Birth. March 15, 1856, Seregno, archdiocese of Milan, Austrian Empire (now Italy).
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Monza, Milan; at the Pontifical Roman Seminary, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and utroque iure, both canon and civil law); and at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, from 1880 until 1886, where he studied diplomacy.
Priesthood. Ordained, December 20, 1879, Milan. Further studies, 1880-1883, Privy chamberlain of His Holiness, January 14, 1884. Auditor of the nunciature in Bavaria, 1886-1887; in Brussels, 1887-1891; in Paris, 1891-1893; in Vienna, 1893-1899. Member of the papal delegation to the celebration of the millenium of Hungary, 1896. Ablegato to present the red biretta to the new Cardinal Antonio Agliardi in Vienna, 1896. Staff member of the Secretariat of State for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, 1899-1904. Commander of the Orders of Belgium, Spain, Holy Sepulchre, Iron Crown, and S. Luigi of Parma. Officer of the Légion d'Honor of France. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 20, 1902. Charge d'affaires in the nunciature of Holland and Luxemburg, 1905. Special papal envoy to consign the wedding present to King Alfonso XIII of Spain, 1905. Apostolic internuncio in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, November 22, 1906.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tessalonica, December 6, 1906. Consecrated, December 27, 1906, chapel of Collegio Pio-Latino Americano, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Gasparri, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Charles Stanley-Algernon, titular bishop of Emmaus, auxiliary of Westminster. Nuncio in Belgium, July 7 (1), 1916. Internuncio in Luxemburg, March 17, 1917 (2). Acting internuncio in Holland, July 30, 1916. Nuncio in Portugal, July 13, 1918.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Bernardo alle Terme, May 25, 1923. Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, July 15, 1929 until June 30, 1930; and October 16, 1933 until April 1, 1935.
Death. April 5, 1935, of pneumonia, Rome; the funeral took place on April 19, 1935, at the church of S. Carlo al Corso, Rome, with the participation of sixteen cardinals; the final absolution was imparted by Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Buried in the crypt built by him in the provostial church of Seregno.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 83; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 684; De Marchi, Giuseppe. Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956. Pref. di Antonio Samoré. Roma : Edizioni di Storia e letteratura, 1957, pp. 41, 66, 170, 187 and 216; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1936, pp. 98-99.
(1) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, pp. 41 and 66; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, p. 98, says that he was named on July 8, 1916.
(2) This is according to De Marchi, Le nunziature apostoliche dal 1800 al 1956, p. 170; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1935, p. 98, says that he was named in May 1917.
Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. September 27, 1867, Castelleto Scazzoso, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. Son of Giuseppe Bonzano and Agostina Vescovo. His baptismal name was Giovanni Vincenzo.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vigevano; then, at Mastai College for Chinese Missions, Rome; and finally, at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1890, Rome, by Cardinal Lucido Maria Parocchi, bishop of Albano, vicar general of Rome. He was ordained for the Pontifical Institute for Foreign Missions (P.I.M.E.). Missionary work in China, 1891-1897. Vicar general of the diocese of Vigevano, August 26, 1899; chancellor, February 10, 1900. Faculty member of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1901-1904; rector, May 16, 1904.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Melitene and appointed Apostolic delegate to the United States of America, February 2, 1912. Consecrated, March 3, 1912, Rome, by Cardinal Rafael Merry del Val, secretary of State, assisted by Pietro Barruti, bishop of Vigevano, and by Thomas Francis Kennedy, titular bishop of Adrianopoli, rector of the North American College. Temporarily in charge of the apostolic delegation in Mexico, June 22, 1915.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Pancrazio, December 14, 1922. Opted for title of S. Susanna, December 18, 1924. Presided over the initial renovation of Our Lady of Angels basilica, Assisi, April 19, 1925. Papal legate to the 28th International Eucharistic Congress, Chicago, May 18, 1926.
Death. November 26, 1927, of complications following an operation, at Clinica Quisisana in Rome. Buried, church of Franciscan Missionaries of Mary, Grottaferrata (1).
Bibliography. Code, Bernard. Dictionary of the American Hierarchy (1789-1964). New York : Joseph F. Wagner, 1964, p. 21; Finn, Brendan A. Twenty-four American Cardinals. Biographical sketches of those Princes of the Catholic Church who either were born in America or served there at some time. With a foreword by Francis Cardinal Spellman. Boston : Bruce Humphries, INc. Publishers, 1947, p. 309-324.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is the text of the incription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. January 20, 1859, Valencia, Spain. Of a family from the town of Agullent, Valencia. Son of Francisco Reig and Ramona Casanova.
