The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of May 25, 1985 (III)


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(34) 1. DADAGLIO, Luigi
(1914-1990)

Birth. September 28, 1914, Sezzadio, diocese of Acqui, Italy. Son of Francesco Dadaglio and Paola Sardi.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Acqui; at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, from 1938 to 1942, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iuris, both canon and civil law, on July 6, 1942; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, from 1941 to 1943 (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Acqui. Coadjutor in Canelli, diocese of Acqui, 1937-1938. Further studies, Rome, 1938-1942. Joined the Vatican secretariat of State, section of Ordinary Affairs, 1942. Secretary in the nunciature in Haiti and Dominican Republic, 1946-1950. Auditor in the apostolic delegation, United States, 1950-1953; in the apostolic delegation in Canada, 1953-1954; in the apostolic delegation in Australia, 1954-1958. Counselor in the nunciature in Colombia, 1958-1960. In charge, provisionally, of the nunciature in Venezuela, April 1960. Nuncio in Venezuela, November 18, 1960.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lero, October 28, 1961. Consecrated, December 8, 1961, church of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, Rome, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, assisted by Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Giuseppe dell'Omo, bishop of Acqui. His episcopal motto was Sola virtus manet. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Nuncio in Spain, July 8, 1967. Secretary of the Congregation for Sacraments and Divine Worship, October 4, 1980. Pro-penitentiary major, April 8, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Pio V a Villa Carpegna, May 25, 1985. Penitentiary major, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second General Assembly of the College of Cardinals, Vatican City, November 21 to 23, 1985; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, December 15, 1986. President, Central Committee of Marian Year, February 11, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned penitentiary, April 6, 1990.

Death. August 22, 1990, of a cardiac arrest, while hospitalized at Rome's "Policlinico Agostino Gemelli", where he had been interned for several days with a heart ailment. His funeral, celebrated by Pope John Paul II, was held at St. the Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, followed by another mass celebrated by Cardinal Giovanni Canestri at Sezzadio prior to interment. Buried in the family plot in Sezzadio.

Webgraphy. Photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(35) 2. LOURDUSAMY, Duraisamy Simon
(1924-2014)

Birth. February 5, 1924, Kallery, near Gingee, in Villupuram district, archdiocese of Pondicherry, India. He was the seventh of twelve children of Simon Duraisamy, who was a just man and the villagers used to get his guidance to settle disputes, and his wife Anna Marie Amma, known as Matharasi. His younger brother, Duraisamy Simon Amalorpavadass, was a renowned priest and theologian; he died in an automobile accident on his way to Bangalore from Mysore. He is also listed as Simon D. Lourdusami; and as D. Simon Lourdusami.

Education. He received his early education from Father Gavan Duffy, M.E.P., in Tindivanam; then studied at Saint Ann's High School, Tindivanam; later, he entered Saint Agnes Minor Seminary in Cuddalore; and finished his high school studies at Saint Joseph's Higher School of Cuddalore from 1937 to 1939; then, studied at Saint Peter's Seminary in Bangalore from 1945 to 1951; then, he attended Loyola College in Chennai (1952-1953) for higher studies; and finally, he studied at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, from 1953 to 1956, earning a doctorate in canon law in 1956; he obtained 100% in all of his exams in canon law studies, something which had never occurred in other Roman universities before. He also studied music and is an avid piano player.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1951, Seven Sorrows church, Tindivanam, Pondicherry, by Auguste Siméon Colas, S.P.M.E., archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Assistant parish priest at Athipakkam parish in 1952; at that time, he was instrumental in arranging the archives of the Archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Then, he served as a secretary to the archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, Ambrose Rayappan, for two months in 1952, before continuing his studies at Loyola College. He served as the secretary, chancellor and choirmaster of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, Pondicherry, in 1956; during that time, he edited a religious magazine "Sarva Viabi" in Tamil language. Further studies in Rome, 1953-1956. Director of the Catholic Doctors' Guild; director of the Catholic Medical Students' Guild; director of the Newman Association; director of the Catholic University Students Union.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sozusa di Libia and appointed auxiliary of Bangalore, July 2, 1962. Consecrated, August 22, 1962, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Pondicherry, by Ambrose Rayappan, archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, assisted by Rajarethinam Sundaram, bishop of Tanjore, and by Daniel Paul Arulswami, bishop of Kumbakonam. His episcopal motto was Aedificare domum Dei. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to titular archbishop of Filippi, and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession of Bangalore, November 9, 1964. Attended, the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. Vice-president of the Pan Asiatic Catechetic-Liturgical Conference, Manila, 1967. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bangalore, January 11, 1968. Secretary adjunct of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, March 2, 1971. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese of Bangalore, April 30, 1971. Secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, president of the Pontifical Missionary Work and vice-grand chancellor of the Pontifical Urbanian University, February 26, 1973.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavalleggeri, May 25, 1985. He was member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints; of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; of the Pontifical Council for the Family; and of the Pontifical Commission for the Internationa Eucharistic Congresses. Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, October 30, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. In December 1987, the archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore celebrated his episcopal silver jubilee in Puducherry. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the Year of St. Willibrord, Luxembourg, June 3 to 5, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, May 24, 1991, after suffering an ictus. Cardinal protodeacon, April 5, 1993. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Special papal legate to the funeral of Mother Teresa, Calcutta, India, September 13, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old, February 5, 2004. The archdiocese of Pondicherry and Cuddalore celebrated the diamond jubilee of his sacerdotal ordination on December 21, 2011. He visited 110 countries, receiving numerous distinctions in appreciation of his work.

Death. June 2, 2014, at 1:35 am CEST, at Casa di Cura Pio XI, via Aurelia, Rome. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Lourdusamy, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence (1) to Archbishop Anthony Anandarayar of Pondicherry and Cuddalore, India. On Thursday June 5, 2014, at 11:30 a.m., at the Altar of the Cathedra of the papal Vatican basilica, took place the exequies of the late cardinal, which was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. At the end of the eucharistic ceremony, Pope Francis presided the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and of the Valedictio. In accordance with his wishes, his body was transported to India for burial in the Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Pondicherry (2). The mortal remains of the cardinal were taken to Puducherry on June 7. His body was kept for public view at the Escande Hall in Petit Seminaire higher secondary school on June 7 and 8. The funeral took place at the Immaculate Conception Cathedral at 10 a.m. on June 9, celebrated by Salvatore Penacchio, apostolic nuncio to India and Nepal. Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, represented the pope. In attendace, among others, were Cardinal George Alencherry, archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars; Cardinal Telesphore Placidus Toppo, archbishop of Ranchi; Bernard Blasius Moras, archbishop of Bangalore; Filipe Neri Antonio Sebastião do Rosário Ferrão, archbishop of Goa e Damão, vice-president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India; and Antony Anandarayar, archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore. Chief Minister N. Rangasamy, other political leaders, and French Consul General Philippe Janvier-Kamiyama were also present.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Lourdusamy, Plays Piano For Tamil song (Rome), video, You Tube Feb 9, 2012; H. E. Cardinal Lourdusamy, RIP, Silent Voice, June 2, 2014 at 4:18 pm; Indian Cardinal Simon Lourdusamy passes away at 90, video, Rome Reports, 2014-06-03; El Santo Padre preside las exequias del cardenal Lourdusamy by H. Sergio Mora, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 05 de junio de 2014; Agradecen en funeral labor evangelizadora de Cardenal Lourdusamy, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 05 Jun. 14, 11:05 am.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

The Most Reverend Anthony Anandarayar
Archbishop of Pondicherry and Cuddalore
Saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal D. Simon Lourdusamy, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, and Archbishop Emeritus of Bangalore, I offer my deepest condolences and the assurance of my prayers to you, the clergy, religious and lay faithful who mourn his passing. I recall with gratitude to Almighty God the Cardinal's priestly life spent in spreading the Gospel first in India and subsequently in service to the Universal Church in numerous capacities, finally as Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. I pray that God the Father of mercies may grant him the reward of his labours and welcome his noble soul into the peace and joy of heaven. To all assembled for the solemn funeral Mass, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of strength and consolation in the Lord.

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.
(2) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
His Eminence
D. Simon Cardinal Lourdusamy
Birth 05-02-1924
Ordination 21-12-1951
Consecration 22-08-1962
Cardinal 25-05-1985
Death 02-06-2014
Burial 09-06-2014


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(36) 3. ARINZE, Francis
(1932-

Birth. November 1, 1932, Eziowelle, a little rural village, archdiocese of Onitsha, Nigeria. Third of the seven children of Joseph Arinze Nwankwu and Bernadette Ekwoanya, from Abagana. The other siblings were Christopher, Linus, Justin, Cecilia, Victoria and Catherine. He was born to the Igbo faith and converted to Catholicism at age nine. He was baptized on November 1, 1941 by Fr. Cyprian Michael Tansi, future blessed. He also made his first confession and received his first communion from Fr. Tansi. He speaks English, Italian and Spanish.

Education. Primary school at St. Anthony's, Dunukofia, until 1946; Junior Seminary of Nnewi, Nnewi (1947-1953); Brigard Memorial Seminary, Enugu 1953-1956 (philosophy); Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, 1955-1960 (bachelor's in theology 1957; master's degree, 1959; doctorate, summa cum laude (1), 1960); University of London, London, England.

Priesthood. Ordained, November 23, 1958, chapel of the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, pro-prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Further studies, 1958-1961, Rome. Successively, 1961-1963, faculty member, Seminary of Enugu; regional secretary of Catholic education in Western Nigeria. Further studies, 1963-1964, London.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fissiana and appointed coadjutor of Onitsha, July 6, 1965. Consecrated, August 29, 1965, by Charles Heerey, archbishop of Onitsha, assisted by John Kwao Amuzu Aggey, archbishop of Lagos, and by Dominic Ekandem, bishop of Ikot Ekpene. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Onitsha, Nigeria, June 26, 1967. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1967; the First Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 11 to 28, 1969; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nigeria, 1979-1984. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Elected vice-president for Africa of the United Biblical Societies, 1982. Pro-president of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, April 8, 1984. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 9, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni della Pigna, May 25, 1985. President of the Secretariat for Non-Christians, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the celebration of First centennial of the introduction of Catholicism in Kenya, August 8 to 12, 1991, Nairobi. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Owerri, Nigeria, December 4 to 6, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; president delegate; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the Tenth anniversary of the visit of Pope John Paul II, Rabat, Morocco, October 20 to 22, 1995. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On October 24, 1999, he received a Golden Medallion from the International Council of Christians and Jews for his "outstanding achievements in inter-faith relations". Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the centennial of the Catholic Church in Malawi that took place in Lilongwe on July 28, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, October 1, 2002; ceased as president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialog on that same day. Special papal envoy to the Third National Eucharistic Congress, Ibadan, Nigeria, November 15-17, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, April 21, 2005. Promoted to the order of cardinal bishops and assigned the title of the suburbicarian see of Velletri-Segni, April 25, 2005. President-delegate of the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress of Chad, in Moundou on January 4 to 8, 2006. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, presented for having reached the age limit, from the prefecture of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments on December 9, 2008. Preached the Lent Spiritual Exercises for Pope Benedict XVI and the Roman Curia from March 1 to 7, 2009, at the chapel Redemptoris Mater in the Apostolic Palace of the Vatican; the theme of the meditations was "The priest finds Jesus and follows him." Special papal envoy to the Ninth Plenary Assembly of the Federation of Episcopal Conferences of Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on August 11 to 16, 2009. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World"; its first president-delegate. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 1, 2012.

Bibliography. Arinze, Francis A. ; O'Connell, Gerard. God's invisible hand. The life & work of Cardinal Arinze. Interviewed by Gerard O'Connell. Nairobi, Kenya : Paulines Publications, 2003; Miranda, Salvador. "Arinze, Francis A." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 251-252.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Catholic Bishop's Conference of Nigeria; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal: ‘By African standards, I’m not conservative, I’m normal’ by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, Rome, March 23, 2017; Cardinal Arinze Discusses Mary at Fatima — and in Tradition and Christian Devotion by Edwatd Pention, National Catholic Register, Vatican City, 3-30-17.

(1) The first part of his doctoral thesis, "Igbo Sacrifice as an introduction to the Catechesis of Holy Mass", was later to become a reference work for many scholars after it was published by the Ibadan University Press under the title "Sacrifice in Igbo Religion" in 1970.


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(37) 4. FRESNO LARRAÍN, Juan Francisco
(1914-2004)

Birth. July 26, 1914, Santiago de Chile, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile, Chile. Fourth of the five children of Luis Alfredo Fresno Ingunza y Elena Larraín Hurtado.

Education. Studied at Colegio Sagrados Corazones, Santiago, from 1922 to 1930. Later, for almost two years, he studied at the Faculty of Engineering of the Catholic University of Santiago; then, in 1931, he entered the Seminary of the Ángeles Custodios, Santiago, where he completed his ecclesiastical studies; and later, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology. In 1934, while he was a seminarian, he accompanied as secretary Archbishop José Horacio Campillo of Santiago to the International Eucharistic Congress celebrated in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In that same year, he was sent to the parish of San Lázaro, where he remained until 1937.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1937, cathedral of Santiago, by José Horacio Campillo, archbishop of Santiago. Further studies in Rome, 1938 to 1939, when he returned to Chile due to the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, he was named administrator of the properties of the Minor and Major Seminaries of Santiago. Concurrently, between 1947 and 1948, he was national assessor of the Catholic Youth, masculine branch; and later, also of the feminine branch. Between 1955 and 1958, he was pastor of the parish of Los Santos Ángeles Custodios. He was also pro-synodal judge.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Copiapó, June 15, 1958. Consecrated, August 15, 1958, in the parish church of Santos Angeles Custodios, Santiago, by Alfredo Cifuentes, archbishop of La Serena, assisted by José Manuel Santos Ascarza, bishop of Valdivia, and by Francisco de Borja Valenzuela Ríos, bishop of Antofagasta. His episcopal motto was Adveniat regnum tuum. 1960, he organized the First Diocesan Eucharistic Congress. He also established the Pre Seminary Casa de la Candelaria of Coquimbo; and in 1961, he organized the First Diocesan Synod; and established the Group of Catholic Friends for women (GRAC); and a similar one for men (AMICAT). In 1962, he created the Institute of Popular Education and inaugurated the branch of the Home of Christ. Attended the Second Vatican Council from 1962 to 1965. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of La Serena, July 28, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Chile from 1975 until 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. In the early 1980s, he was president of the Pontifical Commission for Colegio Pío Latinoamericano, Rome; delegate to the International Congress of Vocations, celebrated in Rome; and president of the Commission for Vocations of the Chilean Episcopate. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Chile, May 3, 1983; and assumed the post of grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago. In 1984, he actively collaborated to obtain the signature of the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Chile and Argentina. From 1985, he played a key role in the efforts to restore democracy in Chile during the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet; he made contact with opposition leaders and persuaded them to unite in a pro-democracy effort that included Marxists and the democratic right; he then promoted their first tense contacts with the government and was one of the supporters of "Acuerdo Nacional para la Transición a la Democracia Plena" (National Agreement for the Transition to Full Democracy). This led to the 1988 plebiscite that marked the beginning of the end of the military regime.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Immacolata di Lourdes a Boccea, May 25, 1985. Member of the Congregation for Catholic Education. In 1987, after the visit of Pope John Paul II to Chile, he established the John Paul II Foundation to grant scholarships to assist disadvantaged university students. At the invitation of the pope, he attended the beatification of Laura Vicuña in Turin in 1988. The following year, 1989, he received a prize from "The Institute of Religion and Democracy", Washington, D.C. Also in that year, he was named member honoris causa of the Scientific Society of Chile; and attended the Fourth World Youth Day in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 30, 1990. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1994. Rector of the Sagrada Familia Chapel in La Dehesa, known as Las Pataguas Chapel, for over six years until his death.

