Birth. December 9, 1828, Montefiscone. His baptismal name was Giovanni. Received the sacrament of confirmation, October 12, 1834. His first name is also listed as Aegidius.
Education. He was going to study law but the death of a brother who was a priest made him decided to enter the priesthood in the order of Preachers at the Shrine della Quercia of Viterbo. He studied theology for three years at the convent of Santa Sabina, Rome; and completed his formation at the Shrine della Quercia.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1853, Viterbo. Soon after his ordination, he was named master of novices and lector of Sacred Scriptures. In 1858, he was appointed prior of Noto, Sicily; and two years later, of Santa Sabina, Rome. He wen back to Quercia as a lector and earned his masters in theology; and was named prior of Düsseldorf. Elected vicar general of the Order, S. Marco, Florence.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rieti, December 22, 1871. Consecrated, January 14, 1872, church of Santa Maria della Quercia, La Quercia, near Viterbo, by Cardinal Filippo Maria Guidi, O.P., bishop of Frascati, assisted by Luigi Serafini, bishop of Viterbo, and by Giuseppe Bovieri, bishop of Montefiascone. Transferred to the see of Osimo e Cingoli, June 1, 1888. Promoted to the archepiscopal see of Ferrara, June 12, 1893.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received red hat and title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, May 21, 1894. Opted for title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 2, 1895.
Death. March 13, 1896, at two minutes past midnight, after a long battle with diabetes complicated by a severe attack of influenza, after having received the last rites on the eve, in Ferrara. Exposed in the episcopal palace of Ferrara; and buried, sealed in three coffins, in the chapel of the metropolitan chapter in the Certosa of Ferrara.
Bibliography. Mauri, Egidio. Ultimi scritti del cardinale Egidio Mauri dei Predicatori, arcivescovo di Ferrara. Ferrara : Presso la Direzione del Rosario Memorie Domenicane, 1900; Rossi, Giacinto. Elogio funebre del cardinale Egidio Mauri dei predicatori, arcivescovo di Ferrara, letto nella chiesa dei pp. domenicani di Ferrara il giorno 18 aprile 1896. Ferrara : G. Tellarini, 1896.
Webgraphy. His funeral notice, The Tablet, Saturday, March 21, 1896, Vol. 87, p. 454; his engraving and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. June 17, 1833, Quintana del Pidio, diocese of Osma, Spain. Of a humble and poor family. Son of Ambrosio Sancha, land worker, and Baltasara Hervás, a housewife; she died when Ciriaco María was ten years old. They had seven children, of which four had a very short life; the other three were Justa, Gabriel and Ciriaco María. He was so ill at birth that his parents decided to administer him an emergency baptism the same day he was born.
Education. Initial studies in his native town and at the same time, he helped his father working the land. Entered the Seminary of Santo Tomás, Burgo de Osma, in 1852; Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca (licentiate in theology, 1861).
Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1858, chapel of the bishopric of Osma, by Vicente Horcos y San Martín, bishop of Osma. Celebrated his first mass on July 4, 1858, in Quintana del Pidio. Lector of philosophy in the Seminary of Osma, 1858-1862. The new archbishop of Santiago de Cuba, Primo Calvo Lope, invited Fr. Sancha to accompany him to that city. In the archdiocese of Santiago de Cuba, June 8, 1862-1876, chancellor-secretary, 1862; professor of moral theology in its seminary; founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity, August 5, 1869. While the archdiocese was vacant because of the death of the archbishop (1868), the Republican Spanish government named, without the consent of the Holy See, Fr. Pedro Llorente Miguel as successor in 1873. Both Msgr. José María Orberá Carrión, vicar capitular, and his secretary, Msgr. Sancha, opposed the nomination and were jailed. The schism ended in 1874.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Areopolis and appointed auxiliary of Toledo, with residence in Madrid, January 28, 1876. Consecrated, March 12, 1876, collegiate church of San Isidro, Madrid, by Cardinal Juan de la Cruz Ignacio Moreno y Maisonave, archbishop of Toledo, assisted by Pedro José Sánchez Carrascosa y Carrión, C.O., bishop of Avila, and by José Oliver y Hurtado, bishop of Pamplona. In the same ceremony was consecrated José María Orberá Carrión, bishop of Almería, future cardinal. Transferred to the see of Avila, March 27, 1882. Transferred to the see of Madrid y Alcalá de Henares, June 10, 1886. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, May 4, 1888. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, July 11, 1892.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received red hat and title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 2, 1895. Transferred to the primatial and metropolitan see of Toledo and titular patriarchate of the West Indies, March 24, 1898. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X.