Education. Studied "bachillerato" at the Institute of Xátiva; entered the Seminary of Valencia for his ecclesiastical studies; feeling unworthy of the priesthood, he left the seminary shortly before receiving the priestly ordination.
Early life. He got married and practiced as a lawyer; when his wife and son died of cholera in 1885 (1), he decided to enter the seminary again and become a priest.
Priesthood. Ordained, 1886, Almería, by José María Orberá, bishop of Almería. In the diocese of Almería, professor of history at its seminary for a short time. Chancellor and vicar general of the diocese of Mallorca until 1900. He passed to the archdiocese of Toledo in 1900; professor of sociology at its seminary; archdeacon of the cathedral chapter, 1903; founder of "La revista parroquial" and director of "La paz social"; assessor of the Catholic labor unions; rector of "Academia Universitaria Católica"; professor of religion and sociology at "Escuela Superior de Magisterio"; moderator of "Unión Apostólica". Protonotary apostolic, March 22, 1903. Auditor of Sacred Rota of Madrid, 1904.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Barcelona, Mary 28, 1914. Consecrated, November 8, 1914, basilica of La Milagros, Madrid, by Francesco Ragonesi, titular archbishop of Mira, nuncio in Spain, assisted by José María Salvador y Barrera, bishop of Madrid, and by Jaime Cardona y Tur, titular bishop of Sion, pro-general military vicar. His episcopal motto was Plura concilium quam ut. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, April 22, 1920.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 14, 1922. Received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, May 25, 1923. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Toledo, June 15, 1926.
Death. August 25, 1927, at 2 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Toledo (2). Exposed in the chapel of the archiepiscopal palace of Toledo. Buried in the Capilla del Sagrario in the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo (3).
Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 76; "Enrico Reig y Casanova", "Cardinali defunti" in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1929, p. 62; Olmos Canalda, Elías. Los prelados valentinos. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Jerónimo Zurita, 1949; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 80 and 386; Urive, Aniceto. "Reig y Casanova, Enrique" in Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España. 4 vols and Supplement. Dirigido por Quintín Aldea Vaquero, Tomás Marín Martínez, José Vives Gatell. Madrid : Instituto Enrique Flórez, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1972-1975, III, 2069-2070.
Webgraphy. Portrait and biography by Arturo Llin Cháfer, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia; photographs and biography, in Spanish, Remember Valencia, el Blog; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Urive, "Reig y Casanova, Enrique" in Diccionario de historia eclesiástica de España, III, 2069; and his first biography
linked above. His second biography, linked above, says that it was only a daughter who died during the epidemic.
(2) This is according to his biographies in Spanish, linked above, and all the printed sources cited except "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1929, p. 62, which says that he died on August 20, 1927.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:
Birth. November 14, 1860, Le Mans, France. His baptismal name was Alexis-Armand.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Le Mans; at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome; and at the Catholic University of Angers.
Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1883. Faculty member of the School of Sainte-Croix, 1883-1892. Director of the Internship of Notre Dame de la Couture, Le Mans, 1892-1894. Secretary to the archbishop of Rennes, 1894-1899. Titular canon of the cathedral chapter of Rennes, 1899. Vicar general and director of secondary studies of the archdiocese of Rennes, 1909-1913.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mliletopoli and appointed auxiliary of Cambrai for the General Vicariate of Lille, February 14, 1913. Consecrated, May 13, 1913, metropolitan cathedral of Rennes, by Auguste-Rene Dubourg, archbishop of Rennes, assisted by François Delamaire, archbishop of Cambrai, and by Olivier de Durfort, bishop of Langres. His episcopal motto was Per ipsam, cum ipsa, in ipsa. Transferred to see of Lille, November 21, 1913. Acting chancellor of the Catholic University of Lille, 1915; chancellor, 1919. Promoted to titular archbishop of Chersoneso and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Rennes, June 15, 1920. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Rennes, September 22, 1921.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria della Vittoria, December 14, 1922. Papal legate to the centennial celebrations in honor of Cardinal Charles-Martial Allemand-Lavigerie, Algiers, August 25, 1925; to the 50th anniversary of the Catholic University of Lille, March 14, 1927; to the celebrations in honor of St. Thérèse de Lisieux, Lisieux, September 15, 1929.
Death. November 7, 1930, Rennes (1). Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Rennes.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 231-232.
Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) He caught cold in church during inclement weather which hit Brittany. Recovering shortly afterwards, he was able to take his daily afternoon walk, but suffered a relapse. Feeling very ill, the cardinal requested a passing motorist to take him to the archiepiscopal palace, where he collapsed. Dr. De La Salle administered him an injection and the cardinal asked to be left alone in his office. When the doctor returned half an hour later, the cardinal was dead. The doctor diagnosed his death as being caused by heart failure brought on by his fits of coughing.