Death. October 14, 2004, at 8:50 p.m., of a general renal insufficiency, in his private residence in Santiago. Buried in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago. A school was named after him in San Miguel de Puente Alto.

Bibliography. Caiceo Escudero, Jaime. Cardenal Juan Francisco Fresno Larraín : un Pastor para Chile. Santiago de Chile : Universidad Católica Blas Cañas, Instituto de Ciencias Religiosas, Impresora Madrid, 1996.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, CIDOC, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago; photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; photographs and biography, in English, by Eman Bonnici, Find a Grave; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardenal Fresno: pastor del entendimiento en tiempos de enfrentamiento, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal de Chile.


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(38) 5. INNOCENTI, Antonio
(1915-2008)

Birth. August 23, 1915 (1), Poppi, diocese of Fiesole, Italy. When he was still a one year old child, his father died of injuries sustained during the First World War.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fiesole; at the Pontifical Gregroian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1941; at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in dogmatic theology in 1950; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 17, 1938, Florence. Pastoral ministry in Valdarno, Toscana, 1938. Further studies and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1938-1941. Successively, 1941-1948, in the diocese of Fiesole, professor of canon law and moral theology at its seminary; secretary to its bishop; convicted twice of helping the victims of the Nazi occupation, he was taken before a firing squad but freed at last minute; pastoral ministry after the Second World War mainly in Tosi, Comune of Reggello, Florence, where he had moved together with his family; founder of the Christian Association of Italian Workers (ACLI) in Fiesole; further studies in Rome, 1948-1950. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See, 1950. Secretary of the apostolic delegation in the Belgian Congo, Ruanda Urundi, 1950-1953. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, August 28, 1951; reappointed, October 28, 1958. Auditor of the nunciature in Switzerland, 1953-1960; of the internunciature in Holland, 1960-1961; of the internunciature in Egypt, Syria and Jerusalem, 1961-1962; of the nunciature in Belgium, 1962-1964. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 26, 1963. Counselor of the nunciature in France, 1964-1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Eclano and appointed nuncio in Paraguay, December 15, 1967. Consecrated, February 18, 1968, basilica of SS. Annunciata, Florence, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Antonio Bagnoli, bishop of Fiesole. His episcopal motto was Lucet spero fide. Secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, February 26, 1973; the congregation was reorganized and united with the S.C. for Divine Worship as the S.C. for the Sacraments and Divine Worship, July 11, 1975. Nuncio in Spain, October 4, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, January 9, 1986. Attended the VII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Conservation of the the Artistic and Historical Patrimony of the Church, October 8, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; president delegate. Resigned the prefecture and the presidency, July 1, 1991. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, July 1, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 23, 1995. Resigned the presidency, December 16, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. The Associazione Cardinale Innocenti per lo studio e la cura del morbo di Alzheimer e della malattia della senescenza ONLUS, was created in May 2008, following his wishes and with the funds that he donated.

Death. September 6, 2008, at 1:03 p.m., in his apartment at Piazza della Città Leonina 9, Vatican City. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, the pope prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to the cardinal's sister (2). On Wednesday September 10, 2008, at 9 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica, took place the exequies for the late cardinal. The holy mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and twenty-five other cardinals. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, Pope Benedict XVI delivered the homily and presided over the rites of Ultima Commendatio and Valedictio. The body of the cardinal was buried in the cemetery of Tosi, Tuscany (3).

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Tu es Petrus; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; his tomb, Wikimedia.

(1) This is according to "Innocenti Antonio" in Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2007, Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2007, p. *58; and his biography in Italian, linked above. His epitaph indicates that he was born on August 27, 1915.
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Gentile Signora Maria Antonietta Baggiani
Roma

Nell'apprendere la triste notizia della scomparsa del suo caro fratello cardinale Antonio Innocenti desidero esprimere a lei e ai familiari la mia viva partecipazione al lutto che colpisce quanti conobbero e stimarono il compianto porporato per tanti anni solerte collaboratore della Santa Sede in particolare come Rappresentante Pontificio in diversi Paesi come Prefetto della Congregazione per il Clero e infine come Presidente della Pontificia Commissione Ecclesia Dei rendendo ovunque una apprezzata testimonianza di fervoroso zelo sacerdotale e di fedeltà al vangelo. Mentre elevo fervide preghiere al Signore Gesù affinché auspice la Vergine Maria voglia donare al defunto cardinale il premio eterno promesso ai suoi fedeli discepoli invio di cuore a lei e a quanti ne piangono la dipartita una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.

(3) This is the text of the epitaph on his vault, taken from the photograph of his tomb, linked above:

27 . 8 . 1915          6 . 9 . 2008
ANTONIO INNOCENTI
VESCOVO

CARDINALE DI SANTA ROMANA CHIESA
DEL TIT. DI S. M. IN AQUIRO
DI NULL'ALTRO MI GLORIO SE NON
DELLA CROCE GI GESÙ CRISTO,
NOSTRO SIGNORE:
EGLI È LA NOSTRA SALVEZZA,
VITA E RESURREZIONE.
CFR. GALATI 6,14


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(39) 6. OBANDO BRAVO, S.D.B., Miguel
(1926-

Birth. February 2, 1926, La Libertad, Chontales, apostolic prelature of Juigalpa, Nicaragua. Son of Antonio Obando y Cisneros and María Nicolasa Bravo de Obando. The couple had six children: Cándido, Miguel Purificación, Anselmo, Lino, Jesús and Estela.

Education. Salesian school in Granada; "Aspirantado Salesiano", Granada; joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco) in 1949. Salesian houses of study in San Salvador, El Salvador (Latin, Greek, pedagogy, mathematics, physics and philosophy); in Guatemala, Guatemala (theology); and in Colombia and Venezuela (vocational psychology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 10, 1958, Guatemala, by Giuseppe Paupini, titular archbishop of Sebastopoli di Abasgia, nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Professor of mathematics and physics, Nicaragua and El Salvador, 1958-1959. Prefect of discipline, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1959-1961; rector of the Institute Rinaldi, Salesian Seminary, San Salvador, 1961-1968. Member of the provincial council of the Salesian Order in Central America, 1962-1968. Delegate of the Central America and Panamá provinces to the general chapter of the Salesian Order, Rome, 1965.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Puzia di Bizacena and appointed auxiliary of Matagalpa, January 18, 1968.Consecrated, March 31, 1968, by Marco Antonio García y Suárez, bishop of Granada, assisted by Clemente Carranza y López, bishop of Estelí, and by Julián Luis Barni Spotti, O.F.M., titular bishop of Coracesio, prelate of Juigalpa. His episcopal motto is Omnibus omnia factus. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Managua, February 16, 1970. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 1971-1974; and 1979-1983. President of the Episcopal Secretariat of Central America and Panamá, 1976-1980. Active defensor of human rights during Somoza's dictatorship and Sandinista regime. Received the Bruno Kreysky Award for peace and freedom, Vienna, Austria, 1979; the Plaque for Peace and Freedom of the Nicaraguan People, San Francisco, United States of America, 1980; the Letter of Brotherhood of the Piarist Society, Managua, 1980; the Venezuelan Order of Francisco Miranda, 1981; the Distinction of Loyalty to the Pope, the Church and the Nicaraguan People, Central of Nicaraguan Workers (CTN), 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Giovanni Evangelista a Spinaceto, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Nicaragua, 199--1996; 1999-. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of theFourth centennial of the veneration of Santo Cristo of Esquipulas, Guatemala, March 9, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Managua upon having reached the age limit, March 12, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 2, 2006. On March 14, 2007, he announced in a press conference held at Unica Catholic University that he had accepted a request made in January by Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega to preside over the Peace and Reconciliation Commission, which is charged with ensuring the implementation of signed agreements with Nicaraguans who were affected by the civil war of the 1980's. He accepted the presidency "a título personal" (in his own name). In February, the cardinal had indicated that he would accept only if the Holy See allowed him. On March 10, 2007, he had an audience with Pope Benedict XVI and in the press conference the cardinal said that the pope had told him to work for the reconciliation of the Nicaraguan family. He is the first Nicaraguan cardinal.

Bibliography. Urtasun Martínez, Domingo. Miguel Obando Bravo cardenal por la paz. Managua : Hispamer, 1994.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Ven luces y sombras de Obando, La Prensa.com.ni, Managua, 19 de agosto, 2012.


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(40) 7. MAYER, O.S.B., Paul Augustin
(1911-2010)

Birth. May 23, 1911, Altötting, diocese of Passau, Germany. He was one of three children of Royal Bavarian General Ludwig Mayer and his wife, Meta Hoeness from Ulm. His uncle, Eugen Bolz, was a politician of the Center Party and resistance fighter of the Nazi Party, who was beheaded by the latter in 1945.

Education. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict (Benedictines) at the abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, near Deggendorf, Bavaria, Germany; took the name of Augustin; professed the first monastic vows in that abbey on May 17, 1931. Studied at the University of Salzburg, Salzburg; Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of San Anselmo, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 25, 1935. Further studies, 1935-1937, Salzburg and Rome. Faculty member, abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, 1937-1939. Faculty member, Pontifical Roman Athenaeum of Sant'Anselmo, Rome, 1939-1966; rector, 1949-1966. Pastoral ministry in Rome, 1939-1966. Apostolic visitor to Swiss seminaries, 1957-1959. Secretary of the Preparatory Commission of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962; secretary of the conciliar and postconciliar commissions for Catholic schools and priestly formation. Ecclesiastical delegate of the Foscolari Movement, 1965. Elected abbot of St. Michael's Abbey, Metten, Bavaria, Germany, November 3, 1966. Received the abbatial blessing from Rudolf Graber, bishop of Regensburg, in Metten, on December 10, 1966. Secretary of the S.C. for Religious and Secular Institutes, September 8, 1971.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Satriano, January 6, 1972. Consecrated, February 13, 1972, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Cardinal Bernardus Johannes Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, and by Cardinal William Conway, archbishop of Armagh. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giuseppe Casoria, titular archbishop of Vescovio, secretary of the S.C. for the Discipline of the Sacraments, future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Congregavit nos in unum Christi amore. Named pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and Congregation for Divine Worship, April 8, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Anselmo all'Aventino, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Sacraments and of the Congregation for Divine Worship, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. The congregations were united in one, named Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of Sacraments, June 28, 1988. Resigned the prefecture, July 1, 1988. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, July 2, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, May 23, 1991. Resigned the presidency, July 1, 1991. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996.

Death. April 30, 2010, in the morning, in his residence in via Rusticucci 13, Rome. The cardinal had been getting weak over the last two weeks, but even the day before his death he celebrated Holy Mass. In the last 24 hours he declined rapidly and died very peacefully in his bed at home assisted by the Sisters who took care of his household. He laid in in the chapel of his residence until the celebration of the funeral. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Dom Notker Wolf, abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation. The abbot of Metten gave a short overview about the last rites in the apartment of the late cardinal; in the presence of the papal ceremonieri and the papal protonotaries, before the open coffin, was recited the "Pater Noster" and the "Ave Maria". Then the vitae of Cardinal Mayer was read. All present participants signed a "bulle", which was placed inside the coffin. Then the coffin was closed and sealed. After this it was brought in a procession into the papal basilica of St. Peter. Via Rusticucci 13, where the cardinal resided, is at the end of Via della Conciliazione and at the beginning of St. Peter's Square. The funeral took place on Monday May 3, 2010, at 11.30 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. The mass was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, with the other cardinals present. After the mass, the pope addressed those in attendance and presided over the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. The coffin with his remains arrived in the abbey of Saint Michael, Metten, where he professed as a Benedictine, on May 6, 2010. Until May 12 the cardinal laid in the cloister of the abbey. The funeral took place in the church of the abbey. The main celebrant was Cardinal Friedrich Wetter, archbishop emeritus of München und Freising. Concelebrants were Archbishop Jean-Claude Perrisset, apostolic nuncio in Germany; Gerhard Müller, bishop of Regensburg; Gregor Maria Hanke, O.S.B., bishop of Eichstätt; and Wilhelm Schraml, bishop of Passau. Also nineteen abbots and four abbesses of the Benedictine Federation took part. After the pontifical requiem the body of the late cardinal was buried in front of the Altar of Mary in the abbey church. At the time of his death, he was the oldest living cardinal. He was commemorated by a special four sheet and one mint stamp along with Pope Benedict XVI by the Philatelic Office of the Republic of Guinea Bissau in 2010.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; phograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and biographical entry, in English; photos of his funeral and burial in the Abbey of Saint Michael, Metten; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(41) 8. SUQUÍA GOICOECHEA, Ángel
(1916-2006)

Birth. October 2, 1916, Zaldivia, diocese of San Sebastián, Spain. One of the thirteen children of José Ignacio Suquía y Justa Goicoechea.

Education. Studied at the School of the Brothers of Christian Schools (La Salle), Beasain, 1925-1927; at the Minor Seminary of Saturrarán, Motrico, Guipúzcoa, 1927-1931; at the Major Seminary of Vitoria, 1931-1936; when the Spanish Civil War started in 1936, he was destined to the fort of Guadalupe as soldiers' instructor; in 1939, he travelled to the Benedictine monastery of Maria Laach, Germany, to study liturgy but when the Second World War started in that same year, he quickly returned to Spain; finally, he also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1946-1949, obtaining a doctorate in theology with the highest grades, with the thesis: "La santa Misa en la espiritualidad de San Ignacio de Loyola".

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1940, chapel of the Seminary of Vitoria. Successively, 1940-1946, pastoral ministry in the diocese of Vitoria; counselor of the Young Men Catholic Action; director of houses of spiritual exercises in Madrid and Bilbao. Further studies, Rome, 1946-1949. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Vitoria, 1949-1951; faculty member of its seminary, 1951-1955; rector, 1955-1965. Faculty member of the School of Social Assistants and of the Center of Superior Religious Studies; counselor of the Catholic National Association of Propagandists; director of the Diocesan Secretariat for spiritual development of the city of Vitoria; canon penitentiary of the cathedral of Vitoria, 1954-1966; vice-president of the Institute of Spirituality, Pontifical University of Salamanca; pastoral ministry in Cuba as chaplain of the Brothers of Christian Schools (La Salle) and director of the house of spiritual exercises of Santa María del Rosario, in the province of La Habana.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Almería, Spain, May 17, 1966; consecrated, July 16, 1966, in an open esplanade, Almaerí, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in Spain, assisted by Lorenzo Bereciartúa, bishop of San Sebastián, and by Francisco Peralta y Ballabriga, bishop of Vitoria. Transferred to the see of Málaga, November 28, 1969. Promoted to metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, April 13, 1973. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Transferred to the archbishopric of Madrid, April 12, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Gran Madre di Dio, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Spanish Episcopal Conference from 1987 until 1993. Special papal envoy to the Bolivarian Marian Eucharistic Congress, Lima, Perú, May 7-15, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the 4th centennial celebration of St. John of God's death, Segovia, Spain, December 14, 1990. Named metropolitan archbishop of Madrid, when the archbishopric was established as a metropolitan see. July 23, 1991. Papal legate to the closing ceremonies of the Ignatian Year, shrine of Loyola, San Sebastián, Spain, July 31, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, July 28, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 2, 1996.

