Birth. November 29, 1860, Viterbo, Papal State. Son of Francesco La Fontaine, a watchmaker of Genevan origin that had been a soldier in the papal guard, and Maria Bianchini, who was the daughter of the administrator general of the properties of the princes Doria Pamphili Landi.
Education. After an initial period of private studies, he attended the Seminary of Viterbo.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1883, Viterbo, by Giovanni Battista Paolucci, archbishop-bishop of Viterbo. Successively, 1883-1905, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Viterbo; professor of literature and later of Sacred Scripture, law and ecclesiastical history of its seminary, 1882-1905; its spiritual director, 1893; its rector, 1896; apostolic missionary; and canon of the cathedral chapter from January 22, 1906. The Ministry of the Interior named him chaplain and teacher at the jail of Gradi on July 8, 1906.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Cassano all'Ionio, with dispensation of degree, December 6, 1906. Consecrated, December 23, 1906, chapel of Collegio Capranica, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Antonio Maria Grasselli, O.F.M.Conv., archbishop-bishop of Viterbo e Tuscania, and by Raffaele Virili, titular bishop of Troas. Apostolic visitor to the seminaries of the regions of Benevento and Liguria; and to the seminaries of Massa Marittima, Pisa, Volterra, Malta and Gozo, from 1907 to 1909; he emphasized, in the fight against the innovators, a measured attitude, free from the emphasis that characterized Pope Pius X and the staff of the Curia ideologically closer to him. Vicar of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, 1908. Consultor of the Commission for the Codification of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of S. Marco e Brisignano, January 16, 1909. Transferred to the titular see of Caristo, April 1, 1910. Secretary of the S.C. of Rites and vicar of the archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, April 2, 1910. Participated in the liturgical reform desired by Pope Pius X and especially in the reform of the Breviary. Promoted to patriarchate of Venice, March 5, 1915.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, December 7, 1916. Opted for the title of Ss. XII Apostoli, March 7, 1921. Member of the Congregation of the Oriental Church. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations of Dante, Ravenna, September 13, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the Provincial Council of Venice, July 15, 1923; to the Eucharistic Congress of Chioggia, September 15, 1923; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Ancona, May 4, 1927; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Vienna, Austria, August 30, l933.
Death. July 9, 1935, Villa Fietta, see of the Minor Seminary of Venice, Paderno del Grappa, Treviso. The funeral took place on the following July 12 in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of S. Marco in Venice with the attendance of four archbishops, twelve bishops, the prefect, the major, senators and deputies of the province. Buried, crypt of the Votive Temple of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Lido, Venice. The chapel, built by him, is amid the tombs of the Italian soldiers killed in Piave. The tomb had the inscription Petrus cardinalis La Fontaine, Venetiarum Patriarca, ad pedes Dominae Suae written by him. Transferred to the patriarchal cathedral of Venice and buried on July 8, 1959 in the sarcophagus once intended for the remains of Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, who had by then become Pope John XXIII.
Beatification. The diocesan informative process for the cause of beatification was opened by Cardinal Giovanni Urbani, patriarch of Venice (1958-1969).
Bibliography. Camozzo, Ugo. Il cardinale Pietro La Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia. 4a ed. riveduta. Venezia : Studium cattolico veneziano, 1961. (Collana biografica, 2); "Em. La Fontaine (Pierre), patr. de Venise" in "Nècrologe, Cardinaux", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, p. 930; La Fontaine, Pietro. Il servo di Dio, Card. Pietro la Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia, e il suo seminario: lettere ai superiori; ai seminaristi, al popolo. Venezia : Studium cattolico veneziano, 1963. (Studium cattolico veneziano. Collana storica, n.5 ; Variation: Studium cattolico veneziano; Collana storica, n.5); Musolino, Giovanni. Pietro La Fontaine : patriarca di Venezia; (1915 - 1935). Venezia : Ed. Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1988; Niero, A. I patriarchi di Venezia. Da Lorenzo Giustiniani ai nostri giorni. Venice : Studium Cattolico Veneziano, 1961. (Collana Storica, 3), pp. 207-213; Sparpaglione, Domenico. Il Cardinale Pietro La Fontaine, patriarca di Venezia. Alba : Edizioni Paoline, 1951.
Webgraphy. Biography by Giovanni Vian, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 63 (2004), Treccani; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. July 14, 1857, at the Ranuzzi Palace of Via S. Stefano, Bologna, Italy, of a noble family. He was the first child of Gian Carlo Ranuzzi and Cesarina de' Bianchi dei Conti di Piano. Received the sacrament of confirmation in 1865.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bologna; and at the Theological College of Bologna, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in July 1882. He also earned a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law in April 1886.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 14, 1880, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, archbishop of Bologna, for the archdiocese of Bologna. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Bologna, faculty member of its seminary; spiritual director, 1894-1899. Honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Bologna, 1885. Primicerius of its cathedral canon chapter, 1892. Counselor of the nunciature in France, September 13, 1899. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1899.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Loreto and Recanati, June 22, 1903. Consecrated, July 12, 1903, chapel of the Nobili Oblate in Tor de' Specchi, Rome, by Cardinal Pietro Respighi, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giuseppe Constantini, titular archbishop of Patrasso, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Rafael Merry del Val, titular archbishop of Nicea, provisional secretary of the S.C. Consistorial. Promoted to titular archbishop of Tiro, November 27, 1911. Master of the Papal Chamber, November 30, 1911. Papal Majordome, September 7, 1914.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 7, 1916. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. On September 10, 1922, he and Cardinal Giovanni Tacci became the first cardinals to fly; boarding a Caproni machine flown by Colonel Armando Armani, they went to Loreto in order to attend a meeting in honor of Our Lady of Loreto, patroness of aviators. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, March 30, 1925 until June 21, 1926.
Death. February 16, 1927, Rome. His funeral mass was celebrated in the basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere; and upon arriving in Bologna, was blessed again at the metropolitan cathedral of S. Pietro. Buried in the tomb of his family in the Carthusian cemetery in Bologna. The tomb is located at the Chiostro IX, Braccio di Ponente.
Webgraphy. His photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. November 12 (1), 1856, Montefranco, archdiocese of Spoleto, Italy. Of a notable family. Son of Agostino Donato Flavio Sbarretti, a landowner, and Caterina Tazza. Nephew of Cardinal Enea Sbarretti (1877).