Birth. May 6, 1864, Busto Arsizio, archdiocese of Milan, Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom. He was the youngest of the nine children of Luigi Tosi and Teresa Rabolini.The other siblings were Francesco, Maria, Angela, Luigi (died at 3 years of age), Carlo Giovanni Battista (died when he was 3 months old), Andrea (died when he was 2 months old), Giuseppe and Carlo Maria. He was baptized on May 7, 1864 in the provostial church of S. Giovanni Battista, Busto Arsizio, with the names Eugenio Alessandro Maria.
Education. On November 5, 1875, he entered the Minor Seminary of S. Pietro Martire for the quienquennium of ginnasiale studies; in the fall of 1880, he started the three years of philosophical formation at the Seminary of Monza; in the fall of 1883, he started the four years of theological courses at the Major Seminary of Milan; in 1884 and 1885, he attended the courses of sacred eloquence given by Professor Achille Ratti, future pope Pius XI.
Priesthood. Ordained, Saturday June 4, 1887, chapel of the archbishopric, Milan, by Titular Patriarch Paolo Angelo Ballerini of Alessandria, former archbishop of Milan (Archbishop Luigi Nazari di Calabiana of Milan was ill). On Thursday June 9, 1887, feast of Corpus Christi, he celebrated his first mass at the provostial church of S. Giovanni Battista of Busto Arsizio. Pastoral ministry as assistant of the masculine Oratory in the parish of S. Giovanni Battista of Busto Arsizio, June 1887 until 1889. Joined the Oblates of Ss. Carlo e Ambrogio, Rho, October 24, 1889, Milan. Faculty member of the Missionary House of the Oblates, Rho, 1889-1909. Vicar general of Rimini, 1909-1911. Nominated by the pope as bishop of Squillace on August 17, 1910. From December 27, 1910 to January 2, 1911, he traveled to Rome for an audience with Pope Pius X. Received the exequatur regio from the Italian minister of the Interior on January 5, 1911.
Episcopate. Preconized bishop of Squillace, April 5, 1911. Consecrated, April 16, 1911, Easter Sunday, Milan, by Cardinal Andrea Carlo Ferrari, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Pietro Viganò, S.J., titular bishop of Aezani, former bishop of Hyderabad, India, and by Giovanni Mauri, titular bishop of Famagusta, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was Ora et labora. Transferred to the diocese of Andria, March 22, 1917. Apostolic administrator of Squillace, August 10, 1917 to February 1918. On September 11-12, 1921, he participated in the centennial celebrations of the foundation of Collegio degli Oblati Missionari held in Rho. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Milan, March 7, 1922, succeeding Cardinal Achille Ratti, who had been elected Pope Pius XI. On June 23, 1922, feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, he issued his first pastoral letter to the archdiocese of Milan. On July 5, 1922, he received the pallium in the private papal chapel. On July 16, 1922, he took possession of the archdiocese by procurator, Giovanni di Dio Mauri, auxiliary bishop of Milan. He entered the archdiocese on July 23, 1922. From September 14 to 17, 1922, he participated in the Diocesan Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Monza.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti, December 14, 1922. From May 14 to 16, 1923, he presided over the Episcopal Conference of Lombardy in Rho. He started the pastoral visit to the parishes of the archdiocese on July 10, 1923 but his precarious health impeded its conclusion. On July 31, 1923, he had to undergo an emergency operation because of an infectious pleuritis; the recuperation lasted until April 1924. On April 9, 1924, from Sori, near Genoa, where he was convalescing, he protested because of the Fascist violence against the diocesan youth organizations after the elections of April 6. On the following April 13, he visited the monarchs of Italy at the Royal Palace of Milan for the inauguration of the Fair. From August 31 to September 5, 1924, he was in Rome for a private audience with the pope. On October 25-26, 1924, he blessed the new facilities of the railroad station in Busto Arsizio, in the presence of Benito Mussolini, president of the Council. On November 9, 1924, he opened the pastoral visit, beginning at the Duomo. On April 24, 1925, he blessed the first stone of the Cancer Institute in Milan, in the presence of the king of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele III. Papal legate to the coronation of the Madonna di Fontanellato, Parma, May 19-24, 1925. Presided over the Episcopal Conference of Lombardy celebrated in Rho on June 8 to 10, 1925; and the one celebrated on April 12 to 14, 1926, also in Rho. On April 24, 1926, he blessed the first stone of the monument of Saint Francis of Assisi in piazza del Risorgimento, Milan, in the presence of Benito Mussolini, president of the Council. From November 16 to 26, 1926, he was in Rome for the ad limina visit and