Death. July 13, 2006, at 1:45 a.m., after a long illness and complications related to old age, at his home in San Sebastián, Spain. His burial took place on Saturday July 15, 2006, in the chapel of San Isidro, in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena, Madrid (1).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 127.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office.

(1) This is the text of the inscription in his tomb kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

ANGEL CARDENAL SUQUIA GOICOECHEA
DEL TITULO DE LA EXCELSA MADRE DE DIOS
1916 - 2006
OBISPO DE ALMERIA 1966 - 1969 Y DE MALAGA 1969 - 1973
ARZOBISPO DE SANTIAGO 1973 - 1983
ARZOBISPO DE MADRID 1983 - 1994


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(42) 9. HAMER, O.P., Jean Jérôme
(1916-1996)

Birth. June 1, 1916, Brussels, Belgium.

Education. Joined the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), September, 1934; took name of Jérôme. Studied at the Dominican Studium Generale, La Sarte and Louvain; military service; during the Second World War, was three months in prison (1940); University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland (doctorate in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, August 3, 1941. Further studies, 1941-1944. Faculty member, University of Fribourg, 1944-1962; Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, 1952-1953; Studium Generale, La Sarte; Dominican faculty of Saulchoir, France; rector, 1956-1962. Secretary general of studies of his order and general assistant for French Dominican provinces, 1962-1966. Expert at the Secretariat for Christian Unity of the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Secretary adjunct of the Secretariat for Christian Unity, 1966-1969; secretary, April 12, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Lorium and appointed secretary of the S.C. for Doctrine of Faith, June 14, 1973. Consecrated, June 29, 1973, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and by Bernardin Gantin, former archbishop of Cotonou, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes, April 8, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for Religious and Secular Institutes, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Papal delegate to the Ninth centennial celebration of the monastery of St. John Evangelist, Patmos and Athens, Greece, September 23 to 27, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly the of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Resigned prefecture, January 21, 1992. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years old, June 1, 1996.

Death. December 2, 1996, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Order of Preachers, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.

Webgraphy. ,strong>Biography, in Italian; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; , Armorial des Cardinaux.


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(43) 10. VIDAL, Ricardo Jamin
(1931-2017)

Birth. February 6, 1931, Mogpoc, diocese of Lucena, Philippines. He was the fifth of the six children of Faustino S. Vidal of Pila, Laguna, and Natividad Jamin of Mogpog, Marinduque. His baptismal mame was Ricardo Tito Jamin.

Education. Studied at the Most Holy Rosary Minor Seminary, Lucena; at St. Francis de Sales Seminary, Lipa City (bachelor of arts in philosophy); at St. Charles Seminary, Makati (theology). Received the diaconate from Alfredo Obviar y Aranda, titular bishop of Linoe, apostolic administrator of Lucena on September 24, 1955.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 17, 1956, cathedral of San Fernando, Lucena, by Alfredo Obviar y Aranda, titular bishop of Linoe, apostolic administrator of Lucena. Successively, 1956-1965, faculty member and spiritual director, Seminary of Lucena; rector, 1965-1971. Chaplain of His Holiness, June 23, 1969.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Claterna and coadjutor, with right of succession, of Malolos, September 10, 1971. Consecrated, November 30, 1971, cathedral of San Fernando, Lucena, by Carmine Rocco, titular archbishop of Iustinianopolis in Galatia, nuncio to the Philippines, assisted by Godfredo Pedernal Pisig, bishop of Borongan, and by Rafael Lim y Montiano, bishop of Laong. His episcopal motto was Viam Veritatis Elegi. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lipa, August 22, 1973. Coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Cebu, April 13, 1981. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Cebu, August 24, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Pietro e Paolo a Via Ostiense, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; president delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. The Cultural Center of the Philippines awarded him the Outstanding Filipino Award in 1998. He also received honorary doctoral degrees from the University of Santo Tomas, Ateneo de Manila University; and from San Carlos University in Cebu. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Cebu in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on October 15, 2010. He was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor, Jose Serofia Palma, until then archbishop of Palo, on January 13, 2011. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 6, 2011.

Death. October 18, 2017, Perpetual Succor Hospital, Cebu City, due to an infection leading to septic shock. After learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent Jose S. Palma, archbishop of Cebu a telegram of condolence (1). A wake for the cardinal has begun at Cebu’s cathedral. On October 21 his body will be brought to the St. Pedro Calungsod Shrine, inside the compound of the archbishop’s residence. His funeral will take place October 26 at 9 a.m. in the cathedral. He will be laid to rest in the mausoleum at the back of the cathedral’s sacristry..

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles. "Philippine episcopology (V. 1970-1980)." Boletín Eclesiástico de Filipinas, LXV, 720-721 (November-December 1989), 830.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, The Official Website of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines; biography, in English, archdiocese of Cebu; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Senate Resolution No. 306 of the 15th Congress of the Philippines honoring Cardinal Ricardo J. Vidal, Adopted on 12/7/2010; Prayers sought for Cardinal Vidal, The Manila Times, October 16, 2017; Cebu Archbishop Emeritus Cardinal Vidal dies at age 86, CNN Philippines, Updated 09:30 AM PHT Wed, October 18, 2017; Cordoglio del Pontefice per la morte del cardinale Vidal, L'Osservatore Romano, 18 ottubre 2017; Cordoglio del Papa per la morte del cardinale filippino Vidal, Radio Vaticana, 2017-10-18; Cebu's Archbishop Emeritus Ricardo Cardinal Vidal dies by Mars W. Mosqueda Jr, rappler.com, published 9:03 AM, October 18, 2017; updated 4:48 PM, October 18, 2017; Philippine cardinal who fought Marcos’ dictatorship dies, ucanews.com, Manila, Philippines, October 18, 2017; Pésame del Papa Francisco por fallecimiento de Cardenal filipino, ACI, Vaticano, 18 Oct. 17 / 10:16 am; Muerte del Card. Vidal: El Papa agradece su defensa del diálogo y la paz para Filipinas by Rosa Die Alcolea, Zenit, 19 octubre 2017; Cardinal Ricardo Vidal, champion of peace and voice of sobriety, dies at 86 by Ador Vincent S. Mayol, Inquirer Visayas / 12:18 AM October 19, 2017.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

The Most Reverend Jose S. Palma
Archbishop of Cebu
Deeply saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal Ricardo Vidal, I extend my sincere condolences to you, and to the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the Archdiocese of Cebu. Joining with you in expressing profound gratitude for the late Cardinal’s untiring and devoted service to the Church, and for his constant advocacy of dialogue and peace for all the people in the Philippines, I commend his soul to the infinite love and mercy of our heavenly Father. As a pledge of consolation and hope in the Lord, to all who mourn his passing in the certain hope of the Resurrection, I willingly impart my Apostolic Blessing.

FRANCISCUS PP.


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(44) 11. GULBINOWICZ, Henryk Roman
(1923-

Birth. October 17, 1923, Szukiski, archdiocese of Vilnius, Poland (now Lithuania). Son of Antoni Gulbinowicz and Waleria z Gajewskich. Baptized in the church of Our Lady of the Scapular and St. George in Bujwidze, by the parish priest Aleksander Dulko. He received the sacrament of confirmation in in 1940 in Vilnius from Romuald Jałbrzykowski, archbishop of Vilnius. His parents altered his birth records, with the help of a local priest, so that he could avoid being enlisted in the Red Army of the Soviet Union, or sent to a labor camp (1); 1928 was entered as the year of birth; the correct year of birth was not publicly acknowledged until February 2005.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Vilnius; at the Seminary of Białystok; and at the Catholic University of Lublin, where he obtained a doctorate in moral theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 18, 1950, pro-cathedral of the Assumption, Białystok, by Romuald Jałbrzykowski, archbishop of Vilnius; incardinated in the diocese of Białystok, Poland. Pastoral ministry in Białystok, 1950-1951. Further studies, 1951-1955, Lublin. Chaplain of the Academy of Bialystok, 1956-1959. Faculty member, Seminary of Warmia, Warmia, and officer in the diocesan curia of Olsztyn, 1959-1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Acci and apostolic administrator of Białystok, Polish territory of the archdiocese of Vilnius, January 12, 1970. Consecrated, February 8, 1970, pro-cathedral of the Assumption, Białystok, by Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw, assisted by Józef Drzazga, titular bishop of Siniando, apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, for the Central and Southern part of the diocese of Warmia, and by Kazimierz Majdański, titular bishop of Zorolo, auxiliary of Włocławek. His episcopal motto is Patientia et Caritas. He reorganization of the diaconate, and also promoted the construction of new parishes. Already in 1974 he furthered the growth of religious life in his area by creating in Białystok the Parish Catechetics Center and reviving the trimestral publication "Wiadomości Kościelne Archidiecezji w Białystoku" (Church news of the archdiocese of Białystok). Promoted to the metropolitan see of Wrocław, January 3, 1976. He established many pastoral centers in the archdiocese and, he also founded the biweekly "Nowe Życie" (New Life) and crowned the statue of the Virgin as protector of the Shrine of Wambierzyce in Silesia. He has authored a number of works in moral and doctrinal theology, and on the formation of the clergy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata Concezione di Maria a Grottarossa. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years old, October 17, 2003. The pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit, in conformity with canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, April 3, 2004.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 135-136; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 363-370.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biography, in Polish, archdiocese of Wrocław; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944, and many seminarians were pressed into military service or sent to labor camps.


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(45) 12. TZADUA, Paulos
(1921-2003)

Birth. August 25, 1921, Addifini, eparchy of Asmara of Ethiopians, then Italian colony of Eritrea (later Ethiopia).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Cheren, Asmara; at the Italian Lyceum "Ferdinando Martini", Asmara; and at the Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Milan, Italy, where he obtained a doctorate in law.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1944. Pastoral ministry in Asmara, 1944-1946; in the mission of Guarghe, south of Addis Abeba, 1946-1949. In Eritrea, faculty member, Minor Seminary, 1949-1953; further studies, Asmara, 1949-1953; in Milan, Italy, 1953-1958. Secretary to the bishop of Asmara and to the archbishop of Addis Abeba, 1960-1961. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Ethiopia. In Addis Abeba, pastoral ministry with university students and service as archdiocesan curia official; faculty member, University of Addis Abeba, 1961-1973.

Episcopate.Elected titular bishop of Abila di Palestina and appointed auxiliary of Addis Abeba, March 1, 1973. Consecrated, May 20, 1973, by Asrate Mariam Yemmeru, archbishop of Addis Abeba, assisted by François Abraha, bishop of Asmara, and by Sebhat-Leab Worku, S.D.B., bishop of Adigrat. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Ethiopia, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan archeparchy of Addis Abeba, February 24, 1977. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; member of its general secretariat, 1980-1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly the of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Nome di Maria a Via Latina, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Member of the Commission of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; one of the three president delegates. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan archeparchy, September 11, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 25, 2001. He was the first Ethiopian cardinal.

Death. December 11, 2003, in the morning, in Rome. After learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II sent Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, archbishop of Addis Abeba, a telegram of condolence (1). His exequial liturgy was presided over by Pope John Paul II, who also delivered the homily. The mass was concelebrated by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with the cardinals in the patriarchal Vatican basilica on the following Tuesday December 16. He was buried in Saints Peter and Paul Catholic Cemetery, Addis Abeba, on Sunday December 21.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

Ecc.mo Berhaneyesus Demrew Souraphiel
Arcivescovo Metropolita
Catholic Archbishop's House P.O. Box 21903
Addis Abeba Etiopia
APPRESA LA MESTA NOTIZIA DELLA SCOMPARSA DEL SIGNOR CARDINALE PAULOS TZADUA ARCIVESCOVO METROPOLITA EMERITO DI ADDIS ABEBA DESIDERO PORGERE A LEI AL PRESBITERIO ALLE COMUNITA’ RELIGIOSE ED AI FEDELI TUTTI COME PURE AI FAMILIARI DEL COMPIANTO PORPORATO L’ESPRESSIONE DEL MIO SENTITO CORDOGLIO PER IL LUTTO CHE HA COLPITO CODESTA ARCIDIOCESI DOVE EGLI ESERCITO’ CON GENEROSITA’ IL MINISTERO EPISCOPALE (.) NELL’ELEVARE FERVIDE PREGHIERE A DIO PERCHE’ CONCEDA IL RIPOSO ETERNO A QUESTO ZELANTE PASTORE IMPARTO LA CONFORTATRICE BENEDIZIONE APOSTOLICA QUALE SEGNO DI FEDE E DI SPERANZA CRISTIANA NEL SIGNORE RISORTO

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II


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(46) 13. TOMKO, Jozef
(1924-

Birth. March 11, 1924, Udavské, diocese of Kosice, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

Education. Initial studies at the local primary school; secondary education in Michalovce, 1935-1943; Theological Faculty of Sts. Cyril and Methodius, Bratislava, 1943-1944; in the fall of 1945, he was sent to Rome; resided at Collegio St. John Nepomuceno; studied at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (doctorates in theology, canon law and social sciences; dissertation: De Sancti Spiritus inhabitatione secundum B. Petrum de Tarantasia, 1951). After 1948, he was unable to return to Czechoslovakia because of the persecution by the Communist government.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1949, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry in the dioceses of Rome and Porto e Santa Rufina, 1950-1979. Economous, vice-rector and rector, Pontifical Nepomucenus College and residence, Rome, 1950-1965. Faculty member, International University Pro Deo, Rome, 1955-1956. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 5, 1959; August 3, 1963. Entered the service of the Holy See, 1962 as adjunct, Book Censorship Section, S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith; adjutant of study; capo ufficio of doctrinal section, 1966. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967; special secretary. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 17, 1970. Faculty member, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1970-1978. Undersecretary of the S.C. for Bishops, 1974. Co-founder of the religious journal of the Institute of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Rome.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Doclea and appointed secretary general of the Synod of Bishops, July 12, 1979. Consecrated, September 15, 1979, Sistine Chapel, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagaste, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Andrew Gregory Grutka, bishop of Gary, United States. His episcopal motto is Ut Ecclesia aedificitur. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; the Fifith Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; secretary general. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983; secretary general. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, April 24, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, May 25, 1985. Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and grand chancellor of Pontifical Urbanian University, May 27, 1985 until April 9, 2001. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the celebration honoring the martyrs of Uganda, Kampala, June 3, 1986. Special papal envoy to the Third Latin American Missionary Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, July 5 to 8, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of Mali, Bamaco, November 15 to 20, 1988; to the celebration of the centennial of the pilgrimage to the National Marian Shrine of Notre-Dame de la Délivrance de Poponguine, Dakar, Sénégal, December 8, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the Fourth Latin American Missionary Congress, Lima, Perú, February 3 to 8, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the centennial celebration of the establishment of the Catholic Church in Cameroun, December 1 to 8, 1991. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of the evangelization of the kingdom of Tonga, South Pacific, November 1992; to the centennial celebration of the evangelization of the archdiocese of Accra, Ghana, August 22, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the evangelization ot the Fiji Islands, Polynesia, August 15, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Member of the Presynodal Council for the Special Synod of Asian Bishops, September 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Sabina, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy for the closing ceremonies of the first of centennial of the evangelization of Namibia, Windhoek, December 8, 1996; to the ceremonies for the 150th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Port-Louis, Mauritius, October 26, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; president delegate; member of post-synodal council, May 8, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the Sixth Latin American Missionary Congress and the First American Missionary Congress, Paraná, Argentina, September 28 to October 3, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Named president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, October 23, 2001. Special papal envoy to the solemn promulgation of the Acts of the First Plenary Council of the Church in Slovenia, Ljubljana, May 18, 2002. Special papal envoy to the ceremony of the translation of the relics of Blessed Bishop Teodor Romzha, Uzhorod, Ukraine, June 28, 2003. Presided the delegation of the Holy See to the Inter-religious Congress, Astana, Kazakhstan, September 23-24, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 11, 2004. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 48th International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Guadalajara, México, October 10 to 17, 2004. Reappointed as president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, April 21, 2005. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the Slovakian National Eucharistic Congress that took place in Bratislava-Petržalka on September 18, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the First Universitarian International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Murcia, Spain, on November 9 to 13, 2005. Retired as president of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses on October 1, 2007. Papal legate to the celebrations of the 49th International Eucharistic Congress that took place in Québec, Canada, from June 15 to 22, 2008. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Greece. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the 150th anniversary of the evangelization of Taiwan, which took place in Taipei on November 22, 2009. Special papal envoy to the celebrations marking the third centenary of the consecration of the cathedral of Minsk, Belarus, which took place on October 9, 2010. On July 2, 2011, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year for the 600th anniversary of the "eucharistic miracle of Ludbreg", Croatia, to take place at the Shrine of Ludbreg, diocese of Varaždin, on September 4, 2011. On July 23, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI named him special papal envoy to the celebration for the centennial of the dedication of the cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Moscow, Russian Federation, programmed for September 25, 2011. Member of the Commission of Cardinals to investigate the leak of reserved and confidential documents on television, in newspapers and in other communications media, April 24, 2012. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebration that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, on September 8, 2012, on the occasion of the 600º anniversary of the archiepiscopal and metropolitan see of Lviv of the Latins. On June 7, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the 25th anniversary of the recovered freedom of the Greek-Catholic eparchy of Mukachevo, programmed at the Major Seminary of Uzhhorod, Ukraine, on June 28, 2014.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biography, in Slovak, Catholic Church of Slovakia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Presentaron a Benedicto XVI los resultados de la investigación sobre las cartas robadas by H. Sergio Mora, in Spanish, Zenit, el Mundo visto desde Roma, 18-06-2012; Lombardi: Commission is carrying out full scale investigation into Vatican document leaks by Alessandro Speciale, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012; Card. Tomko: Understanding for Pope, age takes its toll on body, Rome Reports, 2013-02-12 18:44:44; I migliori anni della mia vita. Il cardinale Jozef Tomko racconta il suo lungo servizio alla Chiesa, L'Osservatore Romano, 02 luglio 2014.