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Spoleto (classics); and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary "S. Apollinare", where he earned doctorates in theology and in utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1879, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valetta. Successively, from 1879 to 1893, further studies in Rome; pastoral ministry in Spoleto; minutante of the S.C. of Propaganda Fide, section of affairs of the Americas; professor of moral theology and canon law at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", from 1885; and staff member of the Secretariat of State. Canon of the chapter of the church of S. Maria ad Martyres, the Pantheon, Rome, 1893. Auditor in the apostolic delegation in United States, 1893-1900. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, November 11, 1895.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Cristóbal de La Habana, Cuba, January 9, 1900. Consecrated, February 4, 1900, Washington, by Sebastiano Martinelli, O.S.A., titular archbishop of Efeso, apostolic delegate in United States, assisted by Alfred Allen Paul Curtis, titular bishop of Echino, former bishop of Wilmington, and by John James Joseph Monaghan, bishop of Wilmington. His episcopal motto was Respice stellam voca Mariam. Promoted to titular archbishop of Gortina, September 16, 1901. Transferred to titular see of Efeso, December 16, 1901. Apostolic delegate extraordinary in the Philippines to negotiate the solution of the schismatic Iglesia Filipina Independiente of Fr. Gregorio Aglipay, February 15, 1902. The American government, wishing to negotiate the problems of the local church directly with the Holy See (which it did with the mission of William Howard Taft in 1902), declared him persona non grata and he never went to Manila. Apostolic delegate in Canada, December 26, 1902; he arrived in Ottawa in January 1903; travelled to Europe from September 1906 to June 1907; named also apostolic delegate to Terranove at the beginning of 1910. Left for Rome on April 7, 1910 to present the decrees of the First Plenary Council of Québec (2); never returned to Canada; submitted his official resignation on November 3, 1910. Secretary of S.C. of Religious, October 29, 1910. Assessor of the Supreme S.C. of Holy Office, June 8, 1914.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Silvestro in Capite, December 7, 1916. Prefect of the S.C. of Council, March 28, 1919 to July 4, 1930. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 21, 1926 until June 20, 1927. Papal legate to the Plenary Council of Povilles, Molfetta, Italy, April 5, 1928; to the Plenary Council of Loreto, Italy, August 15, 1928. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Sabina e Poggio Mirteto, December 17, 1928. Secretary of the Supreme S.C. of the Holy Office, July 4, 1930 until his death. Vice-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, December 16, 1935. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.
Death. April 1, 1939, suffered a heart attack during the night; he was found dead in his bed in the morning by his servant, who went to awaken him, at the palace of the Holy Office, in Rome. Buried, temporarily in the cemetery church, Montefranco; later, according to his will, transferred to its parish church.
Bibliography. Code, Joseph Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Publishers Joseph Wagner, Inc., 1964, p. 437; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chornologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 254-257; Re, Niccolò del. "I cardinali prefetti della Sacra Congregazione del Concilio dalle origini ad oggi (1564-1964)." Apollinaris, XXXVII (1964), pp. 143-144.
Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish Episcopologio de la Iglesia Católica en Cuba; and his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Code, Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964), p. 437, and LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographiques des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 254. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 202, indicates that he was born on November 10, 1856.
(2) He convoked the council on May 2, 1909 and presided over its sessions that were held from September 10 to November 1, 1909; 40 members, 124 theologians and several counselors took part; 688 decrees were issued by the council; they were promulgated on April 25, 1925 by Apostolic Delegate Pellegrino Francesco Stagni, O.S.M.
Birth. September 30 (1), 1842, Loguivy-Plogras, diocese of Saint-Brieuc, France.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Saint-Brieuc.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1866, Saint-Brieuc. Successively, 1866-1893, faculty member of the the Minor Seminary of Saint-Brieuc; secretary of the episcopal curia; vicar general; and vicar capitular.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Moulins, January 19, 1893. Consecrated, April 16, 1893, cathedral of Saint-Brieuc, by Pierre-Frédéric Fallières, bishop of Saint-Brieuc, assisted by François Trégaro, bishop of Sées, and by Étienne-Marie Potro, O.F.M., bishop of Gerico. His episcopal motto was Per Matren ad Cor Filii. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Rennes, August 6, 1906.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Balbina, December 7, 1916.
Death. September 22, 1921, Rennes. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 273-274; Ritzler, Remigium, and Pirminum Sefrin. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen VIII (1846-1903). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 1979, p. 390; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17, 21 and 317.
Link. His portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 390. Other sources indicate that he was born on October 1, 1842.
Birth. September 1, 1856, Saint-Calais, diocese of Le Mans, France. Second of the six children of Louis Dubois and his wife. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 9, 1866.
Education. Studied at Collège Ecclésiastique de Notre Dame, Saint Calais (there, he was called Ernest to avoid confusion with his father); at the Minor Seminary of Précigne, Précigne; then, entered the Major Seminary of Le Mans, Le Mans (situated in the abbey of Saint-Vincent), in October 1874. He witnessed the invasion of his native city by the Prussian army during the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1879, chapel of the Major Seminary of Le Mans, by Hector-Albert Chaulet d'Outremont, bishop of Le Mans. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Le Mans, 1879-1898; vicar in two parishes: Brulon, 1879-1895; Coture, 1885-1895; editor of Semaine du fidèle, bulletin of the diocese of Le Mans, 1888. Founder, with Frs. Ledru and Bruneau, of the review Union historique du Maine (later named La Province du Maine), Le Mans, 1893. Pastor of the parish of Saint-Benoit, July 1895; he was the originator of the parochial bulletins, founding the Indicateur Parossial in his parish. Honorary canon of Le Mans, 1895. Vicar general of the diocese of Le Mans, 1898-1901. He was named bishop of Verdun on April 5, 1901, by a decree of President Émile François Loubet; at the moment, he was the youngest bishop of France. He published several works in history art and archeology (1).
