Birth. July 26, 1833, Corciano, diocese of Perugia.
Education. Studied at the University of Perugia, where he earned a doctorate in theology on July 19, 1857.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1856. Further studies, Perugia, 1857. In the diocese of Perugia, professor of its seminary, 1857-1878; canon of the cathedral chapter, August 16, 1863; prosynodal examiner, 1870; archdeacon of the cathedral chapter, May 15, 1877. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 15, 1878.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Montefiascone, July 15, 1878. Consecrated, July 21, 1878, church of S. Apollinare, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, assisted by Giovanni Battista Paolucci, titular archbishop of Adrianopoli, and by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Sida. Assistant at the Pontifical Thorne, February 7, 1882. Promoted to titular see of Pharsala, December 22, 1882. Apostolic delegate in Constantinople and apostolic vicar of the Latin patriarchate of Constantinople, January 26, 1883. Nuncio in France, May 23, 1887.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1891; died before receiving the red hat and the title.
Death. September 15, 1891, Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Maria in Traspontina and buried in the chapel of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Webgraphy. Engraving, photograph and drawing, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. November 3, 1820, Vienna, Austria. His middle name is also listed as Joseph.
Education. Received the insignias of the clerical character and the minor orders on October 31, 1839; the subdiaconate on July 9, 1842; the diaconate on July 15, 1842. Studied at the University of Vienna, where he obtained a doctorate in theology on July 31, 1849.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 4, 1843. In the archdiocese of Vienna, he was cooperator for many years in Pillichsdorf and in the parish of Sankt Leopold; professor of religion in the gymnasium of the Theresian Academy; preacher in the metropolitan cathedral; professor of pastoral theology in the university; military vicar of the Austrian Army. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Carre, March 28, 1878. Consecrated, April 28, 1878, metropolitan cathedral of Sankt Stefan, Vienna, by Cardinal Johannes Baptiste Rudolf Kutschker, archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Matthäus Joseph Binder, bishop of Sankt Pölten, and by Edward Angerer, titular bishop of Alali, auxiliary of Vienna. His episcopal motto was In nomine Jesu. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Vienna, June 23, 1890.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 1, 1891; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria degli Angeli, December 17, 1891. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.
Death. August 5, 1911, Kranichberg Castle, near Gloggnitz. Exposed and buried in Sankt Stefan metropolitan cathedral, Vienna.
Bibliography. Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 35, 50, 185 and 591; Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1914, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1913, p. 63.
Webgraphy. Photograph and brief biography, in German, Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon; biography by Ekkart Sauser, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; photograph, engraving and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
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