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(47) 14. LUBACHIVSKY, Myroslav Ivan
(1914-2000)

Birth. June 24, 1914, Dolyna, eparchy of Ivano-Frankisvk of the Ukrainians, Ukraine, Russia. Son of Eustahi Lubachivsky and Anna Oliynik.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Lviv, Lviv; at Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1942; at the Theological Faculty, Sion, Switzerland; at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he obtained a master's degree in Biblical Studies in 1943 and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a master's degree in philosophy in 1945. He also did postgraduate studies at the University of Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1938, Lviv. Pastoral ministry, Lviv, 1938-1942. Further studies, 1942-1947, Rome. In United States, 1947-1980, pastoral ministry among the Ukrainians in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Wisconsin; secretary to the archbishop of Philadelphia of the Ukraines; secretary of Ukrainian section of National Catholic Welfare Conference; faculty member, Ukrainian Seminary of Stamford. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ukrainian College of St. Josafat, Rome, 1967-1968; collaborator of Vatican Radio. Spiritual director, Ukrainian seminaries in Washington and Stamford; faculty member in several schools and colleges, 1969-1979.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Philadelphia of the Ukraines, September 13, 1979. Consecrated, November 12, 1979, Sistine Chapel, the Vatican, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Josyf Slipyj, archbishop major of Lviv, and by Maxim Hermaniuk, C.SS.R., archbishop of Winnipeg of the Ukrainians. It was the first time that Pope John Paul II celebrated in an Oriental rite. Named archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of the major archbishopric of Lviv of the Ukraines, Ukraine, March 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the see of Lviv of the Ukraines, September 7, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sofia a Via Boccea, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; one of its three president delegates. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, June 24, 1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Death. December 14, 2000, of pneumonia, in Lviv. Buried in the crypt of St. George's cathedral, Lviv.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 181.

Webgraphy. Lettera al Cardinale Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky, Arcivescovo Maggiore di Keioiku degki Ucraini, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 5 Settembre 1988; Lettera al Cardinale Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky, Arcivescovo Maggiore de Lviv degli Ucraini, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 25 marzo 1995; photographs and biography, in Ukrainian, Wikipedia; biography, in English, The Guardian; biography, in English, The Telegraph; Cardinal Myroslav L. Lubachivsky, Head Of Ukrainian Catholic Church by Monica Rhor, philly.com, December 16, 2000; biography, in English, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church; portrait and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Funeral of Patriarch Myroslav Ivan (Cardinal Lubachivsky), Eastern Rite Catholic Filipinos; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Monument to Cardinal Lubachivsky unveiled in his home town, Religious Information Service of Ukraine; his photograph, tomb and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave.


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(48) 15. DESKUR, Andrzej Maria
(1924-2011)

Birth. February 29, 1924, Deskur Palace in Sancygniów, diocese of Kielce, Poland. Of a noble Polish family of French origin. Son of Andrzej Ludwika Deskur and Stanisława Janina z Kosseckich. He had three brothers, Józef Maria, Stanisław Maria, Antoni Maria (died in 2008), and a sister, Wanda. He was baptized in the parish of Sts. Peter and Paul, Sancygniów; his baptismal name was Andrzej Maria Michał. His first name is also listed as Andrew M.; and his last name as Descours.

Education. Initial studies at the Gymnasium of Jaśle, 1933 to 1937; then, he studied at the Gymnasium Sniadecki in Kielce; he studied at Jagellonian University, Kraków, obtaining a doctorate in canon and civil law in 1945; he was the secretary of "Bratniak", at the time, the most important academic organization, whose president was Karol Wojtyla; they remained close friends throughout their lives. He entered the Seminary of Kraków in November 1945; on November 1, 1946, he received the tonsure and in the same mass, Father Karol Wojtyla was ordained a priest; in 1948, he was sent by Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha, archbishop of Kraków, to study at the Catholic University, Fribourg, Switzerland, where he obtained a doctorate in moral theology, specialty in social sciences. He also studied at the Pontifical Academy of Ecclesiastical Nobles, Rome, the Vatican school of diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 20, 1950, in the parish church of St. Bonnet-les-Oules, France, by Cardinal Pierre-Marie Gerlier, archbishop of Lyon. In that parish is the French branch of the family, estate of Descours. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Kraków. Further studies and pastoral ministry in France and Switzerland, 1950-1952. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, September 1952. Undersecretary of the Pontifical Commission for Cinema, Radio and Television, October 1, 1952. Collaborated in the redaction of the encyclical Miranda prorsus, concerning the means of social communication, issued by Pope Pius XII on September 8, 1957. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, November 17, 1958. Secretary of the Secretariat for the Press, preparatory phase of the Second Vatican Council, 1960-1962. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965 as an expert; he formed part of the conciliar commissions for bishops, the clergy, the laity, press and spectacles; along with Bishop Karol Wojtyla, auxiliary of Kraków, he made a significant contribution to the preparation of the conciliar Constitution on the Church Gaudium et Spes; and of the decree Inter mirifica; in the framework of the implementation of this conciliar decree, he contributed to the publication of the pastoral instruction Communio et Progressio; and held a series of continental meetings with the Episcopal Commissions for Social Communications. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 13, 1964. Undersecretary of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communications, 1964; its secretary, January 9, 1970; and its president, September 1973. He was one of the promoters of the radio station "Radio Veritas" for countries in Asia and Oceania. He visited about 70 countries on five continents. In 1966, 1967 and 1974, he accompanied Archbishop Agostino Casaroli, chairman of the committee for relations of the Holy See with the government of Poland; his first diplomatic trips were to Warsaw, Gniezno, Poznań and Warmia. For several years he was one of the few connectors between the Church in Poland and the Vatican.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tene, June 17, 1974. Consecrated, June 30, 1974, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto was Veritas vos liberabit. On August 15, 1974, he celebrated in St. Mary's Church, Kraków, his first mass as bishop. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. He was wheelchair-bound since October 13, 1978, after suffering a stroke, which paralyzed the left side of his body, while he was preparing to celebrate mass. In one of the very first actions of his pontificate, Pope John Paul II, hearing that Bishop Deskur had suffered a crippling stroke on the eve of the conclave, rushed to the Gemelli Polyclinic to visit his friend on the day after his election. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Promoted to archbishop, February 15, 1980. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 29 to September 28, 1983. President emeritus of the Pontifical Council of Social Communications, April 8, 1984. He was the initiator of the first religious broadcast using artificial satellites.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Cesareo in Palatio, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Academy of the Immaculate Conception, Rome, January 24, 1987. In 1991, he received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Theology of the Pontifical Academy of Theology in Kraków. He was awarded, among others, the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic and the Grand Cross of the Order of Malta. Opted for order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 29, 2004. On October 10, 2006, he was awarded by President Lech Kaczynski of Poland the Order of White Eagle. During all his years in Rome, he performed his priestly and episcopal ministry in numerous parishes. For fifteen years he devoted himself to the office of spiritual director at the pre-seminary St. Pius X. As a cardinal he was very involved in the matter of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Israel.

Death. September 3, 2011, at 6 p.m., in his apartment at Palazzo San Carlo, in Vatican City. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków, Poland. The exequial liturgy took place on Tuesday September 6, 2011, at 11:30 a.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the Papal Vatican Basilica, It was presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, in the name of Pope Benedict XVI. Cardinal Sodano also pronounced the homily. Twenty-five cardinals concelebrated, including Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, José Saraiva Martins, C.M.F., prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, and Franciszek Macharski, archbishop emeritus of Kraków, on behalf of the diocese to which the late cardinal belonged. In Kraków, on Monday September 12, 2011, Cardinal Macharski celebrated the funeral mass at the Shrine of Blessed Pope John Paul II, next to the Shrine of Divine Mercy, Kraków. Cardinal Dziwisz delivered the homily. The late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the shrine in a specially constructed marble sarcophagus (1).

Bibliography. Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 353-362.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in English, Official Website of the Deskur Family; photographs and biography, in Polish, Stowarzyszenie Rodziny Deskurów; his arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; The death of Deskur, Wojtyla' "Pope Maker", Vatican Insider, La Stampa; Close friend of John Paul II, Cardinal Deskur of Poland passes away at 87, video, in English, Rome Reports.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

SALVIFICI DOLORIS
ANDRZEJ MARIA KARDYNAL
DESKUR
29.II.1924 * 3.IX.2011


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(49) 16. POUPARD, Paul
(1930-

Birth. August 30, 1930, Bouzillé, diocese of Angers, France. Son of Joseph Poupard, a farmer, and Célestine Guéry. His baptismal name is Paul Joseph Jean.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Beaupréau; at the University Seminary of Angers; at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he earned doctorates in theology and in history; with theses on the relation between reason and faith; and relations between Church and State; and at École des Hautes Études, where he obtained a diploma.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 18, 1954, Paris, by Stanislas Courbe, titular bishop of Castoria, auxiliary of Paris, for the diocese of Angers. Faculty member, Mongazon School. Worked in the French section of the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1959-1972. Chaplain of His Holiness, March 20, 1965. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 29, 1971. Rector, Catholic Institute, Paris, 1972-1980. Vice-president, Society of French Ecclesiastical History. Awarded the Cardinal Grente Grand Prize, Academie Française. Knight of the Legion d'honor.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Usula and appointed auxiliary of Paris, February 2, 1979. Consecrated, April 6, 1979, church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, by Cardinal François Marty, archbishop of Paris, assisted by André Pailler, archbishop of Rouen, and by Jean Orchampt, bishop of Angers. His episcopal motto is Episcopus vobis vobiscum Christianus. Promoted to archbishop and appointed pro-president of Secretariat for Non-Believers, June 27, 1980. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Member of the Council of Presidency and president, executive committee of the Pontifical Council for Culture, May 20, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, May 25, 1985. President of the Secretariat for Non-Believers, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, April 19, 1988. Special papal envoy to the millennium celebration of cathedral of Verdun, France, June 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Personal papal envoy to the funeral of Cardinal Henri de Lubac, S.J., September 10, 1991, Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris, France. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. When the Pontifical Council for Dialog with Non-Believers merged with Pontifical Council for Culture, March 26, 1993, he continued as president of the new dicastery, the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to the 8th centennial celebration of the rebuilding of the cathedral of Chartres, September 11, 1994. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the closing ceremony of the centennial of the evangelization of Ivory Coast, Gran-Bassan, September 9 to 10, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Prassede, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 9th centennial of the consecration of Saint-Sernin's basilica, Toulouse, France, May 24 to 26, 1996. Special papal envoy to the 4th centenary of the birth of St. Jean-François Regis, Lalouvesc, diocese of Viviers, France, June 22, 1997. Special envoy to the closing ceremonies for the 1st centenary the of death of Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and the Holy Face, diocese of Bayeux-Lisieux, France, September 28 to October 5, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Special papal envoy to the commemoration of the millennium of the election of Pope Silvester II, April 11, 1999, Aurillac, France. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president delegate. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the first National Eucharistic Congress of Ivory Coast, Abidjan, April 29, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the millennium of the birth of Pope St. Leo IX, Eguisheim, France, June 23, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Ninth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog, post united to his other presidency, March 11, 2006; he occupied the post until September 1, 2007. Member of the honorary board of the International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, December 2006. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. On September 3, 2007, the pope accepted his resignation, for reasons of age, to the post of president of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Special papal envoy to preside over the 22nd International Mariological Marian Congress that took place in Lourdes, France, from September 4 to 8, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the seventh centennial of the beginning of the Avignonese stay of the Roman pontiffs, 1309 to 1377. The celebrations took place in Avignon, France, on March 7 and 8, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 30, 2010. In April 2012, he willed his personal library and vast archive, together with other precious material, including some paintings by Jean Guitton to the diocese of Crema, Italy. The Fondazione Paul Poupard, named after him, is situated in via Matteotti 41, Crema. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the jubilar year dedicated to the Venerable Servant of God Pauline Jaricot, in the 150th anniversary of her death and in the 50th anniversary of the decree of the heroism of her virtues, programmed for Lyon, France, on January 9, 2013. Named special papal envoy to the celebration of the millennium of the foundation of the cathedral of Strasbourg planned for August 15, 2015. On April 22, 2017, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 7th centennial of the enclave of the Popes in Avignon, France, programmed for June 23-25, 2017.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3240; Poupard, Paul. Science et foi. Tournai : Desclée international, 1982. (Athéisme et dialogue, 2).

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Entretien inédit : Cardinal Paul Poupard , in French, published on Mar 17, 2012 by KTOTV, You Tube; Poupard: "Così il profeta Maritain influenzò Paolo VI " by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 4/12/2013; Pope appoints Card Poupard special envoy for 700th anniversary of the enclave of the Popes in Avignon, Vatican Radio, 17/06/2017 15:16; I Papi ad Avignone. Settimo centenario, L'Osservatore Romano, 24 giugno 2017; Il papato avignonese. Celebrazioni per i settecento anni, L'Osservatore Romano, 26 giugno 2017.