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Verdun, with dispensation of degree, April 18, 1901. Consecrated, July 2, 1901, cathedral of Le Mans, by Marie-Prosper-Adolphe de Bonfils, bishop of Le Mans, assisted by Étienne-Marie Potron, O.F.M., titular bishop of Gerico, and by Charles Joseph Gilbert, titular bishop of Arsinoe, former bishop of Le Mans. His episcopal motto was Regnavit a ligno Deus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bourges, November 30, 1909. He took an active part in helping the soldiers and their families during the First World War; he founded the Union Sacrée, which organized special prayers of the children whose parents had gone to battle. Transferred to metropolitan see of Rouen, March 13, 1916; the see carries the title of primate of Normandy.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Aquiro, deaconry elevated pro illa vice to title, December 7, 1916. He headed a religious mission of the French government to Palestine, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Smyrne, Arhens, Constantinople and the Balkan countries from December 14, 1919 until March 24, 1920, to assure those areas the religious impartiality of France after the victory in the First World War (2). Transferred to the metropolitan see of Paris, December 13, 1920. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. He traveled to Poland in June 1924; to the United States of America and Canada in June 1927; to Austria in October 1928; and to Czechoslovakia in September 1929. Papal legate to the National Marian Congress, Chartres, May 18, 1926. For three years, from September 1926 until his death, he actively opposed the rebellious ways of Action Françise. He played a leading role in the necessary adjustments following the separation of Church and State in France. He was commander of the Legion d'honneur.
Death. Monday September 23, 1929, at 5:20 p.m., clinic of the Frères de Saint-Jean de Dieu, Paris, just after Nuncio Bonaventura Cerretti arrived. He was exposed at the metropolitan cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris for five days. Cardinal Alexis Charost, archbishop of Rennes, celebrated the funeral in the presence of representatives of the national and local authorities, seventy-five archbishops, bishops, patriarchs, archimandrites and mitered abbots from France and foreign countries, and the clergy and faithful of Paris. Buried in the crypt of that cathedral. His memorial jascent figure is in the south-east corner of the ambulatory to the left of the memorial tablet of Cardinal Jean Verdier, P.S.S. (3)
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 271-272; Odolin, Henri-Louis. Le Cardinal Dubois, 1856-1929: souvenirs. Paris: J. de Gigord, 1931; Florisoone, Michel. Le Cardinal Dubois. Paris: Librairie Blois et Gay, 1929.
Webgraphy. Biography, in French, archdiocese of Bourges; photographs, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) Among them are Charles Morancé, aumónier du 33e mobiles du 4e Corps d'armeé; M. Richard, chanoine de la cathédrale du Mans; Le chanoine Livet, curé de Notre-Dame du Pré au Mans; L'église Notre-Dame de la Couture au Mans, la nef et la façade occidentale; Les tableaux de la Couture; Les vitraux de la cathédrale du Mans; Le prieuré du cháteaux l'Hermitage pendant la Révolution; Vernie; Les imitations du Sanit-Sépulcre de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ; and Les compoisonneurs de fontaines.
(2) The mission was composed, besides the cardinal, of Gabriel de Llobet, bishop of Gap; Georges-François-Xavier-Marie Grente, bishop of Le Mans; M. Lobry, provincial superior of the Lazzarists in Constantinople; Fr. Berré from Mossul; Canon Delabar; and Abbot Marquet.
(3) This is the text of the inscription in his memorial, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London, England:
Birth. January 19, 1863, Boscomarengo, diocese of Alessandria, Italy.
Education, Entered the Order of Preachers, September 15, 1879, ath the Dominican convent in Chieri; changed his baptismal name Pio to Tommaso; later, he studied at the Theological Faculty of Graz, Austria.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1885, Graz. Missionary work in Constantinople. Prior of the Dominican convent, Ragusa, 1891. Regent of the Philosophical College of Graz, 1898. Pastor of the parish of S. Maria di Castello, Genoa, 1900. Faculty member of the Seminary of Genoa. Apostolic visitor to twenty-three dioceses of Northern Italy. Apostolic administrator of Adria, 1908.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Adria e Rovigo, Italy, October 31, 1908. Consecrated, November 22, 1908, church of the house of recovery of the English Sisters in Monte Celio, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Domenico Marengo, O.P., archbishop of Smirna, and by Giuseppe Capecci, O.S.A., bishop of Alessandria della Paglia. His episcopal motto was Pax fratribus et charitas cum fide. Promoted to titular archbishop of Edessa di Osröene, January 9, 1912. Named apostolic delegate in México, January 10, 1912. Apostolic administrator of archdiocese of Genoa, March 7, 1914. Assessor of the S.C. Consistorial and secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 7, 1914. Secretary of conclave of 1914, which elected Pope Benedict XV.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Quirico e Giulitta, December 7, 1916. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, March 10, 1919. Resigned pastoral government of the archdiocese, 1921. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, June 20, 1927 until December 17, 1928. Papal legate to the Ninth National Eucharistic Congress, Bologna, August 15, 1927. Opted for the order of cardinal bishops and the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina, July 15, 1929. Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, March 13, 1933 until his death; on that same day received in commendam the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, a title assigned to the post of chancellor since 1532. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.
Death. February 26, 1942, Rome. Buried in the parish church of Boscomarengo.
Webgraphy. Biography by Mario Bendiscioli, in Italian, Enciclopedia Italiana - II Appendice (1948), Treccani; his photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. October 22, 1872, Casalnuovo, archdiocese of Naples, Italy. He spent his infancy in Umbria.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Spoleto.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 8, 1895, Spoleto. Joined the Congregation of the Most Precious Blood, an association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats. Pastoral ministry, Spoleto, 1895-1909: pastor of the parish of Montemurano and for several years its economous. Prior pastor in Collegio S. Bartolomeo, in the city of Montefalco, and vicar foraneus.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Muro Lucano, April 29, 1909. Consecrated. August 8, 1909, church of S. Chiara, Montefalco, by Domenico Serafini, O.S.B., archbishop of Spoleto, assisted by Giovanni Grazziani, bishop of Todi, and by Ercolano Marini, bishop of Norcia. His episcopal motto was Ut ad Deum ascendam. Transferred to see of Sant'Agata dei Goti, June 19, 1911. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Benevento, December 9, 1915.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of S. Callisto, December 7, 1916. Apostolic administrator of Lucera, December 8, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, March 7, 1924. Papal legate to the consecration of cathedral of Siracusa, Sicily, December 26, 1926; to the Eucharistic Congress of Calabria, Reggio, August 10, 1928; to the consecration of cathedral of Messina, Sicily, July 18, 1929; to the Plenary Council of Campagna, Naples, September 4, 1932; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Catanzaro, October 9, 1933; to the Regional Eucharistic Congress, Reggio Calabria, March 10, 1934. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII.
