'Malley, S.J., America, The Jesuit review, June 13, 2017.
(51) 3. PIANETTI, Gaspare Bernardo (1780-1862)
Birth. February 7, 1780, Iesi. Son of Count Angelo Pianetti and Eleonora Buonaccorsi. Grand-nephew of Cardinal Simone Buonaccorsi (1763).
Education. Studied at Collegio Nazareno, Rome, from 1789; then at the University of Macerata, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on December 6, 1803; and later, at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1804.
Priesthood. Ordained, March 31, 1804. Vice-governor of Rome in three different occasions. Protonotary apostolic de numero participantium. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Viterbo e Toscanella (now Tuscania), July 3, 1826. Consecrated, August 15, 1826, in the church S. Maria degli Angeli, Rome, by Pope Leo XII, assisted by Filippo Filonardi, archbishop of Ferrara, and by Giuseppe Perugini, titiular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Chiarissimo Falconieri Mellini, archbishop of Ravenna. future cardinal.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of December 14, 1840; received the red hat and the title of S. Sisto, December 17, 1840. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. Resigned pastoral government of the diocese, March 4, 1861. Secretary of Apostolic Briefs, March 18, 1861. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals. March 18, 1861 until 1862. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Equestrian Orders.
Death. January 30, 1862, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, and buried, according to his will, in the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro.
Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 31, 44 and 398; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 62; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), I, 145.
Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his portrait, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his seal as a bishop, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his seal as a cardinal, secolo XIX (1800-1899), bottega italiana, regione ecclesiastica Lazio, diocesi Viterbo, Beni Ecclesiastici in web (BeWeB); his engraving and portrait, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. April 16, 1801, Amelia, diocese of Terni. Of a patrician family. Eldest of the two children of Count Giovanni Vannicelli and Countess Maria Casoni. The other child was Filippo. Great-great-great-grand nephew of Cardinal Lorenzo Casoni (1706). Grand-nephew of Cardinal Filippo Casoni (1801). His last name is also listed as Casonus.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Terni; then, went to Rome to study philosophy and theology with the priests della Missione.
Early life. Papal prelate, 1829. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1829. Relator of the S.C. of Good Government. Referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signature of Justice and of Grace; later, voter. Consultor of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, 1834. Abbreviatore di parco maggiore. Protonotary apostolic. Vice-commissary of the four legations, with residence in Bologna, 1835; later, pro-legate in Bologna until 1838. Pro-legate in Ravenna, 1836. Pro-governor of Rome, 1838. Governor of Rome, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and director general of police, September 13, 1838.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of December 23, 1839; published in the consistory of January 24, 1842; received red hat and the title of S. Callisto, January 27, 1842. Apostolic legate in the province of Forlì for three years, September 13, 1842. Apostolic legate in Bologna, April 30, 1844 until 1845. Participated in the conclave of 1846, which elected Pope Pius IX. President of the Census Office, 1847. Opted for the title of S. Prassede, October 4, 1847. Together with Cardinals Gabrielle della Genga Sermattei and Lodovico Altieri, member of the triumvirate that governed Rome between July 1, 1849 and April 1850.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ferrara, May 20, 1850. Consecrated, May 26, 1850, in the Sistine Chapel, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Domenico Lucciardi, titular archbishop of Damasco, secretary of the S.C. of Bishops and Regulars, and by Giuseppe Maria Castellani, O.E.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Matteo Eustachio Gonella, titular archbishop of Neocesarea, future cardinal. Secretary of Memoriali, December 21, 1867. Participated in the First Vatican Council, 1869-1870. Pro-datary of His Holiness, November 8, 1870 until his death.
Death. April 21, 1877, dalla febbre, con difficultà di respiro, Rome. Exposed and buried in the church of Ss. Vincenzo ed Anastasia alle Tre Fontane, Rome, where his funeral took place on April 23, 1877. His remains were later buried in the crypt that he had built in the church of S. Maria de' Pini, Lugano (1).
Bibliography. Aloisio Vannicellio Casonio : S.R.E. Cardinal amplissimo prodatario SS. Papae PII IX, Ferrariaeque archiepiscopo optime merito. Ferrariae : Dominici Taddei et Filiorum, 1875; Borelli, Ludovico. Il cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni aricvescovo di Ferrara. Memorie storiche. Ferrara : 1881; Boutry, Philippe. Souverain et Pontife : recherches prosopographiques sur la curie romaine à l'âge de la restauration, 1814-1846. Rome : École française de Rome, 2002, p. 480-481; Capogrossi Guarna, Baldassare. Cenni storici del cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni. Estratto dalla Rivista del Collegio Araldico, Dicembre 1904. Rome : Collegio Araldico, 1904; Del Re, Niccolò. Monsignor governatore di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1972, p. 126; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des cardinaux du XIXe siècle : contribution à l'histoire du Sacré Collège sous les potificats de Pie VII, Léon XII, Pie VIII, Grégoire XVI, Pie IX et Léon XIII, 1800-1903. Montréal : Wilson & Lafleur, 2007. (Collection Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), p. 937-939; Nel pontificale giubileo dell'eminentissimo cardinale Luigi Vannicelli Casoni arcivescovo di Ferrara: il Seminario-Collegio grato ed esultante. Bologna : Tip. Pont. Mareggiani, 1875 (poetry); Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VII (1800-1846). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1968, pp. 32 and 41; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 52 and 270; Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), III, 230.
Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph by Antonio e Paolo Francesco D’Alessandri, PassatoProssimo, Roma Capitale - Sovrintendenza Capitolina - Museo di Roma; his engraving, Bologna, XIX secolo, Litografia Angiolini, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio in Bologna, Museo della Città di Bologna; his engravings, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the epitaph on the tombstone:
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