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(50) 17. VACHON, Louis-Albert
(1912-2006)

Birth. February 4, 1912, Saint-Frédéric-de-Beauce, archdiocese of Québec, Canada. The only boy of the family of six children of Napoléon Vachon and Alexandrine Gilbert.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Québec (classics; bachelor of arts, 1934); then, at the Grand Seminary of Québec (theology); later, at the University of Laval, Québec, where he obtained a doctorate in philosophy in 1947; finally, at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in theology in 1949.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 11, 1938, Québec, by Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve, archbishop of Québec. Further studies, Québec and Rome, 1938-1949. Professor of philosophy at the University of Laval, 1941-1947; professor of theology, 1949-1955. Rector of the Grand Seminary of Québec, 1955-1958. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, April 24, 1958. Vice-rector, University of Laval, 1959; rector, 1960-1972. Superior general of the Seminary of Québec, 1960-1977. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Québec, 1960-1981. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, October 1, 1962.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Mesarfelta and appointed auxiliary of Québec, April 4, 1977. Consecrated, May 14, 1977, Québec, by Cardinal Maurice Roy, archbishop of Québec, assisted by Jean-Marie Fortier, archbishop of Sherbrooke, and by Lionel Audet, titular bishop of Tibari, auxiliary of Québec. His episcopal motto was Superemineat caritas. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Québec, March 20, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Paolo della Croce a "Corviale", May 25, 1985. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 4, 1992. He retired first in Québec and then in Beauport. For several years, due to health problems, he had lived in a residence for aged persons in the region of Québec. He received eleven honorary doctorate degrees, among them from the universities of Strasbourg, France, and Notre-Dame, Indiana, United States of America.

Death. September 29, 2006, Québec. The body was exposed in the Seminary of Québec, and later, in the cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec, on Wednesday October 4, 2006 from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., with a liturgical celebration at 7:30 p.m., and on Thursday October 5th from 9 a.m. to 10:30 a.m. The funeral, presided by Cardinal Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., archbishop of Québec, and concelebrated by twenty-five Canadian bishops, took place on Thursday October 5, 2006, at 11 a.m., in the cathedral-basilica of Notre-Dame de Québec. Archbishop Luigi Ventura, nuncio in Canada, delivered a message of condolence from Pope Benedict XVI. The funeral was attended by the immediate family of the late cardinal, around 1,000 faithful, Lieutenant-governor Lise Thibault; the Anglican archbishop of Québec, Bruce Stavert; two former mayors of Québec and the current one, Gilles Lamontagne, Jean Pelletier and Andrée Boucher; the archbishop emeritus of Québec Maurice Couture; Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal; and Gilles Cazabon, bishop of Saint-Jérôme and president of the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Québec. The remains of the cardinal were buried in the crypt of the bishops in the same cathedral basilica (1).

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2202. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 853-855.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in French, archdiocese of Québec; and his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

+ LOUIS-ALBERT VACHON
CARDINAL-PRETRE DE LA SAINTE EGLISE ROMAINE
PRIMAT DU CANADA
NE A SAINT-FREDERIC-DE-BEAUCE LE 4 FEVRIER 1912
DECEDE A QUEBEC LE 29 SEPTEMBRE 2006

EVEQUE DE MESARFELTA ET AUXILIARE A QUEBEC DE 1977 A 1981
ARCHEVEQUE DE QUEBEC DE 1981 A 1990


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(51) 18. DECOURTRAY, Albert
(1923-1994)

Birth. April 9, 1923, hamlet of L'Amiteuse, Wattignies, diocese of Lille, France. Son of Paul Eugène Decourtary and Marie Louise Virginie Pouille. His baptismal name was Albert Florent Augustin. He had a brother, Eliane, who died at 17; and two sisters, Paule and Blanche, who died at a young age.

Education. Initial studies at the Minor Seminary of Haubourdin, October 1940; entered the Grand Seminary of Lille, Lille, October 1941; military service, 1945-April 1946; completed studies at the Catholic Faculties of Lille, 1948; Pontifical Gregorian University, 1948-1951 (doctorate in theology, 1951; thesis on Nicolas Malebranche); Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, 1950-1951; Pontifical Biblical Institute, Jerusalem, July-December 1962.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1947, Lille, by Cardinal Achille Liénart, bishop of Lille. Further studies, Rome, 1948-1951; while in Rome, he was chaplain of the church of Saint-Louis des Français. Successively, 1952-1966, professor of Holy Scripture, Grand Seminary of Lille, 1952-1962; responsible for the formation of young priests of the diocese of Lille, 1958; responsible for the pastoral of the Grand Seminary of Lille, 1958; judge at the officialité of Lille, 1961; member of the episcopal commission of the clergy, 1965; vicar general of the diocese of Lille, 1966 and archdeacon of Roubaix, 1966; and responsible for the public schools chaplains.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ippona Zárito and appointed auxiliary of Dijon, May 27, 1971. Consecrated, July 3, 1971, cathedral of Lille, by Adrien Gand, bishop of Lille, assisted by André-Jean-Marie Charles de la Brousse, bishop of Dijon, and by Jean-Baptiste-Étienne Sauvage, bishop of Annecy. His episcopal motto was In simplicitate. Transferred to the see of Dijon, April 22, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lyon, October 29, 1981. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of France, 1981-1987; its president, 1987-1990. Prelate of the Mission de France, April 23, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, May 25, 1985. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, January 20, 1986. Office of the Légion d'Honneur, 1986. Elected, for one year, president of the Council of the Christian Churches of France, November 17, 1987. Received the first prize of the Droits de l'Homme, February 5, 1988. Resigned the prelature, October 1, 1988. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 16th centennial of the martyrdom of St. Maurice and his companions of the Theban Legion and the 16th centennial of the first basilica built in their honor, abbey of St. Maurice de Agaune, Switzerland, September 22, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Received the prize "Action humanitaire" of B' nai B' rith, November 17, 1991. Elected member of the Academie Française, June 1, 1993; reception, March 10, 1994 (1). He resided at 1 place de Fourvière, Lyon 5ème (Rhône).

Death. September 16, 1994, at 5:30 p.m., of a cerebral hemorrhage, while hospitalized shortly after collapsing in his apartment and falling into a deep coma from which he never emerged, in Hôpital Louis Pradel, 59 boulevard Pinel, in Bron, a bordering commune of Lyon. The funeral took place on September 22, 1994, presided over by Cardinal Roger Etchegaray, in the metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Saint-Jean-Baptiste of Lyon; after the funeral he was buried in the crypt of that cathedral.

Bibliography. Barrillot, Bruno. Albert Decourtray : un évêque au fil des jours. Paris : Les éditions ouvrières, 1989 . (A pleine vie.; Variation: Collection "A pleine vie); Berthod, Bernard ; Ladous, Régis. Le cardinal Decourtray. Lyon : LUGD, 1996. (Hommes et Régions); Decourtray, Albert ; Sève, André. Le cardinal Decourtray : 22 entretiens avec André Sève. Paris : Le Centurion, 1986. (Les Interviews; Variation: Interviews [Centurion Firm]); Decourtray, Albert ; Schumann, Maurice. Réception de M. le Cardinal Albert Decourtray : discours prononcés dans la séance publique le jeudi 10 mai 1994 ; [réponse de M. Maurice Schumann au discours de M. le Cardinal Albert Decourtray]. Paris : Palais de l'Institut : Imprimerie nationale, 1994. (Institut (Paris, France) ; 1994-4); Decourtray, Albert ; Domenach, Nicolas ; Szafran, Maurice. Le testament inachevé : entretiens avec Nicolas Domenach et Maurice Szafran. Paris : Flammarion, 1994; Hommage au cardinal Decourtray à la suite de sa réception à l'Académie française. Bulletin de l'Institut catholique de Lyon. Avril-juin 1994, no 105; Huvet, Michel. Les années Decourtray, 1971-1981, un évêque à Dijon. Précy-sous-Thil : Editions de l'Armancon, 1990; Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3183; Sauzay, Laurent. Le cardinal Decourtray et les médias. Thèse de maîtrise. Université Jean-Moulin Lyon III, 1991; Sauzay, Laurent. "Histoire de la conversion d'un évêque aux médias. Le cas de Mgr Albert Decourtray, cardinal-archevêque de Lyon, 1981-1994." Cahiers d'histoire XLI (1996) pp. 529-551.

Webgraphy. His photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is a list of his works, taken from the site of the Academie Française: Foi et raison chez Malebranche, 1949; Livre de la Sagesse, 1955; Osée, 1962; Elisabeth de la Trinité, un prophète de Dieu pour notre temps, 1979; Présence d'Elisabeth de la Trinité, 1980; Vingt-deux entretiens avec André Sève (Le Centurion), 1986 ; Une voix dans la rumeur du monde (Le Centurion), 1988; Un évêque et Dieu (Fayard), 1989; Comment vivre le Sacrement de la Pénitence, 1992; Le testament inachevé (posthume), 1994.


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(52) 19. CASTILLO LARA, S.D.B., Rosalio José
(1922-2007)

Birth. September 4, 1922, San Casimiro, diocese of Maracay, Venezuela. Son of Rosalio Castillo Hernández and Guillermina Lara Peña. He was the third of seven children, five boys and two girls. Nephew of Lucas Guillermo Castillo, archbishop of Caracas.

Education. Received his initial primary instruction from his mother at home; then, he was sent to Colegio Don Bosco, Valencia, 1934-1935 (from fourth grade); studied at the Salesian Lyceum "San José", Los Teques, 1935-1940. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco) at the novitiate of Bogotá, Colombia, in 1940; continued his formation at Salesian houses of study, Colombia, 1940-1949; at the Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, Italy, from 1950, obtaining a doctorate in canon law in October 1953, summa cum laude; his thesis director was Father Alfons Maria Stickler, S.D.B., future cardinal; and also attended the University of Bonn, Germany.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 4, 1949, church of "María Auxiliadora, Sarría, Caracas, by his uncle. Celebrated his first mass in the chapel of the archbishopric, assisted by his uncle and in the presence of his mother, siblings and relatives (his father had died shortly before his ordination). Director of studies, St. Joseph Institute, Los Teques, 1949-1950. Further studies, 1950-1953, Turin. President of the Venezuelan Association of Catholic Educators, 1953. Professor of canon law at the Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1954-1957; 1957-1965, Rome, when the faculty of canon law was transferred to that city. Further research, 1962, Bonn. Numerary member of the Institute of Research and Study in Medieval Law, Toronto. Provincial of the Salesian Society in Venezuela, January 1966-August 1967; regional assistant of congregation for Latin America, Southern Cone, 1967-1971; general counselor for pastoral care for youth, 1971-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Precausa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Trujillo, Venezuela, March 26, 1973. Consecrated, May 24, 1973, Caracas, by Cardinal José Humberto Quintero Parra, archbishop of Caracas, assisted by Francisco José Iturriza Guillén, S.D.B., bishop of Coro, and by José León Rojas Chaparro, bishop of Trujillo. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, February 12, 1975. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. President of the Disciplinary Commission of the Roman Curia, October 5, 1981. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law, May 22, 1982. Promoted to the rank of archbishop, May 26, 1982. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, January 18, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora di Coromoto in S. Giovanni di Dio, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Commission for the Authentic Interpretation of the Code of Canon Law, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, December 6, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 31, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the 4th National Marian Congress, Guanare, Venezuela, May 29 to 31, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the presidency of Administration, June 24, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 29, 1996. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the Fifth Centennial of St. John of God's Birth, Granada, Spain, March 7 to 8, 1996. Resigned the presidency, October 14, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Returned to Venezuela in 1997 and lived in Güiripa, in San Casimiro, Aragua. Special papal envoy to the Third Colombian National Eucharistic Congress, Cali, October 16 to 18 1999. Special papal envoy to the Second Regional Eucharistic Congress of the Antilles, May 18-21, 2000, Castries, St. Lucie. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of Argentina, Córdoba, September 8 to 10, 2000. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 4, 2002.

Death. October 16, 2007, at 7:40 a.m., in "Centro Médico de Caracas", Venezuela, where he had been hospitalized since September 19, 2007, due to an acute respiratory deficiency. The body of the cardinal was exposed in capilla ardiente in Templo Nacional de San Juan Bosco de Altamira, Caracas. The exequial mass was held on Thursday October 18, 2007, at noon, in Templo San Juan Bosco de Altamira, presided by the papal representative, Cardinal Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez, archbishop of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Later, the body of the late cardinal was taken to San Casimiro, State of Aragua, where a eucharistic was be celebrated at 4 p.m. After the mass, the body was taken to the city of Güiripa, State of Aragua, where, at 7 p.m., a mass was celebrated, and then, the capilla ardiente continued. On Friday October 19, 2007, at 11 a.m., in the chapel of María Auxiliadora, Güiripa, an exequial mass was concelebrated by the Venezuelan episcopate as a final farewell; the inhumation took place in that chapel.

Bibliography. Castillo Lara, Rosalio José ; Roberto Giusti. Memorias inconclusas del Cardenal Rosalio Castillo Lara. Caracas : Editorial Libros Marcados, 2007.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(53) 20. WETTER, Friedrich
(1928-

Birth. February 20, 1928, Landau, diocese of Speyer, Germany. Third child of Peter Wetter, a railroad worker, and his wife Hedwig Agnes; they also had two daughters: Elisabeth Hedwig Wetter, since 1933 Sister Immolata Wetter CJ, superior general of the Congregatio Iesu (Maria-Ward-Sisters) from 1976 to 1984; and Hildegard Wetter, a grammar school teacher.

Education. Elementary school and high school in Landau; then stduied at the Philosophical Faculty of St. George, Frankfurt; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1948-1956 (doctorate in theology, 1956); resided at the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, Rome; and also studied at the Theological Faculty, Münich.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 10, 1953, Rome, church of Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum, by Cardinal Clemente Micara, vicar general of Rome. Further studies, 1953-1956. Chaplain, St. Josef, Speyer, and professor of religion at Nikolaus-von-Weis School, 1956-1958. Assistant and lecturer at the Seminary of Speyer, 1958-1960. Auxiliary priest in Glanmuenchweiler, 1960-1961. Given time off to prepare for his "Habilitation", 1961-1962. Professor of fundamental theology at the Superior Institute of Philosophy and Theology, 1962-1967. "Habilitation" in München with Professor Dr. Michael Schmaus. Professor of dogmatic theology, University of Mainz, 1967-1968; honorary professor, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Speyer, May 28, 1968. Consecrated, June 29, 1968, cathedral of Speyer, by Isidor Markus Emanuel, titular bishop of Marazane, former bishop of Speyer, assisted by Hermann Volk, bishop of Mainz, and by Alfred Kleinermeilert, titular bishop of Pausula, auxiliary of Trier. His episcopal motto is Pax vobis. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, October 28, 1982.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Awarded an honorary doctorate by the Catholic Theological Faculty of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, München, 1997. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Awarded the medal of honor "Palladion" of Greek culture, on December 30, 2002 as acknowledgment of his support to the Greek Orthodox Church in Bavaria. Awarded the "Bavarian Janus 2003" by the Bavarian minister of State for science, research and art; the "Bavarian Janus" is an acknowledgment prize, which is assigned in the Bavarian Archives Day, which unites public and private archives in the Free State of Bavaria. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Münich und Freising was accepted by the pope, in conformity to canon 401 § 1of the Code of Canon Law, on February 2, 2007; he was the apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on February 2, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the archdiocese of Bamberg, Germany, July 8, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old on February 20, 2008.

Bibliography. Landersdorfer, Anton. " Wetter, Friedrich." Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, pp. 306-307.