Death. Sunday May 11, 1952, at 12:55 a.m., Naples. The funeral took place on the following Tuesday May 13, at 10 a.m., in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples; the mass was celebrated by Alfonso Castaldo, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, coadjutor of Naples, assisted by the metropolitan cathedral chapter. Buried in the ipogeo reserved for the bishops in the metropolitan cathedral of Naples. Later, his remains were transferred to the basilica dell'Incoronata Madre del Buon Consiglio, Capodimonte. A Neapolitan hospital and the Major Archiepiscopal Seminary of the city bear the name of Cardinal Ascalesi.
Webgraphy. His photograph, Primi Giuseppini, Parrocchia della Sacra famiglia, Naples; and three photographs and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. February 15, 1859, La Ciotat, diocese of Marseille, France.
Education. Studied at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, April 8, 1882, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Marseille, 1882-1911: professor in the Institute Belzunce; pastor of de la Destrousse, 1885; vicar in the church of Saint-Vincent de Paul, 1887; almoner of the lyceum of Marseille, 1890; pastor of Saint'Anna, 1895; pastor of Sainte-Margot, 1899; pastor of Saint-Michel, 1905; pastor of Saint-Charles and vicar general, 1906; rector of the shrine of Notre-Dame de la Garde, 1909.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Grenoble, September 1, 1911. Consecrated, October 24, 1911, cathedral of Marseille, by Cardinal Pierre-Paulin Andrieu, archbishop of Bordeaux, assisted by Joseph Fabre, bishop of Marseille, and by Dominique Castellan, bishop of Digne. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, December 1, 1916. Took possession of the see the following December 20; enthroned on January 25, 1917.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the title of Ss.ma Trinità al Monte Pincio, December 7, 1916. Member of the SS. CC. of the Council, Propaganda Fide, Rites and Ceremonial, December 7, 1916. Received the pallium from the pope on December 12, 1916. Apostolic administrator of Langres, November 26, 1918 to April 27, 1919; took possession by procurator on December 10, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Papal legate to the consecration of Saint-Martin's basilica, Tours, July 4, 1925.
Death. November 16, 1936, he was found dead in his bead, in Lyon. His death came as a shock because the the day before he appeared in perfect health during a visit to Saint-Étienne. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Lyon.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 411-412; "Em. Maurin (Louis-Joseph) in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1936. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1935, p. 104-105.
Link. Photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. March 14, 1859, Hildesheim, Lower Saxony, Germany. Son of Franz Bertram, a merchant, and Karoline Müller. His baptismal name was Adolf Johannes. Received the sacrament of confirmation, May 20, 1872.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hildesheim; at the University of Münich, from 1879 to 1880; at the University of Innsbruck in 1881-1881; at the University of Würzburg,where he earned a doctorate in theology on June 23, 1883; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law on June 30, 1884. Received the insignias of the clerical character on November 14, 1880; the minor orders on February 27, 1881; the subdiaconate on April 24, 1881; and the diaconate on April 26, 1881. Pope Leo XIII's Harmoniemodell, a model of harmony, served as the basis for Bertram's own approach to church-state relations. This model proposed compromise instead of confrontation to preserve social order and peace. He adapted himself to the changes from monarchy to parliamentary democracy to dictatorial regime, even if he held strong reservations. He was hostile to democracy like many other Church leaders of the time but recognized the inevitability of its coming, and he rejected much of the Nazi ideology despite his endorsement of Hitler as the legitimate head of state.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1881, Würzburg. Further studies, 1881-1884. Chaplain of the Teutonic College of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, 1881-1884. Pastoral ministry in Hildesheim, 1884-1905. Collaborator in the affairs of the episcopal curia and the vicariate general, 1884-1889; librarian of the cathedral, 1886; assessor of the vicariate general, 1889; vicar of the cathedral, 1893; canon of its cathedral chapter, 1894; counselor of the episcopal curia, 1898. Vicar general of Hildesheim, February 15, 1905; vicar capitular, December 19, 1905.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hildesheim by its chapter, April 26, 1906 (1); received papal confirmation, June 12, 1906. Consecrated, August 15, 1906, Hildesheim, by Cardinal Georg Kopp, prince-bishop of Breslau, assisted by Hubert Voss, bishop of Osnabrück, and by Wilhelm Schneider, bishop of Paderborn. His episcopal motto was Veritati et caritati. Elected bishop of Breslau by its cathedral chapter, May 27, 1914 (2); confirmed by the pope, September 8, 1914. Member of Prussian Chamber of Lords, 1916.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest and reserved in pectore, December 4, 1916; published, December 5, 1919; received the red hat and the title of S. Agnese fuori le mura, December 18, 1919. Chairman of the Fulda Conference of Catholic Bishops, 1920-1945. In 1920, during the Upper Silesian vote struggle, he forbade the clergy from participating in any political agitation, which caused the hostility of the Polish nationalists. During the rule of National Socialism, he had a tough time because he defended the right of Polish-speaking Catholics on teaching and preaching in the native language. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Promoted to archbishop when Breslau was elevated to metropolitan see, August 13, 1930. Together with Bishop Clemens von Galen of Münster, Bishop Konrad von Preysing of Berlin, Cardinal Karl Joseph Schulte of Cologne, and Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber of Munich, he challenged the Nazism for its racist and anti-Christian policies. On January 16, 1937, the secretary of State of the Holy See, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, future Pope Pius XII, held a secret meeting in Rome. Present were Cardinals Schulte, Bertram, and Faulhaber, as well as Bishops von Preysing and von Galen. In the presence of the pope the prelates discussed the fifty-five communications, written in German, that were sent by the secretary of State to the German government between the years 1933 and 1936. They asked the pope to formally condemn Nazism, and the pope decided to publish an encyclical, Mit brennender Sorge, that did so in strong and no uncertain terms. Inexplicably, Cardinal Bertram maintained a steadfast enthusiasm for Adolf Hitler after the signing of the 1933 Concordat and sent him personal birthday greetings every year. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. In spite of rumors, Cardinal Bertram never organized a requiem mass because of the death of Adolf Hitler. He was criticized as vigorously as he was defended.