a private audience with the pope, when the foundation of a new diocesan seminary was decided. On May 19, 1927, at the Seminary of Monza, the diocesan clergy celebrated the 40th anniversary of the cardinal's priestly ordination and the fifth anniversary of his episcopate in Milan. From May 30 to June 1, 1927, he presided over the Episcopal Conference of Lombary in Rho. From July 7 to 30, 1927, he stayed at Collegio S. Ambrogio in Porlezza and completed the pastoral visit to Val Cavagna and Valsolda. e was in Rome from November 24 until December 5, 1927; on November 27 and December 2, he had private audiences with the pope. On February 6, 1928, he placed the first stone of the new seminary in Venegono Infeiore. On February 12, 1928, he published the Lent pastoral letter "Le familglie numerose". On April 11, 1928, in Baggio, he blessed the airplane "Italia" at the departure of the polar expedition of General Umberto Nobile. On April 12, 1928, after the attempt on the life of Kin Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy, who was in Milan for the inauguration of the Fair, Cardinal Tosi visited the wounded at the hospital and had an audience with the monarch in the Royal Palace. From May 21 to 23, 1928, he presided over the Episcopal Conference of Lombardy in Rho. He participated in the 15th Social Week of the Italian Catholics celebrated in Milan from September 2 to 9, 1928. e was in Rome from December 12 to 21, 1928, for the beginning of the jubilar year of Pope Pius XI and on December 15 and 19 had private audiences with the pope. On December 21, 1928, he inaugurated, in piazza Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, the new Lombard Seminary. A week before his death, twelve bombs were found in the basement of the archiepiscopal palace shortly before they were set to explode. Although the cardinal was out of the city at the time, it was believed that his heart was affected following the discovery. On January 5-6, 1929, his condition is critical due to cardiac insufficiency and nephritis.
Death. Monday January 7, 1929, at 2:40 a.m., after a long illness, of heart anemia and renal problems, in Milan. The funeral took place on Thursday January 10, in the morning, presided over by Luigi Marelli, bishop of Bergamo; Bishop Giovanni Cazzani of Cremona delivered the funeral oration. On February 5, 1929, he was buried definitively in front of the altar of Virgo potens in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan (1). A street was named in his honor in Busto Arsizio.
Bibliography. Cazzani, Eugenio. Vescovi e arcivescovi di Milano. Nuova ed. a cura di Angelo Majo, 2d ed. Milano : Massimo : NED, 1996. Note: Originally published 1955, now enlarged and updated, p. 287-288; Majo, Angelo. Storia della chiesa ambrosiana. 5 vols. 2nd ed. Milano : NED, 1983-1986, V, 11- 16-23, 27n, 37, 45 and 132; Panizza, Mario. Card. Eugenio Tossi, arcivescovo di Milano (1822-1928). Milano : Nuove Edizioni Duomo (NED), 1998. (Archivio Ambrosiano, LXXIX).
Webgraphy. His photograph, tomb, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Eugenio Tosi, il Cardinale della bontà, archdiocese of Milan; his arms, portrait and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan.
(1) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
Birth. November 13, 1842, Soliers, diocese of Bayeux, France. Nephew of Arthur-Xavier Ducellier, bishop of Bayonne and archbishop of Besançon.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 13, 1872. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Besançon, 1872-1894; vicar general and archdeacon of Belfort for six years.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Orléans, May 18, 1894. Consecrated, July 15, 1894, metropolitan cathedral of Besançon, by Flavian-Abel-Antoine Hugonin, bishop of Bayeux, assisted by Abel-Anastase Germain, bishop of Coutances, and by Charles Theuret, bishop of Monaco. His episcopal motto was Spes ac robur. In October 1894, he was placed in charge of the cause of beatification of Jeanne d'Arc by Pope Leo XIII; she was proclaimed a blessed by Pope Pius X in 1910, and a saint by Pope Benedict XV in 1919; Pope Pius XI declared her secondary patron saint of France in 1922. He was a fierce opponent of the law of separation of Church and State in 1905. By consistorial decree of December 23, 1915, he was honored with the pallium, which he received the following December 24 from Cardinal Léon-Adolphe Amette, archbishop of Paris, in that city. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, June 19, 1922.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria sopra Minerva, December 14, 1922; took possession of the title the following December 22. He was member of the SS. CC. of Sacraments, Seminaries and Universities of Study, and the Reverend Fabric of St. Peter's basilica. In 1926, he consecrated the chapel of Sainte-Jeanne d'Arc in the north transept of the cathedral of Sainte-Croix of Orléans.