Webgraphy. Photograph, coat of arms and biography, in German; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(54) 21. PIOVANELLI, Silvano
(1924-2016)

Birth. February 21, 1924, Ronta di Borgo San Lorenzo, Mugello, archdiocese of Florence, Italy. His father was bricklayer and his mother was a housewife. He had one brother, Paolo, who was married to Cesarina and had two children, Antonella and Luca.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Florence from 1935 to 1947; and at the University of Florence.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1947, Florence, by Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence. In the archdiocese of Florence, from 1947 to1948, he was parochial vicar in Rifredi of Monsignor Giulio Facibeni, future Servant of God, who was the founder of the Opera Madonnina del Grappa. Faculty member and vice-rector of the Minor Seminary of Florence from Otober 1948 until 1961. Pastor of Castelfiorentino from 1961 until 1979. Named chaplain of His Holiness on October 26, 1966. Pro-vicar general of Florence and, later, vicar general, 1979-1982.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tubune di Maritania and appointed auxiliary of Florence, May 28, 1982. Consecrated, June 24, 1982, metropolitan cathedral basilica S. Maria del Fiore, Florence, by Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, archbishop of Florence, assisted by Antonio Bagnoli, bishop emeritus of Fiesole, and by Giovanni Bianchi, bishop of Pescia. His episcopal motto was In Verbo tuo. Vicar capitular of Florence at the death of Cardinal Benelli, October 26, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Florence, March 18, 1983. From 1985 to 2001, he was president of the Tuscan Episcopal Conference.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, May 25, 1985; received red biretta and title of S. Maria delle Grazie a Via Trionfale, May 25, 1985. He hosted the visit of Pope John Paul II to Florence on October 18 and 19, 1986, during which Teresa Maria della Croce, la Bettina di Campi Bisenzio, was beatified. He celebrated the 34th diocesan synod from May 21, 1988 to October 11, 1992. From 1990 until 1995, he was vice-president of the Italian Episcopal Conference. During his episcopate he wrote ten pastoral letters and continued and concluded the pastoral visit to all the parishes of the archdiocese. He founded "Radio Toscana", a regional radio station. He promoted the development of Caritas. He established the Diocesan Institute for the Sustenance of the Clergy and supported the shift of the Florentino Theological Institute to become the Theological Faculty of Central Italy in 1997. He established the Diocesan Office for the catechesis trhrough art. During his episcopate were introduced the causes of beatification of Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa; of the founder of the Madonnina del Grappa don Giulio Facibeni; and of the "saintly mayor' Giorgio La Pira. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 21, 2001. He was president, from 2001 to 2005, of Italian Federation of Spiritual Exercises (FIES). Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, February 21, 2004. In 2014, he received an honorary doctorate in Biblical theology from the Theological Faculty of Central Italy for his tireless activity in the promotion of the study and reading of the Bible. During his episcopal ministry in Florence, he wrote ten pastoral letters: «Cinque pani e due pesci» (1983); «Lasciatevi riconciliare» (1985); «A ciascuno secondo il suo bisogno» (1986); «Siate testimoni» (1993); «Prodigatevi nell’opera del Signore» (1994); «Andiamo alla Casa del Signore» (1996); «Tu credi in Gesù Cristo» (1998); «Lo Spirito dà la vita» (1999); and «Proclamiamo l’anno di grazia del Signore» (2000). He prepared his spiritual testament on June 13, 2016.

Death. July 9, 2016, 4:20 a.m., at the Convitto Ecclesiastico known as della Calza of Florence, a few days after receiving a phone call from Pope Francis, holding a rosary in his hands. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Giuseppe Betori, archbishop of Florence (1). The exequies for the late cardinal were celebrated on Tuesday July 12, 2016 at 6 p.m. in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa Maria del Flore, presided over by Cardinal Betori. Burial took place in the sepulchre of the Florentine bishops in the crypt of San Zanobi in that metropolitan cathedral.

Bibliography. Mancini, Marcello ; Pallanti, Giovanni. Il parroco cardinale. Vita di Silvano Piovanelli. Milano : San Paolo, 2016; Il vescovo fra storia e teologia. Saggi in onore del card. Silvano Piovanelli. Bologna : Edizioni Dehohiane, 2000.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Piovanelli, il cardinale di 90 anni che usa power point by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 20/02/2014; his spiritual testament, L'Osservatore Romano, Anno CLVI n. 163 (47.298), Città del Vaticano, lunedì-martedì 18-19 luglio 2016, p. 7; Muore Piovanelli, il cardinale cappellano by Andrea Tornielli, Città del Vaticano, Vatican Insider, 9 luglio 2016; Si è spento il card. Piovanelli. Francesco: ha amato tenacemente la Chiesa, with audio, Radio Vaticana, 2016-07-09; L'ultima intervista al cardinale Silvano Piovanelli by Riccardo Bigi, toscanaoggi.it, Domenica 10 Luglio 2016.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
A Sua Eminenza Rev.ma il Signor Cardinale Giuseppe Betori
Arcivescovo di Firenze
Arcivescovado - Piazza S. Giovanni, 3
50123 Firenze
Ho appreso con tristezza la notizia della morte del Cardinale Silvano Piovanelli, dopo lunga infermità, vissuta con animo sereno e con fiducioso abbandono alla volontà del Signore. Desidero esprimere a Lei, all'intera comunità diocesana di Firenze e ai familiari del compianto Porporato la mia profonda partecipazione al loro dolore. Penso con affetto a questo caro fratello nell'episcopato, che ha servito con gioia e sapienza il Vangelo e ha amato tenacemente la Chiesa, ricordandone con gratitudine l'intensa opera pastorale profusa dapprima quale zelante presbitero e Vescovo ausiliare e poi come guida sollecita e saggia di codesta Arcidiocesi. Elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione di san Giovanni Battista e della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo fedele servitore e insigne pastore nella Celeste Gerusalemme, e di cuore imparto a Lei, alla cara Chiesa fiorentina e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato la benedizione apostolica.

FRANCISCUS PP.


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(55) 22. SIMONIS, Adrianus Johannes
(1931-

Birth. November 26, 1931, Lisse, diocese of Rotterdam, Holland. Eldest of eleven siblings. His father was a dentist.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hageveld from 1945 to 1951; at the Major Seminary of Warmond from 1951 to 1957; at the Pontifical University of San Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), Rome; and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a doctorate cum laude in Sacred Scripture, with a thesis: concerning Jesus as the good shepherd in the gospel of Saint John. Received the diaconate on September 22, 1956, from Johannes Petrus Huibers, bishop of Haarlem, in the chapel of the Major Seminary, Warmond.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1957, cathedral of Saint Laurentius aan de Westzeedijk, Rotterdam, by Martinus Antonius Jansen, first bishop of Rotterdam. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Rotterdam, 1957-1959: curate of the parish of Saint Victor in Waddinxveen; and a year later, curate of the parish Holy Martyrs Gorinchem in Rotterdam. Further studies, Rome, 1959-1966. From 1966 to 1970, pastor of the parish of Blessed Sacrament in The Hague; and chaplain in the Red Cross Hospital. Designated by the episcopate as a participant in the third, fourth and sixth sessions of the pastoral council, 1966-1971, in Noordwijkerhout. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Rotterdam, March 1969.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Rotterdam, December 29, 1970. Consecrated, March 20, 1971, cathedral of Saints Laurentius and Elisabeth, Rotterdam, by Cardinal Bernard Jan Alfrink, archbishop of Utrecht, assisted by Petrus Joannes Moors, bishop of Roermond, and Johannes Willem Maria Bluyssen, bishop of 's-Hertogenbosch. His episcopal motto is Ut cognoscant te. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor, with right of succession, of Utrecht, June 27, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Utrecht, December 3, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Clemente, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Holland. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. On April 14, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Utrecht, Holland, presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law; the cardinal was apostolic administrator of the see until the installation of his successor on January 26, 2008. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 26, 2011.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Dutch, archdiocese of Utrecht; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(56) 23. GAGNON, P.S.S., Édouard
(1918-2007)

Birth. January 15, 1918, Port-Daniel, diocese of Gaspé, Canada. Of a family that had thirteen children.

Education. Primary studies, 1923-1930, Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Montréal, where his family had moved in 1921 for economic reasons; classic studies in private schools, 1930-1935; Collège de l'Assomption, University of Montréal, Montréal (bachelor in arts, 1936; doctorate in theology,1941, dissertation: La lecture de l'Écriture sainte par les fidèles); Grand Seminary of Montréal, Montréal (licentiate in theology, 1940); University of Laval, Québec (doctorate in canon law, 1944; dissertation: La censure des livres, 1944). Entered the novitiate of the Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice, 1944; did his solitude in the Seminary of Philosophy; admitted to the Society in 1945.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 15, 1940, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, Contrecoeur, by Anastase Forget, bishop of Saint-Jean-de-Québec. Further studies, Québec, 1941-1944. Professor of moral and canon law at the Grand Seminary of Montréal and at Pius XI Institute, 1945-1954. Director of the journal Le Séminaire, 1946-1954. Auditor of the ecclesiastical tribunal of the archdiocese of Montréal, 1947-1954. Secretary, Office of Clergy, Montréal, 1952-1954. Supervisor of the archdiocesan vacation colony at Contrecoeur, 1947-1954. Preacher of retreats. Rector, Major Seminary of St. Boniface, Manitoba, 1954-1960; 1965-1966; professor and diocesan consultor. Director, Major Seminary of Manizales, Colombia, 1961-1965. Attended, at the request of the Canadian bishops, the third and fourth sessions of the Second Vatican Council, 1964-1965, as an expert in charge of lay auditors. Secretary of the Pontifical Commission for Social Communication, September 1966. Provincial of the Society in Canada, Japan, and Latin America, 1966-1970.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint Paul in Alberta, February 19, 1969. Consecrated, March 25, 1969, St. Paul, by Emmanuele Clarizio, titular archbishop of Claudiopolis in Isauria, pro-nuncio in Canada, assisted by Anthony Jordan, O.M.I., archbishop of Edmonton, and by Maurice Baudoux, archbishop of Saint Boniface. His episcopal motto was Christus lux mea. Resigned the pastoral government of diocese, May 3, 1972. Rector of the Pontifical Canadian College, Rome, 1972-1973. First vice-president of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, January 11, 1973; president, 1974. Head of the Vatican delegation to the International Population Conference, Bucharest, Rumania, August 19 to 30, 1974. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Vice-president of the Pontifical Committee for the Family, December 10, 1976. Attended the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Promoted to the titular see of Giustiniana prima and appointed pro-president of the Pontifical Council for the Family, July 7, 1983. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Elena fuori Porta Prenestina, May 25, 1985. President of the Pontifical Council for the Family, May 27, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Resigned the presidency, November 8, 1990. President of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Congresses, January 3, 1991. Officer of the Order of Canada, 1993. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Marcello, January 29, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 15, 1998. Ceased as president of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses, March 2001. Cardinal patron of the Militia Templi, Catholic knights based in Tuscany.

Death. Saturday August 25, 2007, at the provincial house of the Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice, Montréal. The funeral mass was held in Notre-Dame Basilica, 116 West Notre-Dame St., Montréal, on Tuesday September 4, 2007, at 10 a.m.; Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, presided the funeral mass; and Cardinal Marc Ouellet, P.S.S., archbishop of Québec, concelebrated and gave the homily. The mortal remains of the cardinal were exposed on September 2 and 3, 2007, from noon to 8 p.m., in the chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Sacré-Cœur of the basilica of Notre-Dame. The body was buried in the crypt of the Grand Seminary of Montréal (1>.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 477-479.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta

M. LE CARD. ÉDOUARD GAGNON
NÉ À PORT-DANIEL (GASP)
LE 15 JANVIER 1918
DÉCÉDÉ À MONTRÉAL
LE 25 AOÛT 2007


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(57) 24. STICKLER, S.D.B., Alfons Maria
(1910-2007)

Birth. August 23, 1910, Neunkirchen, archdiocese of Vienna, Austria. He was the second of the twelve children of Mikeal Stickler and Teresa Schachner; his father owned a book binding business.

Education. Initial studies in Nenunkirchen; an uncle, who was a priest, sent him to the Salesian school in Vienna; there he met Fr. Giovanni Cagliero, S.D.B., future cardinal; joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); entered the Salesian novitiate in Ensdorf, Germany, August 1, 1927; first religious profession, August 15, 1928; Salesian house of study in Heleneberg, near Trier, Germany, for a year; teacher for three years in the Salesian school in Vienna, where he had studied; at the same time, concluded in scientific studies in 1931; studied philosophy from 1931 until 1933, while still teaching; in 1933, went back to Germany to study theology; in 1935, he was sent to Turin to continue his theological formation; and a year later, to Rome to finish them; Institute Utriusque Iuris, Pontifical Athenaeum of S. Apollinare, Rome; Pontifical Lateran University, Rome; studied under Dr. Stephan Kuttner; doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law, in July 1940.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 27, 1937, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1937-1940. Faculty member, canon law faculty, Salesian University, Turin, 1940-1953; dean, 1953-1958 (the university was moved to Rome in 1957); rector, 1958-1966; president of the Institutum Altioris Latinitis, 1965-1968. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1963-1965, as expert. Prefect of the Apostolic Vatican Library, March 25, 1971. Vice-president of the International Association of History of Laws and Institutions. Member of numerous legal and historical academies. Awarded a doctorate in law, honoris causa, by the Universities of Münich, Germany; and Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bolsena and appointed pro-librarian of Holy Roman Church, September 8, 1983. Consecrated, November 1, 1983, Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Rosalio José Castillo Lara, titular archbishop of Precausa, pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. His episcopal motto was Omnia et in omnibus Christus. Pro-archivist of Holy Roman Church, July 9, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro, May 25, 1985. Librarian and archivist of the Holy Roman Church, May 27, 1985; resigned posts, July 1, 1988. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 23, 1990. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 29, 1996. Among his most important works are Historia iuris canonici latini (1950); and Sacerdotium et regnum nei decretisti e primi decretalisti (1953). He also initiated the series Studia Gratiana and Studia et textus historiae iuris canonici (1).

Death. December 12, 2007, at 7:30 p.m., in his apartment in the Palace of the Holy Office, Vatican City. The exequies for the late cardinal, presided by Pope Benedict XVI, took place on Friday December 14, 2007, at 5 p.m., in the Altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. The pope delivered the homily. Several cardinals concelebrated with the pope; the two main concelebrants were Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the Cardinalitial College, and Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. After the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried, around 7 p.m., in the cemetery of the Salesian community in the catacomb of S. Callisto in Rome (2). His remains will be transferred to his deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro when the building of the definitive tomb is finished. A memorial stone placed in that church commemorates the cardinal (3). At his death, he was the oldest member of the Sacred College of Cardinals.

Bibliography. Dias, João S. Clá. Cardinal Stickler: Salesian, erudite and librarian of the Holy Catholic Church. Mount Kisco, N.Y.: The Foundation for a Christian Civilization, 1987; Mejía, Jorge María. "Alfons Maria Stickler.: in I cardinali bibliotecari di Santa Romana Chiesa : la quadreria nella Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Città del Vaticano : Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 2006. (Documenti e riproduzioni ; 7), p. 343; Stickler, Alphonso Maria. Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. Stuttgart : Belser Verlag, 1986. Responsibility: herausgegeben unter dem Patronat S.E. Kardinal Alfons Maria Stickler ; Bibliothekar Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana P. Leonard Eugene Boyle; Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler. Curante Rosalio Iosepho Castillo Lara. Roma : LAS, 1992. (Studia et textus historiae iuris canonici ; 7).