Death. July 6, 1945, Johannesberg Castle in Jauernig (summer residence), then Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic. Buried in the cemetery of Jauernig, in a double grave alongside Prince Bishop Franz Joseph Christian of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (+ 1817). His remains were transferred to the metropolitan cathedral of Wrocław on November 9, 1991 (3).
Bibliography. Bertram, Adolf. Cardinal Bertram und die Alkoholfrage. Heidhausen-Ruhr : Hoheneckverlag, 1927. (Beiträge zur Alkoholfrage, 1); Bertram, Adolf ; Kaps, Johannes. Erinnerungen an Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Fürsterzbischof von Breslau. München : Selbstverl. d. Hrsg., 1948; Bertram, Adolf. Kardinal Erzbischof Bertram 75 Jahre : [Festschrift].Gleiwitz : Oberschles. Volksstimme, 1934. Note : Bildet Beil. zu: Oberschles. Volksstimme. 1934, 14. März; Brzoska, Emil : Bertram, Adolf. Ein Tedeum für Kardinal Bertram : Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Vorsitzender der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz, im Bündnis mit dem Heiligen Stuhl während des Kirchenkampfes 1933-1945. Köln : Wienand, 1981. Contents : Gegenbild zu Klaus Scholders "Ein Requiem für Hitler" -- Antwort auf Oskar Simmels Frage "Widerliche Kriecherei?" -- Bemerkungen zu "Katholische Kirche und NS Staat, aus der Vergangenheit lernen?"; Engelbert, Kurt. Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Fürsterzbischof von Breslau (1914-1945). Hildesheim : A. Lax, 1949. (Unsere Diözese in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart; Mitteilungen des Vereins für Heimatkunde im Bistum Hildesheim ; 1. Hft. des Jahrgs. 1949); Hinkel, Sascha. Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Kirchenpolitik im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2010. (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte ; 117; Verüffentlichungen der Kommission für Zeitgeschichte / B ; 117); Hoffmann, Hermann. Adolf Kardinal Bertram, Erzbischof v. Breslau : Ein Lebensbild. Hindenburg : Smaczny, 1937; Kardynal Bertram a polskosc Slaska Opolskiego. Redaktor, Waclaw Sobanski. 2 vols. Poznan : Wydawn. Zachodnie, 1959. (Swiadectwa niemieckie ; zesz. 5). Note : V. 2 - Aneks: Oryginalne teksty niemieckie; Kardinal Bertram, Erzbischof von Breslau. Ansprachen Sr. Eminenz und Beiträge. Edited by Paul Hadrossek. Augsburg : Overschlesischer Heimatverlag, 1959. (Veröffentlichung der Oberschlesischen Studienhilfe e.V., Augsburg, 5; Variation: Oberschlesische Studienhilfe ; Veröffentlichungen, 5); Kozlowski, Nina ; Stasiewski, Bernhard. Es geschah vor 40 jahren : zum Gedenken an den Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto (1943) und den Tod Kardinal Bertrams (1945). Eichstätt : Universitätsbibliothek, 1985. (Schriften der Universitätsbibliothek Eichstätt, v.6); Rolfs, Richard William. The role of Adolf Cardinal Bertram, chairman of the Fulda Bishops' Conference, in the church's struggle in the Third Reich, 1933-1938. Dissertation: Thesis--University of California, Santa Barbara, 1976; Rösgen, Hans Jürgen ; Bertram, Adolf. Ecclesia et res publica : Aufsätze und Dokumente zum 50. Todestag von Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Köln : D. Nix, 1995. (Zeitgeiststudien ; Bd. 8); Sauer, Albert. Zum Gedenken an Adolf Kardinal Bertram mit einem Geleitwort. Limburg a.d. Lahn : Königsteiner Rufe, 1950; Stasiewski, Bernhard. Adolf Kardinal Bertram : sein Leben und Wirken auf dem Hintergrund der Geschichte seiner Zeit. Köln : Bohlau Verlag, 1992-1994. (Forschungen und Quellen zur Kirchen- und Kulturgeschichte Ostdeutschlands, Bd. 24) Contents : T. 1. Beiträge -- T. 2. Schrifttum; Stasiewski, Berbhard. Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1785/1803 bis 1945 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 1983, pp. 43-47; Targ, Alojzy. Cardinal Bertram and the polishness of opole Silesia. Poznan : Wydawnictwo Zachodnie, 1960. (German testimonies ; pamphlet 5).
Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography by Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; photographs, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in French; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Kardinal Bertram � die Seele Schlesiens, by Damian Spielvogel, in German, Landsmannschaft Schlesien; Review of Sascha Hinkel, Adolf Kardinal Bertram. Kirchenpolitik im Kaiserreich und in der Weimarer Republik by Lauren N. Faulkner, in Reviews, Contemporary Church History Quarterly, Volume 18 Number 3 (September 2012).
(1) Received six of the seven votes of the chapter.
(2) Received fifteen of the eighteen votes of the chapter.
(3) Under the terms of the Postdam Conference celebrated from July 16 to August 2, 1945, Breslau became part of Poland under the name of Wrocław.
Birth. August 20, 1843, Rome, Papal States. Son of Emanuele Marini (descendent of an ancient family related to the Salviucci, who for several decades directed the typography of the Apostolic Chamber) and Adelaide Fabbroni. Probably nephew of Cardinal Pietro Marini (1846).