Death. September 23, 1926, at 5 p.m., after a few days of illness, Orléans. During the funeral cortege the hearse’s wheels caught the tram line, causing the Cardinal’s heavy lead-lined coffin to fall onto the roadway. The efforts to place it back on the hearse caused various difficulties and a lengthy delay. Buried in the cathedral of Orléans.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 505-506.
Webgraphy. His statue and bigraphy, in French, Wikipedia; biography by Benita Storch, in German, Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; cathedral of Sainte-Croix of Orléans, in French, Cimetières de France et d'ailleurs, there is a brief biography and photographs of the cardinal and his statue at the bottom of the page; Le maréchal Ferdinand Foch et le cardinal Touchet à la fête de Jeanne d'Arc à Orléans en 1920, photograph, Wikimedia.
Birth. January 24, 1850, Loro Piceno, archdiocese of Fermo, Italy.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fermo; and at the Pontifical Roman Seminary.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 17, 1874, Rome. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rome, 1874-1880. Staff member of the S.C. of the Council, 1885-1903; auditor, 1903-1908. Honorary chamberlain of His Holiness, October 4, 1880; reappointed, December 7, 1903. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 20, 1908. Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota, February 9, 1909. Secretary of the S. C. of the Council, December 8, 1916.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1922: received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Nicola in Carcere, December 14, 1922. His cardinalitial motto was Ave Crux Spes Unica. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, March 13, 1933.
Death. September 30, 1934, of a heart disease, Loro Piceno. Buried in the chapel of the cemetery of Loro Piceno; later transferred to the family tomb.
Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. October 17, 1845, Isny, diocese of Rottenburg, Germany (1). Son of Franz Ehrle, a physician, and Berta von Frölich.
Education. Studied at the Jesuit gymnasium "Stella matutina", Feldkirch; entered the Society of Jesus on September 20, 1861 in Groheim, Hohenzollern; studied at College of Friedricksburg, Münster 1865 (humanities); at the Abbey of Maria Laach, Germany, 1868 (philosophy); and at Ditton Hall, Liverpool, England (theology), 1873.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 24, 1876, Liverpool. Further studies, 1876-1877. Pastoral ministry in Liverpool, 1877-1878. Contributor to Stimmen aus Maria Laach, 1878; its director and publisher, Münich, 1916-1918. Literary and pastoral ministry, Tervueren, Brussels, 1878-1880. Research at the Vatican archives and literary work, Rome, 1880-1895. Result of this was the Historia bibliothecæ Romanorum Pontificum, 1890. Promoter of the International Conference of Sankt Gallen, for the preservation of manuscripts, September 1898. Member extraordinary of the Board of Counsellors of the Vatican Library, 1890-1895; pro-prefect, January to June, 1895; prefect, 1895-1914. Associate member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris, 1907. Resided in Rome and Feldkirch, 1914-1916. Resided in Münich, 1918-1919. Faculty member of the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1919-1922; and of the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1919-1922. He was the principal organizer of Biblioteca Leonina of research.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of December 11, 1922; received the red hat and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, December 14, 1922. Papal legate to the 13th centennial celebration of St. Columban's birth, Bobbio, Italy, August 4, 1923. Librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, April 17, 1929 until his death.
Death. March 31, 1934, of pneumonia, at the curia of the Society of Jesus, Rome. The funeral was celebrated in the church of S. Ignazio, Rome; Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. Buried, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.
Bibliography. Brandi, Karl. Franz Ehrle. Berlin : Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1934; "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1938, p. 82; Carusi, Enrico. "Il card. Francesco Ehrle bibliotecario di S.R.C. (n. a Isny, Württemberg, il 17 ottobre 1845, m. a Roma il 31 marzo 1934). Accademie e biblioteche d'Italia, VIII (1934), 430-436; Christ, Karl. Kardinal Franz Ehrle. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, 1935; Huber, Raphael M. "Francis Cardinal Ehrle, S. J., 1845-1934: In memoriam." The Catholic Historical Review, XX (1934), 175-184; Daniel, Charles; Paul-Marie Baumgarten; Antoine de Waal. Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église. Paris : Plon, 1900, p. 680; "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1934, pp. 107-108.
Webgraphy. Photograph and biographical information, in Italian, Dizionario bio-bibliografico dei bibliotecari italiani del XX secolo; portrait, arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 82; Brandi, Franz Ehrle, p. 2; and "Liste des cardinaux par ordre alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1933, p. 107; Daniel, Rome; le chef suprême l'organisation et l'administration centrale de l'église, p. 680, says that he was born on October 7, 1845.
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