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This are his published works between 1943 and 1990, taken from Studia in honorem eminentissimi cardinalis Alphonsi M. Stickler, p. XXI-XXVIII:
1942. De Ecclesiae potestate coactiva materiali apud Magistrum Gratianum, in Salesianum 4/1942, p. 1-23; 97-119.
1944. De potestate gladii materialis Ecclesiae secundum "Quaestiones Bamber-genses" ineditas (Cod. Ms. Can. 17 Bibl. Bambergen.), in Salesianum 6/1944, p. 113-140.
1947. Der Schwerterbegriff bei Huguccio, in Ephemerides Iuris Canonici 3/1947, p. 201-242; Il potere coattivo materiale della Chiesa nella riforma gregoriana secondo Anselino da Lucca, in Studi Gregomni, Vol. II, Roma 1947, p. 235-285.
1948. Il "Gladius" nel registro di Gregorio VII, in Studi Gregoriani, Vol. III, Roma 1948, p. 89-103; Magistri Gratiani sententia de potestate Ecclesiae in Statum, in Apollinaris, 21/1948, p. 36-111.
1949. Concerning the political theories of the medieval canonists, in Traditio 7/ 1949-1951, p. 450-463.
1950. Historia Iuris Canonici Latini. Vol. I, Historia Fontium, Augustae Taurinorum 1950, pp. XVI-468.
1951. De historiographia iuridico-canonica hodierna breves observationes, in Salesianum 13/1951, p. 554-559; Il "gladius" negli atti dei concili e dei RR. Pontefici sino a Graziano e Bereardo di Clairvaux, in Salesianum 13/1951, p. 414-445; Graziano e il suo "Decretum", in Ecclesia, 1951, p. 416-420; Der heilige Don Bosco und die Reinheit der Jugend, in Der Seelsorger 21/1951, p. 403-409; in Didascalia 7/1953, p. 391-397.
1952. Centenario Grazianeo e diritto canonico classico nel Convegno di Bologna-Camaldoli-Roma, in Salesianum 14/1952, p. 590-597; Conventus Iuris Canonici VIlI exacto saeculo ex quo decretum a Gratiano editumfuit, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 77/1952, p. 347-360; Prospectus diversarum formarum professionis consiliorum evangelicorum, in Acta et Documenta Congressus Generalis de Statibus perfectionis, vol. I, Roma 1952, p. 500-506; Vergessene Bologneser Dekretisten, in Salesianum 14/1952, p. 476-503.
1953. "Sacerdotium et Regnum" nei Decretisti e primi Decretalisti. Considerazioni metodologiche di ricerca e testi, in Salesianum 1511953, p. 575-612; Studia Gratiana post octava Decreti saecularia. Collectanea historiae Iuris Canonici, curantibus G. Forchielli et A.M. Stickler, Voll. I-XIV, Bononiae MCMLIII-MCMLXVIII; curantibus + G. Forchielli et A.M. Stickler, Voll. XV-XXIV, Romae MCMLXXII-MCMLXXXIX.
1954. Le compagnie alla luce degli ultimi Documenti pontifici, Torino 1954; De primatu romano historia collectionum iuris canonici illustrato, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 79/1954, p. 409-425; "Imperator Vicarius Papae...". Die Lehren der franözsisch-deutschen Dekretistenschule des 12. und beginnenden 13. Jahrh. über die Beziehungen zwischen Papst und Kaiser, in Mitteilungen des Institut fiir Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 62/1954, p. 165-212 ; Intorno a una nuova storia del diritto canonico, in Revista Española de Derecho Canónico 9/1954, p. 479-505; Sacerdozio e regno nelle nuove ricerche attorno ai secoli XII e XIII nei decretisti e decretalisti fino alle decretali di Gregorio IX, in Miscellanea Historiae Pontificiae 18/1954, p. 1-26.
1955. L'Associazione dei divoti di Maria Ausiliatrice, in L'Immacolata Ausiliatrice. Relazioni commemorative dell'Anno Mariano 1954 (Accademia Mariana Salesiana 3), Torino 1955, p. 295-312; Decretisti bolognesi dimenticati, in Studia Gratiana, Vol. III (1955), p. 375-410.
1956. Decretistica Germanica adaucta, in Traditio 12/1956, p. 593-605; Monumenta iuris canonici. De textuum iuridicorum Corpore edendo, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 81/1956, p. 494-500; Studia et Textus Historiae ]uris Canonici, curante Alphonso M. Stockler, Vol. 1, Augustae Taurinorum 1956; Voll. 2-4, Z�rich 1964-1967; Voll. 5-6, Roma 1984-1985.
1957. Der Konkordatsgedanke in rechtsgeschichtlicher Schau, in Österreichisches Archiv für Kirchenrecht 8/1957, p. 25-38; Die Reformationsbewegungen des XVI. Jahrhunderts als verfassungsrechtliche Revolutionen, in Österreischisches Archiv für Kirchenrecht 8/1957, p. 38-48.
1958. Iter helveticum, in Traditio 14/1958, p. 462-484.
1959. Alanus Anglicus als Verteidiger des monarchischen Papsttums, in Salesianum 21/1959, p. 346-406; Problemi di ricerca e di edizione per Uguccione da Pisa e nella Decretistica classica (Congrès de Droit Canonique Médiéval), in Bibliographie de la Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique 33/1959, p. 346-406.
1960. Die Bedeutung der klassischen Kanonistik für die Geschichtswissenschaft des Mittelalters, in XIe Congrès International Historique, 1960, p. VI, 98-100.
1962. Das Mysterium der Kirche im Kirchenrecht, in Mysterium Kirche in der Sicht der theologischen Disziplinen, Vol. II, Salzburg 1962, p. 571-647; Pontificia Universitas Romana, in Seminarium N.S. 14/1962, p. 651-670;.
1964. La continenza dei diaconi nel primo millennio della Chiesa, in Salesianum 26/1964, p. 275-302; Lo sviluppo della dottrina sui poteri nella Chiesa Universale: momenti essenziali tra il XVI e il XIX secolo. A proposito di un libro recente, in Seminarium N.S. 16/1964, p. 652-673.
1965. Der Dekretist Willelmus Vasto und seine Anschauungen über das Verhaltnis der beiden Gewalten, in Études d'Histoire du Droit Canonique dédiées à Gabriel LeBras, Vol. I, Paris 1965, p. 705-728; Ordines Iudiciarii, in Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique, VII, Paris 1965, col. 1132-1143; Uguccione da Pisa, in Dictionnaire de Droit Canonique, VII, Paris 1965, col. 1355-1362.
1966. Il Decretista Laurentius Hispanus, in Studia Gratiana, Vol. IX (1966), p. 461-549.
1967. Die Glossa Duacensis zum Dekret Gratians, in Speculum Iuris et Ecclesiarum (W.M. Poöchl), Wien 1967, p. 385-392; Zur Entstehungsgeschichte und Verbreitung des Dekrets-Apparats "Ordinaturus Magister Gratianus", in Studia Gratiana, Collectanea Stephan Kuttner II. Vol. XII (1967), p. 111-141; Zur Kirchengewalt in den Glossen der Hs. 3905B Bibl. Nat. Paris, Miscellanea André Combes II, in Divinitas 11/1967, p. 459-470.
1968. Kirchenrechtsgeschichte, in Sacramentum Mundi, Vol. II, Freiburg-Basel-Wien 1968, col. 1251-1267.
1969. Universitatswesen, in Sacramentum Mundi, Vol.. IV, Freiburg-Basel-Wien 1969, col. 1081-1104; Die Zweigliedrigkeit der Kirchengewalt bei Laurentius Hispanus, in Ius Sacrum, Paderborn 1969, p. 181-206.
1970. Le esperienze storiche nei vari periodi della vita nel diritto canonico. Diritto e Pastorale nella storia della Chiesa, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 95/1970, p. 242-263 De notione et conceptu status religiosi sub aspectu historico, in Acta Conventus internationalis Canonistarum 21-25 mali 1968 Romae celebrati, Città del Vaticano 1970, p. 376-392; Nota storica sul celibato dei chierici "in sacris", in Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Atti della VI Assemblea Generale, Roma, 6-11 aprile 1970, Foglio di Lavoro N. 2, Roma 1970, p. 490-501; in L'Ossewatore Romano, 2-3 marzo 1970, p. 2, e 4 marzo 1970, p. 2.; Studi Gregoriani. Per una storia della "Libertas Ecclesiae", a cura di Alfons M. Stickler ed altri, Voll. VIII-XIII, Roma 1970-1989; Tratti salienti nella storia del celibato, in Sacra Doctrina 60/1970, p. 585-620.
1971. Ergäntzungen zur Traditionsgeschichte der Dekretistik, in Bulletin of MedievalCanon Law, N.S. vol. I, Berkeley 1971, p. 73-79; L 'évolution de la discipline du célibat dans l'Église en Occident de la fin de l'âge patristique au Concile de Trente, in Sacerdoce et célibat. Études historiques et théologiques, Publiées par Joseph Coppens, Gembloux-Louvain 1971, p. 373-442 (traduzione inglese, vedi 1972; traduzione italiana, vedi 1975); La funzione della scienza storica di diritto canonico nella codificazione pio-benedettina e per la riforma attuale del diritto canonico, in L 'Année Canonique 15/1971, p. 525-550; La genesi degli apparati di glosse dei decretisti, presupposto fondamentale della critica del loro testo, in La critica del testo, Atti del secondo Congresso Internazionale della Società Italiana di Storia del Diritto, Firenze MCMLXXI, p. 771-781.
1972. The evolution of the discipline of celibacy in the Western Church from the end of the Patristic Era to the Council of Trent, in Priesthood and Celibacy, a cura di J. Coppens, Milano-Roma 1972, p. 503-597; Importanza e funzione della cultura nella Chiesa e nelle Istituzioni ecclesiastiche di oggi, in Rivista di Pedagogia e Scienze Religiose 10/1972, p. 304-316; Der Kaiserbegriff des Bernardus Compostellanus Antiquus, in Studia Gratiana, Voi. XV (1972), (Post scripta), p. 105-124; La proprietà fondiaria della Chiesa nella società medievale, in Miscellanea Historiae Ecclesiasticae, IV, Congrès de Moscou, Août 1970, Édité par Robert Peters (Bibliothèque de la Revue d'Histoire Ecclésiastique, Fascicule 56), Louvain 1972, p. 3-42; La "sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum" nella canonistica classica, in Comunione interecclesiale - Collegialità - Primato - Ecumenismo, Acta Conventus Internationalis de Historia sollicitudinis Omnium Ecclesiarum, Romae 1967, Curantibus Iosepho D'Ercole, Alphonso M. Stickler (Communio 12-13), Roma 1972, p. 547-586.
1974. Papal infallibility - a thirteenth-century invention? Reflexion on a recent work (Tierney), in The Catholic Historical Review 60/1974, p. 427-441 (traduzione italiana, in Rivista di Storia della Chiesa in Italia 28/ 1974, p. 583-594); Die Zweigliedrigkeit der Kirchengewalt bei Franz Schmier (1689-1728), in Festschrift Nikolaus Grass, I, Innsbruck 1974, p. 349-360.
1975. Die Begegnung der Zivilisationen in Europa um 1300, in XIV International Congress of Historical Sciences, San Francisco, August 22-29, 1975; La bipartición de la potestad eclesiástica en su perspectiva histórica, in Ius Canonicum 15/1975, p. 45-74; La Bolla "Copiosus in Misericordia" di Papa Gregorio XIII, in Oratorium 6/1975, p. 29-34; Il Diritto nella Storia della Chiesa. Visione d'insieme, in Seminarium N.S. 1,5/1975, p. 749-766; Evoluzione della disciplina del celibato nella Chiesa d'Occidente dalla fine dell'Età Patristica al Concilio di Trento, in Sacerdozio e Celibato. Studi storici e teologici, Pubblicati a cura di Joseph Covppens, Milano 19.75, p. 505-601; Infallibility - A Rejoinder to Prof. Tierney, in The Catholic Historical Review 61/1975, p. 274-279 (traduzione italiana, in Rivista di Stoffa della Chiesa in Italia 29/1975, p. 230-234); Il Papa e la Curia Romana, in Il Vaticano e Roma Cristiana, Città del Vaticano 1975, p. 3-29; Persona e ordinamento nella storia della Chiesa, in Atti del II Congresso Internazionale di Diritto Canonico 1973, Milano 1975, p. 130-137.
1976. Introduction aux travaux du Colloque, in Conservation et reproduction des manuscrits etimprimés anciens. Colloque international organisé par la Bibliothèque Vaticane 21-24 oct. 1975, a cura di Alfons M. Stickler (Studi e Testi, 276), Città del Vaticano 1976, p. 80-84; La norma canonica nel primo millennio della Chiesa. III Congresso Internazionale di Diritto Canonico, Pamplona, in Ius Canonicum 16/ 1976, p. 15-38; Ursprung und gegenseitiges Verhältnis der beiden Gewalten nach den Miniaturen des Gratianischen Dekrets, in Studia Gratiana, Mélanges G. Fransen II., Vol. XX (1976), p. 339-359.
1977. La Biblioteca Vaticana come punto d'incontro e di nuove aperture alla cultura europea dal 1870 al 1914, in Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria 6/1977, p. 95-99; Il Giubileo di Bonifacio VIIL Aspetti giuridico-pastorali (Quaderni della Fondazione Camillo Caetani, 2), Roma 1977.
1978. Nome e potere del Papa eletto in un trattato di Galgano Borghese (Ms. Vat. lat. 4129), in Miscellanea in onore di Monsignor Martino Giusti, Prefetto dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Vol. II (Collectanea Archivi Vaticani, 6), Città del Vaticano 1978, p. 367-380; Rezension zu H. Fuhrmann, Einflufl u. Verbreitung der Pseudo-isidori-schen Fälschungen (voll. I un. II), in Archiv für katholischen Kirchenrecht 147/1978, p. 619-628.
1979. Georg Denzler, Das Papsttum und der Amtszölibat: Review Article; A New History of Papal Legislation on Celibacy, in The Catholic Historical Review 65/1979, p. 76-84; La norma canonica nel primo millennio della Chiesa, in La norma en el Derecho Canónico, Actas del III Congreso Internacional de Derecho Canónico, Pamplona, 10-15 de octubre de 1976, Vol. I, Pamplona 1979, p. 39-62.
1980. Enrico da Susa: la sua personalità, in Segusium 16/1980, n. 16, p. 45-48; Le pouvoir de gouvernement: pouvoir ordinaire et pouvoir délégué, in L 'Année Canonique 24/1980, p. 69-84; Prêface à: Cochini Christian, S.I., Origines Apostoliques du célibat sacerdotal (Le sycomore, série Horizon, 7), Paris - Namur [1980], p. 3-7; L'"utrumque ius" nella dottrina dei glossatori riguardante le relazioni tra Chiesa e Stato, in Il Diritto Comune e la Tradizione giuridica europea, Perugia 1980, p. 417-431.
1982. Das Buch: Seine Aufgabe, seine Gefährdung, seine Bewahrung, seine Rettung, in Sonderbeilage zum Gutenberg-Jahrbuch 1982, p. 43-51; De potestatis sacrae natura et origine, in Periodica de re morali canonica liturgica 71/1982, p. 65-91; Il diritto canonico nella pastorale di San Bernardino da Siena, in Atti del Simposio internazionale Cateriniano-Bernardiniano, Siena 17-26 aprile 1980, Siena 1982, p. 835-843; Introduzione a: Cistellini Antonio (ed.), Collectanea vetustorum et fundamentalium documentorum Congregationis Oratorii sancti Philippi Nerii (Testi e Studi Oratoriani, II), Brescia 1982, p. V-VIII; Le grandi linee di sviluppo degli stati giuridici delle persone nella Chiesa, in Monitor Ecclesiasticus 10711982, p. 190-206.
1983. Die kirchliche Regierungsgewalt in der klassischen Kanonistik: Einheit der Träger und Unterscheidung der Funktionen, in ZRG Kan. Abt. 100/ 1983, p. 267-291; La "potestas regiminis": visione teologica, in Il nuovo Codice di Diritto Canonico: novità, motivazione e significato. Atti della Settimana di Studio 26-30 aprile 1983 ("Utrumque Ius": Collectio Pontificiae Universitatis Lateranensis, 9), Roma 1983, p. 63-74.
1985. Die Ekklesiologie des Dekretisten Huguccio v. Pisa, in Proceedings of the sixth International Congress of Medieval Canon Law (Monumenta Iuris Canonici, Series C, voi. 7) Città del Vaticano 1985, p. 333-349; Ehrle, Franz, in The Encyclopedia of Library and [nformation Science, Vol. 38, Supplement 3, New York 1985, p. 145-153; Teologia e diritto canonico nella storia, in Salesianum 47/1985, p. 691-706.
1986. Gesù Cristo, Sacerdote, Re e Profeta del Popolo di Dio attraverso il suo Cuore, in Atti del Quinto Convegno Sacerdotale internazionale della Lega Sacerdotale Mariana, tenutosi a Mariazeli dal 6 all' 11 settembre 1986, p. 57-74; Theologie und Kirchenrecht in ihrer geschichtlichen Bezogenheit. Eirt Grundsatzelement zum Verständnis des neuen kirchlichen Gesetzbuches, in Heiligenkreuzer Studienreihe, Band 4, Heiligenkreuz 1986, p. 130-148 (In italiano anche in Salesianum 47/1985, p. 691-706; Teologia e Diritto Canonico [Studi Giuridici XII], Città del Vaticano 1987, p. 17-32.
1988. A 25 anni dalla Costituzione apostolica "Veterum Sapientia" di Giovanni XXIII. Rievocazione storica e prospettive, in Salesianum 50/1988, p. 367-377; Il Vescovo nella Città, in Il Vescovo e la sua Chiesa. Celebrazioni del 75º compleanno di S.E. Mons. Gilberto Baroni, Reggio Emilia 1988, p. 17-34.
1989. "Lex et Iustitia" nell' "utrumque ius": Radici antiche e prospettive attuali, in Atti del VII Colloquio internazionale Romanistico-Canonistico, Roma 12-14 maggio 1988, Prolusione, Roma 1989, p. 1-11; I presupposti storico-giuridici della Riforma Gregoriana e dell'azione personale di Gregorio VII in Studi Gregoriani, Vol. XIII, La Riforma gregoriana e l'Europa. Congresso internazionale in occasione del 9º Centenario della morte di Gregorio VII, Salerno 20-25 maggio 1985, Roma 1989, p. 1-15; Riforma della Curia: aspetto storico, in La Curia Romana. Aspetti ecclesiologici, pastorali, istituzionali. Per una lettura della "Pastor Bonus", Testo e commenti ( Quaderni de "L'Osservatore Romano", 10), Città del Vaticano 1989, p. 97-102.
1990. Le Riforme della Curia nella storia della Chiesa, in La Curia Romana nella Cost. Ap. "PastorBonus" (Studi Giuridici XXI), Città del Vaticano 1990, p. 1-15; The Vatican Hebrew Manuscript Collection against the background of the history of the Vatican Library, in Harvard Library Bulletin 1990.