Death. February 26, 1909, Toledo. Exposed and buried in the primatial and metropolitan cathedral of Toledo. In his bronze tomb, which receives flowers every day, appears his epitaph: "Con celo de ardiente caridad se hizo todo para todos. Vivió pobre y pobrísimamente murió".
Beatification. During an audience given to Cardinal José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, on April 28, 2006, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the congregation to promulgate several decrees of canonization, beatification, and declaration of heroic virtues. Among them, the decree declaring the heroic virtues of the Servant of God Cardinal Ciriaco María Sancha y Hervás, archbishop of Toledo, Spain, founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of Cardinal Sancha. In March 2008, celebrations started in Spain and in America to commemorate the centennial of his death. On January 17, 2009, during an audience given to Archbishop Angelo Amato, S.D.B., prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, Pope Benedict XVI authorized the congregation to promulgate a decree concerning a miracle attributed to the intercession of Cardinal Sancha. The beatification ceremony took place on October 18, 2009, at the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo.
Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 45; Pérez, Clara María ; Taveras, Ignacia. "El venerable Ciriaco María Sancha y Hervás pastor ejemplar que se hizo todo para todos." L'Osservatore Romano. Edición semanal en lengua española. Año XL, n. 26 (2.061), 27 de junio de 2008, p. 14 (378).
Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Spanish; "El padre de los pobres", un purpurado llamado así por el pueblo. Toledo celebró la memoria litúrgica del cardenal Sancha, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 26 de febrero de 2013.
Birth. June 13, 1851, Montegranaro, archdiocese of Fermo. Received the sacrament of confirmation, April 16, 1861.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fermo; at the Pontifical Pio Seminary, Rome; and at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum "S. Apollinare", Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iuris, both canon and civil law, on August 8, 1879.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1874, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Socius of the Academy of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, August 8, 1879. In archdiocese of Fermo, professor of theology and canon law of its seminary; honorary canon of the cathedral chapter. 1879-1891. Professor of civil law at the Pontifical Roman Atheaneum "S. Apollinare", 1891. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness. Spiritual director of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum of Propaganda Fide, Rome; and of the nuns of S. Cuore a Trinità dei Monti.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Forlì, May 23, 1887. Consecrated, June 29, 1887, at the church of SS. Trinità ai Monti, Rome, by Cardinal Giovanni Simeoni, prefect of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, titular archbishop of Colosso, secretary of the S.C. of the Apostolic Visit, and by Domenico Maria Jacobini, titular archbishop of Tiro, secretary of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received red hat and title of S. Onofrio, May 21, 1894. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, May 21, 1894. He suffered a stroke in November 1901 which left his face partially paralyzed. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. He suffered a stroke that left his face and speech partially impaired.
Death. Saturday August 10, 1907, after years of failing health, Bologna. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Bologna and buried in the Carthusian cemetery of Bologna; transferred on October 16, 1912 to the Salesian church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Bologna (1), which he founded (2). In appreciation of his activities, "The New York Times" dedicated twenty two articles in his memory.
Bibliography. Albertazzi, Alessandro. Il cardinale Svampa ed i cattolici bolognesi. Brescia : Morcelliano, 1971; Brambati, M. I problemi dei cattolici italiani nel carteggio del card. Svampa. Diss., University of Bologna, 1963; Burchi, Pietro. "Card. Domenico Svampa." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 233.
Webgraphy. Engraving and biography, in Italian, Wikipdia; his engraiving, portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. August 13, 1850, Lalatta, Pratopiano, diocese of Parma. Of a family of modest economic means. Eldest of the four children of Giuseppe Ferrari and Maddalena Longarini. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1856. Two of his paternal uncles, Abbondio and Pietro, were priests in Parma.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Parma, where he later obtained the doctorate in theology in 1883. Received the insignias of the clerical character and two minor orders on September 18, 1869; and the other two minor orders on September 23, 1871; received the subdiaconate on September 21, 1872; and the diaconate on December 15, 1872.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1873, Parma. In the diocese of Parma, 1874-1890, episcopal delegate (office of pastor) of Mariano, February 1874; coadjutor of the archpriest of Fornovo di Taro, July 4, 1874; vicar curate of S. Leonardo, 1875; vice-rector of its seminary and professor of physics and mathematics, 1875; rector, 1877; professor of fundamental theology, ecclesiastical history and moral theology, 1878; published Summula theologiae dogmaticae generalis, 1885; reprinted several times.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Guastalla, May 29, 1890. Consecrated, June 29, 1890, church of the Religious of the Sacred Heart di Villa Lante, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano and vicar general of Rome, assisted by Vincenzo Leone Sallua, O.P., titular archbishop of Calcedonia, commissary general of the tribunal of the Inquisition, and by Giovanni Maria Maioli, bishop of Urbania-Sant'Angelo in Vado. He took possession of the diocese on October 3, 1890. Transferred to the see of Como, May 29, 1891, retaining the administration of the see of Guastalla ad Sanctis Sedis beneplacitum; ceased as apostolic administrator on December 14, 1891.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received red hat and title of S. Anastasia, May 21, 1894. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, May 21, 1894; on that same day he was granted the pallium. Took Carlo as a middle name in honor of Saint Charles Borromeo, cardinal and archbishop of Milan. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. In 1907, the cardinal, the clergy and the seminary of Milan were accused of "Modernism"; the accusation was accepted by Pope Pius X, who only recognized five years later that the charges were unfounded and decided to receive the cardinal. In 1912, he promoted the founding of the daily "L'Italia", which replaced "L'Unione". Participated in the conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV. One of his official acts, already in his deathbed, was to approve the statutes of the Catholic University "Sacro Cuore" of Milan.