Education. Studied at Collegio Capranica, Rome, where he manifested a special predilection the Greek language and the study of the Classica; then, he attended Collegio Romano, obtaining doctorates in philosophy 1862; and in theology in 1866; after his priestly ordination, he attended La Sapienza University, Rome, obtaining a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, on June 25, 1870.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 26, 1866, Rome. Further studies in Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome; founder of the Catholic daily Il buon senso; work with the Catholic Action founding the feminine circle "Gaetana Agnesi". Vicar general of Cardinal Luigi Oreglia di Santo Stefano in the abbey of Ss. Vicenzo ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane. Official of the S.C. Consistorial, 1878. Privy chamberlain de numero participante, July 20, 1881. Ablegato to deliver the red biretta to the new Cardinal Joaquín Lluch Garriga, archbishop of Sevilla, March 27, 1882. Canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica. Attaché in the nunciature in Spain, 1882-1889. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, July 11, 1889. Substitute of the Secretariat of Briefs, March 18, 1892. Domestic prelate of His Holiness and Apostolic protonotary ad instar participantium March 20, 1892. Very active in favor of the Christian Orient and the union with the Orthodox churches. Founder of the journals Il Bessarione, 1896 and Il Crisostomo, 1900. In pursuit of his effort toward the union with the Orthodox churches, traveled to the Holy Land, Egypt, Greece and North Africa. Consultor of the S.C. of Studies, October 10, 1902. Secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, October 20, 1908. Consultor of the Biblical Commission, 1911. Consultor of the Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, March 9, 1912. Consultor of the liturgical section of the S.C. of Rites, March 26, 1914. Uditore Santissimo, June 28, 1915. Commander of the Order of Queen Isabel of Spain. Commander of the Order of the Crown of Prussia. Officer of Légion d'Honor, France; Commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, with plaque.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Domnica, December 7, 1916. He was named member of the SS. CC. Propaganda Fide, Rites of Propaganda Fide for the Oriental Church and Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica on December 7, 1916; and of the Oriental Curch on November 29, 1917. The journal II Bessarione published a special issue in homage to its founder and director for his promotion to the cardinalate. Member of the Cardinalitial Commission of Historical Studies on January 4, 1917. Secretary of the S.C. for the Oriental Church, November 29, 1917; resigned the secretariat because of advanced age and poor health, 1922. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Protector and visitor of all the Oriental Institutes of Rome, July 28, 1922.
Death. Friday July 27, 1923, at 1 a.m., of an acute enterocolitis, in his apartment in Palazzo Brancaccio, in Rome, after receiving the sacraments of the Church and pronouncing the name of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Shortly before his death, the pope had sent him his blessing. On the following Sunday July 29 at 6:15 p.m., the body was transferred privately to the Carmelite parish church of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti. The obsequies, celebrated in that church on Monday July 30, at 10 a.m., were presided by Giuseppe Palica, titular archbishop of Filippi, vice-gerent of Rome. The final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli, bishop of Ostia and Palestrina, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Buried the tomb of the Salviucci family in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. -A sua Eminenza Niccolò Marini creato cardinale ... riverente e affettuoso
omaggio dei collaboratori de periodico Il Bessarione da lui fondato e diretto per facilitare l'unione delle chiese. Roma : Il
-"Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1922, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1921, p. 75;
-Del Re, Niccolò. "Niccolò Marini" in La Sacra Congregazione per le Chiese Orientali. Nel cinquantesimo della fondazione (1917-1967). Grottaferrata, Roma : Tipografia Italo-Orientale "San Nilo", 1969, p. 82-83;
-Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684;
-De Camillis, Mario. "Marini, Niccolò", Enciclopedia Cattolica. 12 vols. Vatican City: Ente per l'Enciclopedia Cattolica e per il Libro Cattolico, 1948-1952. Vol. VIII, col. 159-160;
-"Em. MARINI (Niccolo) in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1922. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1921, p. 94-95;
-"Em. MARINI (Nicolas), card.-diacre de Ste-Marie in Domnica" in "Necrologe", Annuaire Pontifical Catholique. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1924, p. 834;
-"Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1919. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1918, p. 98;
-Marini, Niccolò. L'azione diplomatica della S. Sede e il B. Niccolò Albergati vescovo e cardinale. Con appendice. Roma : Tip. Vaticana, 1887;
-Marini, Niccolò. La Bibbia e l'Iiliade. Roma: Salviucci, 1900;
-Marini, Niccolò. Costante sollecitudine dei Romani Pontefici per l'unione delle chiese orientali dissidenti. Roma : P. Ist. Pio IX, 1916;
-Marini, Niccolò. Costantino magno e l'unione delle chiese. Roma : M. Bretschneider, 1914. Note Estratto dal "Bessarione";
-Marini, Niccolò. Discorso panegirico nella ven. chiesa di S. Maria in Portico in Campitelli per la solenne coronazione di quella prodigiosa icone. Roma : V. Salviucci, 1899;
-Marini, Niccolò. Discorso pronunziato nella prima solenne adunanza del XVI Congresso eucaristico internazionale tenutasi in Roma il dia 2 giugno 1905 nella basilica dei SS. Apostoli. Roma : V. Salviucci, 1905. Note Contiene riferimenti bibliografici in nota;
-Marini, Niccolò. Discorsi sacri. 2 v. Roma : tip della Pace di F. Cuggiani, 1901, 1906;
-Marini, Niccolò. Il divorzio al lume della ragione. Roma : F. Cuggiani, 1906;
-Marini, Niccolò. L'estetica dello Stabat Mater. Siena : Tip. ed. S. Bernardino, 1897;
-Marini, Niccolò. Giuseppe Verdi. Roma : Tip. F. Cuggiani, 1901;
-Marini, Niccolò. L'Immacolata Concezione di Maria Vergine e la chiesa greca ortodossa dissidente. Roma : V. Salviucci, 1908;
-Marini, Niccolò. Impressioni e ricordi di viaggi. Oriente. Roma : M. Bretschneider, 1913; -In memoria di Niccolò Marini Cardinale di S. Romana Chiesa nel primo anniversario della sua morte. Roma : Tipografia pontificia dell'Istituto Pio IX, 1924. Note Estratto da: il Bessarione : rivista di studi orientali;
-Marini, Niccolò. Una lezioncina di storia al sig. Diomede Cyriacos. Roma : Salviucci, 1902;
-Marini, Niccolò. La libertà. Roma : V. Salviucci, 1898;
-Marini, Niccolò. Le macchie apparenti nel grande luminare della Chiesa greca s. Giovanni Crisostomo. Saggio critico di Mons. Niccolò Marini. Roma : Tipografia V. Salviucci, 1910;
-Qattan, Basilyus. Omaggio a Sua Em. R.ma il cardinale Niccolò Marini per la sua assunzione alla dignità cardinalizia; poesia araba con traduzione libera italiana. Roma : Tip. pont. nell'Istituto Pio IX, 1917;
-Marini, Niccolò. Panegirico in onore del nome Ss.mo di Maria Vergine. Roma : [s.n.], 1901;
-Marini, Niccolò. Pietro Card. Marini, 1794-1863; reminiscenze di Mons. Niccolo Marini. Roma : V. Salviucci, 1841;
-Marini, Niccolò. Il primato di S. Pietro difeso dal prete Bizantino Pietro Atanasio il Retore (sec. XVII). Roma : Salviucci, 1899;
-Marini, Niccolò. Il primato di S. Pietro e dei soui successori in san Giovanni Crisostomo. Roma : Tip. pontificia nell'Istitutot Pio IX (Artigianelli s. Giuseppe), 1919;
-Marini, Niccolò. Il primato di S. Pietro e dei suoi successori in san Giovanni Crisostomo. 2nd ed. notabilmente accresciuta. Roma : Tipografica poliglotta vaticana, 1922. Note: Bibliografia in nota a fondo pagina;
-Marini, Niccolò. Le proemium de Didore de Sicile. Traduction de l'Italien par F. G. Paris : Victor Palme?, 1891;
-Marini, Niccolò. Sul proemio di Diodoro Siculo. French Title Le proemium de Diodore de Sicile / ètude de Mgr Nicolas Marini. 3d ed. rev. et augm. Rome : Imprimerie de la Paix de Ph. Cuggiani, 1900;
-Marini, Niccolò. Sul proemio di Diodoro Siculo. Osservazioni di Niccolò Marini. Siena : tip. s. Bernardino, 1890;
-Marini, Niccolò. Saggio di apologetica religiosa. Roma : Tip. della Pace di F. Cuggiani, 1901;
-Marini, Niccolò. Sanctissimo Nostro Benedicto PP. XV. VIII. Kal Augusti anno rep. sal. MCXV. Roma : Tip. artig. S. Giuseppe, 1915. Note: Lettera augurale in occasione dell'onomastico del Papa;
-Marini, Niccolò. Il valore scientifico delle moderne teorie intorno alle donna. Roma : Tipografia vaticana, 1887;
-L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, LXIII, n. 172 (July 28, 1923), p. 3; LXIII, n. 173 (July 29, 1923), p. 3; and LXIII, n. 174 (July 30, 1923);
-Palmieri, A. "In memoriam Nicolai Marini S.R.E. cardinalis", Bessarione, publicazione periodica di studi orientali, XVII (1923), III-XXVII;
-Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17 and 26;
-Weber, Christoph and Becker, Michael. Genealogien zur Papstgeschichte. 6 v. Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 1999-2002. (Päpste und Papsttum, Bd. 29, 1-6), V, 133.
Webgraphy. Biography by Carlo Fantappiè, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 70 (2007), Treccani; photographs amd arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. May 19, 1856, Valmontone, diocese of Segni, Papal State. He had an older brother, Erasmo. It is said that his last name derived from that of Zorzi.
Education. Studied at the Pontifical Roman Seminary.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1878, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Father. Giacomo della Chiesa, future cardinal and Pope Benedict XV. Faculty member of the Roman College, Rome, 1879-1891. Ascribed among the advocates of the Sacred Congregations, March 24, 1889. Substitute of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, December 30, 1891. Auditor of the S.C. of Bishops and Religious, December 24, 1896. Privy chamberlain supra numerum, February 9, 1897. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, 1903. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 8, 1903. Protonotary apostolic ad instar participantium, November 5, 1903. Consultor of the Pontifical Commission for the Codification of Canon Law, April 15, 1904. Canon of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, July 27, 1904. Later, canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica. President of the Commission for the Examination of the New Institutes in 1905. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Bishops and Religious, June 3, 1907. Regent of the Sacred Apostolic Penitentiary, February 9, 1908. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 11, 1908. Secretary of the S.C. of the Council, December 7, 1911. Consultor of the S.C. Consistorial, February 5, 1912.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 4, 1916; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Maria in Cosmedin, December 7, 1916. Took possession of his deaconry on January 7, 1917. Member of the SS. CC. of the Discipline of the Sacraments, Council, Religious (December 7, 1916), Index (December 7, 1916), Holy Office (April 5, 1918), Propaganda Fide (April 10, 1919), Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs (July 3, 1922), Oriental Church (July 16, 1922). Confraternity of Saint Michael Archangel ai Corridori of Rome (May 21, 1917); Archconfraternity of Saint Triphon in San Salvalore in Primicerio (June 16, 1917); Sister of the Cross of Sevilla, (November 12, 1918); Institute of the Poor, Bergamo (December 30, 1918); Philippine Oblates of Rome (April 22, 1919); Institute of Daughters of the Blessed Virgin (July 5, 1919); Congregation of the Poor Daughters of Saint Joseph Calasanz (July 30, 1919); Oblate of the Virgin Mary (November 19, 1919); Order of the Friars Minor (Franciscans) (April 24, 1920); Sisters of the Charity of the Immaculate Conception of Ivrea (May 11, 1920); Sisters of the Missions of Southwark (June 25, 1920); Tertiary Sisters of Saint Francis of Assisi and of the Immaculate Conception of Valencia (July 3, 1920); Annonciades in Villeneuve-sur-Lot (October 13, 1920); Sisters of the Immaculate Conception of the Third Franciscan Order of the diocese of Barcelona (November 13, 1920); Daughters of Mary of Gerona (December 15, 1920); Franciscan Tertiary Sisters of Buenos Aires (February 10, 1921); Archconfraternity of Saint Joseph dei Falegnami (March 15, 1921); Sisters of the Nativity of Notre-Dame of the Regular Third Order of Saint Francis of Barcelona (April 15, 1921); Franciscan Tertiary Missionaries of Córdoba (May 31, 1921); Pious Union for the Trespassed in Santa Barbara (November 6, 1921); Ursulines of the Roman Union (July 26, 1922); Daughters of Saint Mary of the Providence of Còme (August 21, 1922); Franciscan Tertiary of Charity of de Malta (September 14, 1922); Canossiennes Daughters of Charity of Verona (March 6, 1923); Sisters of the Purity of Mary of Palma de Mallorca (May 28, 1923); Servants of Jesus of Warsaw (September 23, 1923). Member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature (June 4, 1919). Member of the Pontifical Academy of Theology (May 10, 1920). Member of the Pontifical Commission for the Code of Canon Law (November 24, 1922). Grand Penitentiary, March 12, 1918. Participated in the conclave of 1922, which elected Pope Pius XI. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, May 25, 1923.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Ancira, April 26, 1924. Consecrated, April 27, 1924, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. He resigned the titular see after his consecration. Pontifical delegate to the church and monastery of S. Chiara, Naples, May 19, 1920. Papal legate for the consecration of two churches in the Holy Land, April 8, 1924. Resided in via della Maschera d'Oro, 20, Rome.