Death. February 2, 1921, at 5:55 p.m., while finishing the rosary that he himself had started, of throat cancer, in Milan; the first symptom of the disease was a simple hoarseness (1). Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan and buried in the chapel Virgo Potens, under the altar of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, in that cathedral. His body is now exposed in a glass urn in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan.
Beatification. Pope Paul VI recognized his heroic virtues on February 1, 1975. He was beatified by Pope John Paul II, May 10, 1987. His feast is celebrated on February 2 by the Roman martyrology and on February 1 by the Church of Milan.
Bibliography. Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed./ a cura di Angelo Majo, 2. ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 280-284; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, IV, 57, 59, 60, 88, 92, 95-97, 104-119, 123-130, 132-138, 141-153, 156-160, 161-167, 169-172, 175-177; Ponzini, Giuseppe. Il cardinale A.C. Ferrari a Milano 1894-1921. Fondamenti e linee del suo ministero episcopale. Milano : Istituto propaganda libraria, 1981; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, pp. 37. 46, 219, 294 and 376; Snider, Carlo. L'episcopato del cardinale Andrea C. Ferrari. 2 v. Vicenza : Neri Pozza Editore, 1981. (Fontes ambrosiani). Volume I: Gli ultimi anni dell'Ottocento 1891-1903; Volume II: I tempi di Pio X.
Webgraphy. Biography by Giuseppe Pignatelli, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 46 (1996), Treccani; biography, in Italian, Parrocchia del Beato Cardinal Ferrari - Legnano - MI - Italy; biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge; portrait, statue and biography, in Italian, Santi e beati; his statue, photograph and funeral, Idle Speculations; portraits, photograph, engraivings and arms, Araldica Vaticana; his body in a glass urn in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.
(1) When Cardinal Pietro Maffi of Pisa, receiving a false report on Cardinal Andrea Ferrari’s death, telegraphed his condolences to the vicar general of Milan, Monsignor Giovanni Rossi, the communication was mistakenly given to Cardinal Ferrari’s secretary, also named Giovanni Rossi, who absentmindedly passed it on to the dying cardinal. Cardinal Ferrari telegraphed a response: “Eminence, am very grateful for the condolences that, with extraordinary solicitude, you were so kind to send to the Cathedral Chapter for my death. However, the Lord has not yet deigned to call me to the embrace of His arms. Awaiting that to happen, I commend myself to your prayers. With friendship forever, Ferrari.”0
Birth. August 31, 1836, Poggio Ginolfo, diocese of Marsi. Of a noble and rich family.
Education. Studied at the Jesuit school of Tivoli; at the Roman Seminary, where he obtaned a doctorate in theology; and at La Sapienza University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in law.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1860. Professor of dogma, Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of S. Apollinare, Rome, 1869. Minutant of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide and later, divisional director of Oriental affairs. Canonist of the Apostolic Penitentiary and canon of the chapter of Santa Maria in Trastevere, 1881. Under-secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, November 19, 1881. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1884. Auditor of the nunciature in Spain, 1884; chargé d'affaires, 1887. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 13, 1888. Regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary, November 14, 1888. Secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, July 13, 1891. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, 1893. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, June 20, 1893.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 18, 1894; received red hat and deaconry of S. Maria in Portico Campitelli, May 21, 1894. Archivist of the Apostolic See, July 4, 1896. Deputy of the patriarchal basilica of S. Francis of Assisi, July 9, 1900. Participated in the conclave of 1903, which elected Pope Pius X. Cardinal protodeacon. Prefect of the S.C. of the Index, January 13, 1908 until his death.
Death. January 4, 1911, Rome. Buried in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, pp. 163-165.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. X: Reutsch - Son, 335-336; his engraiving, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
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