Death. December 30, 1924, of pneumonia, in his residence at Palazzo Altemps of Rome. Exposed in the church of S. Agostino, Rome, where the funeral took place on Saturday, January 3, 1925. Buried in the tomb of his family in the collegiate church of Santa Maria Assunta, Valmontone, beside the baptismal font. He was one of the conservators of that collegiate church. The state school "Istituto Comprensivo Cardinale Oreste Giorgi" of Valmontone was named after him.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 75; "Em. Giorgi (Oreste)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1924. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1924, p. 113; "Liste générale alphabétique des protonotaires apostoliques, prélates de Sa Santité, camériers secrets et d'honneur, d'honneur 'extra urbem', chapelains communs, secrets, d'honneur'extra urbem', et autres collèges prélatices." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1916. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1916, p. 688; Fioramonti, Stanislao. La porpora semplice. Vita del Cardinale Oreste Giorgi (1856-1924). Valmontone : Edizioni il Campanone, 1990; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 17-18 and 26.
Webgraphy. Photographs and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; A proposito del ritrato del Cardinal Orsete Giorgi tra le nuove acquisizioni del Museo Diocesano di Velletri by Stanislao Fioramonti, Ecclesia in cammino, Mensile a carattere divulgativo e ufficiale per gli atti della Curia, pastorale per la vita della Diocesi di Velletri-Segni, Anno 4 - numero 11 (35) - Novembre 2007, p. 34; Oreste Giorgi - InfoRapid Wissensportal, in German, Enzyklopädie Wikipedia; Cardinal Oreste Giorgi by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave.
Birth. February 17, 1868, Brünn, Moravia (now Brno, Czech Republic), Austrian Empire. Son of General Johann Karl Graf von Huyn. He is also listed as Paulus de Huyn; as Pavel Maria Josef Antonín, hrabě Huyn; and as Paul Graf Huyn.
Education. Studied t the Jesuit gymnazium in Karlsburku, near Vienna; then he went to study philosophy at Collegio Germanico in Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1889; finally, from 1889 until 1892, he studied at the University of Innsbruck, where he earned a doctorate in theology.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 7, 1892, in Innsbruck. From 1892 until 1898, he served at Collegio Germanico in Rome. In 1898, he returned to Brünn. Since 1898, he was chaplain at the castle of the counts of Des Fours-Walderode in Křetín, Letovice; then, in 1899, chaplain at Prosiměřice, Trstěnice; and finally, on October 29, 1901, pastor in Běhařovice, near Znojmo. Nominated to the episcopate by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary on April 17, 1904.
Episcopate. Confirmed by the pope bishop of Brünn, May 14, 1904. Consecrated, June 26, 1904, in the metropolitan cathedral of Olomouc, by František Saleský Bauer, archbishop of Olomouc, Moravia, assisted by Josef Doubrava, bishop of Königgrätz (Hrádec Kralové), and by Laurentius Mayer, titular bishop of Dioclea and auxiliary of Vienna. Published in the consistory of November 14, 1904. Enthroned on June 29, 1904. In 1906, he expanded the curriculum of the Brno Diocesan Studium to include sociology. He celebrated a diocesan synod in 1909, in which, to intensify the spiritual life in the diocese, he introduced new religious communities, especially the Redemptorists, Salvatorians, Carmelites, Oblates of the Virgin Mary and Most Holy Sacrament (Eucharistiány). In 1914, he contributed to the emergence of the Congregation of the Divine Heart of Jesus in Brünn. Presented by Emperor Francis Joseph I of Austria-Hungary for the see of Prague. Promoted by the pope to the metropolitan see of Prague, Bohemia, October 4, 1916; the see carried the title of prince; published in the consistory of December 7, 1916, when he was also granted the pallium; he left the diocese of Brünn on December 7, 1916; and was enthroned in the cathedral of St. Vitus in Prague, the see of St. Adalbert, on December 8, 1916.
Cardinalate. According to Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950 Online-Edition, he was created cardinal by Pope Benedict XV in the consistory of December 4, 1916 and reserved in pectore, together with Cardinal Adolf Bertram, bishop of Breslau; Archbishop Huyn was never published; Cardinal Bertram was published in the consistory of December 5, 1919. Left the archdiocese of Prague, after the proclamation of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, on November 19, 1918. Sought refuge in Zurich, Switzerland then, in the Benedictine monastery of Kreuzschwestern, in Ingebohlu. He received a letter from Pope Benedict XV dated July 16, 1919 and decided to resign his office for political reasons on September 6, 1919; his resignation was the result of anti-Catholic and anti-religious sentiments in the Czech lands after the First World War. He was transferred to the titular see of Sardica on that same date; published as such in the consistory of December 18, 1919. Promoted to the titular Latin patriarchate of Alexandria and named Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 13, 1921. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Council and of Religious, December 5, 1921. Vicar of the chapter of the patriarchal Lateran basilica until November 1934. He resided in Villa S. Francesco, via del Monti Parioli, Rome, until moving to Bolzano. He was the last German archbishop of Prague.
Death. October 1, 1946, in the Benedictine abbey of Muri-Gries, in the outskirts of Bolzano, southern Tyrol, province of Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. Buried in the crypt of that monastery. Today the monastery belongs to the Congregation of The Most Holy Sacrament (Eucharistiány), which the late archbishop had introduced in the archdiocese of Prague in 1909.
Bibliography. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1920. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 384; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1934. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, p. 168; L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, XV, n. 232 (October 4, 1946), p. 1; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 45, 94, 196, 311, 331 and 355.
Webgraphy. His portrait and biography, in Czech, Wikipedia; portrait, arms and biography, in Czech, Encyklopedie města dějin Brna; biography, in Czech, Biskupství brněnské biography by PhDr. Pavel Fojtík, in Czech.
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