(2) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Card. ALFONS M. STICKLER
N. AUSTRIA 23.8.1910        M. ROMA 12.12.2007

(3) This is the text of the inscription on the stone, kindlky provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
+
A       Ω
Cardinale ALFONS MARIA STICKLER
Neunkirchen 23 VIII 1910 - Roma 12 XII 2007


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(58) 25. LAW, Bernard Francis
(1931-

Birth. November 4, 1931, Torreón, México. Son of U.S. Army Air Corps Col. Bernard A. Law, and Helen Stubblefield, a concert painist. His father was assigned to a base in that Mexican city when Bernard was born.

Education. He attended high school in the U.S. Virgin Islands; then, he studied at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he obtained a B.A. in Medieval history; later, he attended St. Joseph Seminary, St. Benedict, Louisiana; and finally, the Pontifical Josephinum College, Worthington, Ohio.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 21, 1961, at the Pontifical College Josephinum, Worthington, Ohio, by Egidio Vagnozzi, titular archbishop of Mira, apostolic delegate to the United States. Incardinated in the diocese of Natchez-Jackson. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Natchez-Jackson, 1961-1973; director of the diocesan newspaper, 1961-1966; an active supporter of civil rights, he received death threats for his views expressed during the time he served as editor of the weekly diocesan newspaper. In 1968, he was named executive director of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' Committee on Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs. He was also executive director of the conference's council for economic affairs, 1968-1971. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 5, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, October 22, 1973. Consecrated, December 5, 1973, cathedral of St. Agnes, Springfield, by Joseph Bernard Brunini, bishop of Natchez-Jackson, assisted by William Wakefield Baum, archbishop of Washington, and by Joseph Louis Bernardin, archbishop of Cincinnati. His episcopal motto is To live is Christ. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Boston, January 11, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of S. Susanna, May 25, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Special papal envoy to the Eucharistic Congress for the countries of the Caribbean region, Port of Spain, Trinidad Tobago, April 17-20, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. He was instrumental in helping to arrange the pope's visit to Cuba in January 1998. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 6, 2000. Special papal envoy to the Peruvian National Eucharistic Congress, Lima, August 30 to September 3, 2000. On December 13, 2002, he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese and apologized for his delay and mistakes in response to allegations of sexual misconduct against priests. In 2003, he became resident chaplain at the convent of the Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Clinton, Maryland. Named archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian basilica, Rome, May 27, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on November 4, 2011. Ceased as archpriest of the papal Liberian basilica on November 21, 2011.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 167; Clark, Douglas K. "Law, Bernard Francis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 337.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English Encyclopaedia Britannica; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Former Boston archbishop Bernard Law reportedly behind Vatican crackdown on US nuns by Dara Kelly, IrishCentral, Sunday, May 6, 2012, 9:11 AM.


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(59) 26. O'CONNOR, John Joseph
(1920-2000)

Birth. January 15, 1920, Philadelphia, United States of America. Fourth child of Thomas O'Connor and Dorothy Gomple; she was of the Jewish faith and later converted to Catholicism when she met her future husband.

Education. Studied at public elementary and junior high schools, Philadelphia; at the West Catholic High School for Boys, Philadelphia; at St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, Philadelphia; at Villanova University, Philadelphia; at the University of Delaware, Wilmington; at the Catholic University, Washington; at Georgetown University, Washington, where he obtained a masters in superior ethics, clinical psychology and political science.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1945. Faculty member, St. James School and St. James School for Adults, Philadelphia; University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Military chaplain in the United States Army and Navy, in Quantico, Barstow, Okinawa, and Vietnam; chief chaplain, 1957-1979; retired, June 1, 1979. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 27, 1966.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curzola and appointed auxiliary to the military vicar for the United States of America, April 18, 1979. Consecrated, May 27, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State. His episcopal motto was There can be no love without justice. Transferred to the see of Scranton, May 6, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of New York, January 25, 1984. Apostolic administrator of the armed services, January 26, 1984 to March 16, 1985.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo, May 25, 1985. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, 1985; November 6, 1995. Special papal envoy to the Philippines National Eucharistic Congress, Manila, December 8, 1987. Attended the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three president delegates. Special papal envoy to the closing ceremonies of the centenary of the cathedral of Melbourne, Australia, October 27, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, January 15, 2000. Awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, March 7, 2000.

Death. May 3, 2000, at 8.05 p.m., of cardiopulmonary arrest, the result of brain tumor complications, in his archiepiscopal residence in New York. His funeral took place at St. Patrick's metropolitan cathedral, New York, and it was presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, secretary of State; the eulogy was delivered by Cardinal Bernard Law, who was at his bedside when he died. U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan; President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton; Vice President Al Gore; former President George H. W. Bush; Governor of Texas George W. Bush; New York Governor George Pataki and New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani were among the dignitaries who attended the funeral. He was buried in the crypt of that metropolitan cathedral (1).

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 179-180; Hentoff, Nat. John Cardinal O`Connor: At the storm center of a changing Catholic Church. New York : 1988; Shelley, Thomas J. "O'Connor, John Joseph." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp.368-370.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana..

(1) This is the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta;

+
JOHN CARDINAL O'CONNOR
1920 - 2000
ARCHBISHOP
1984 - 2000


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(60) 27. BIFFI, Giacomo
(1928-2015)

Birth. June 13, 1928, at 6 p.m., at the Istituto di Maternità "Asilo Regina Elena per le madre legittime", located at via Manfredo Fanti 6, Milan, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. At the time, the family resided at via Paolo Frisi 8. Son of Filippo Biffi, legalibri, and Isolina Bossi, a housewife.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Milan, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; in 1955, he obtained a doctorate in theology with the thesis La colpa e la libertà nell'odierna condizione umana in the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Venegono, Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1950, Milan, by Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan. Faculty member, Seminary of Milan, 1951-1960. Pastor of the populous parish of Ss. Martiri Anauniani, Legnano, May 1960 until 1969; pastor of the parish of S. Andrea, Milan, April 27, 1969. In 1974, he was named episcopal vicar for culture in 1974. Named canon theologian of the metropolitan chapter of Milan on February 1, 1975, leaving the parochial ministry. Also in 1975, he became director of the Lombardian Pastoral Institute, which he reorganized making it a useful instrument for the permanent and specialized formation of the pastoral cooperators. He was also in charge of the Congregation for the Ambrosian Rite.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Fidene and appointed auxiliary of Milan, December 7, 1975. Consecrated, January 11, 1976, in the parish church of S. Andrea, Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan, and by Libero Tresoldi, titular bishop of Altino, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was Ubi fides ibi libertas. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, April 19, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Giovanni Evangelista e Petronio, May 25, 1985. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia in 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the Thirty Second Italian National Eucharistic Congress, Siena, May 29-June 5, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese for having reached the age limit according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, December 16, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Preached the Lent spiritual exercises for the pope and Roman Curia from February 24 to March 3, 2007. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on June 12, 2008. Special papal representative to the celebrations of the Ninth centennial of the death of Saint Anselm, which took place in Aosta, Italy, from April 19 to 26, 2009. He published numerous books on diverse subjects (1).

Death. July 11, 2015, at 2:40 a.m., in the nursing home "Villa Toniolo", in Bologna, where he had undergone a difficult surgery with removal of a leg; his health had deteriorated Thursday, July 9, then slightly improved before the final collapse. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Francis sent Cardinal Carlo Caffarra, archbishop of Bologna, a telegram of condolence (2) from Asunción, Paraguay, where he is in an apostolic visit. The funeral chamber had been set up in the archiepiscopal palace of Bologna. At 8:30 a.m. took place the Office of the Dead. The funeral was held in the metropolitan cathedral of San Pietro, Bologna, on Tuesday July 14, 2015, at 10:30 a.m., presided by Cardinal Caffara, who also delivered the homily. Concelebrating with Cardinal Caffarra at the altar were Cardinals Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop emeritus of Milan, and Angelo Bagnasco, archbishop of Genoa and president of the Italian Episcopal Conference. Also concelebrating were eleven bishops. The burial took place in the crypt of the cathedral in a private ceremony.

Bibliography. Biffi, Giacomo. Memorie e digressioni di un italiano cardinale. Siena : Cantagalli editore, 2007; Biffi, Giacomo. La multiforme sapienza di Dio. Esercizi spirituali con Giovanni Paolo II. Firenze : Cantagalli, 2014; Meluzzi, Luciano. I vescovi e gli arcivescovi di Bologna. Appendice. Bologna : La Grafica Emiliano, MCMLXXXVI, p. 24-35.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Le Memorie controcorrente del cardinale Biffi by Giovanni Santambrogio, Il Sole 24 ore, 26 ottobre 2007; Funeral of Giacomo Cardinal Biffi, from the Cathedral of Bologna 14 July 2015, You Tube, published on Jul 15, 2015; Un dialogo spirituale alla pari. Nel carteggio tra Giacomo Biffi ed Emanuela Ghini by Lucetta Scaraffia, L'Osservatore Romano, 28 giugno 2017.

(1) These are some of his works: Alla destra del Padre. Nuova sintesi di teologia sistematica (1973); Contro maestro Ciliegia. Commento teologico a "Le avventure di Pinocchio" (1977); La meraviglia dell'evento cristiano (1995); Ripartire dalla verità (1997); Gesù di Nazaret centro del cosmo e della storia (2000); Pinocchio, Peppone, l'anticristo e altre divagazioni (2005).
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

A SUA EMINENZA REV.MA
IL SIGNOR CARDINALE CARLO CAFFARRA
ARCIVESCOVO DI BOLOGNA
VIA ALTABELLA, 9
40126 BOLOGNA

HO APPRESO CON TRISTEZZA LA NOTIZIA DELLA MORTE DEL CARDINALE GIACOMO BIFFI, DOPO LUNGA INFERMITÀ, VISSUTA CON ANIMO SERENO E CON FIDUCIOSO ABBANDONO ALLA VOLONTÀ DEL SIGNORE. DESIDERO ESPRIMERE A LEI, ALL'INTERA COMUNITÀ DIOCESANA DI BOLOGNA E AI FAMILIARI DEL COMPIANTO PORPORATO LA MIA PROFONDA PARTECIPAZIONE AL LORO DOLORE. PENSO CON AFFETTO A QUESTO CARO FRATELLO NELL'EPISCOPATO, CHE HA SERVITO CON GIOIA E SAPIENZA IL VANGELO E HA AMATO TENACEMENTE LA CHIESA. RICORDO CON GRATITUDINE L'INTENSA OPERA PASTORALE PROFUSA DAPPRIMA QUALE ZELANTE PRESBITERO E VESCOVO AUSILIARE DI MILANO, POI COME GUIDA SOLLECITA E SAGGIA DI CODESTA ARCIDIOCESI. E' NOTO ALTRESÌ L'INSTANCABILE SERVIZIO DA LUI RESO ALLA FORMAZIONE UMANA E CRISTIANA DI INTERE GENERAZIONI MEDIANTE L'INSEGNAMENTO E LA PUBBLICAZIONE DI DIVERSE OPERE. PARTICOLARMENTE EFFICACE RISULTAVA IL SUO LINGUAGGIO DIRETTO E ATTUALE, POSTO AL SERVIZIO DELLA PAROLA DI DIO, COME PURE L'APPREZZATA PREDICAZIONE DEGLI ESERCIZI SPIRITUALI, IN PARTICOLARE QUELLI TENUTI ALLA CURIA ROMANA. IN QUESTO MOMENTO DI LUTTO ELEVO FERVIDE PREGHIERE AL SIGNORE AFFINCHÉ, PER INTERCESSIONE DELLA BEATA VERGINE DI SAN LUCA, ACCOLGA QUESTO SUO FEDELE SERVITORE E INSIGNE PASTORE NELLA CELESTE GERUSALEMME, E DI CUORE IMPARTO A LEI, ALLA CARA CHIESA FELSINEA E A QUANTI LO HANNO CONOSCIUTO E STIMATO UNA SPECIALE BENEDIZIONE APOSTOLICA.

FRANCISCUS PP.


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(61) 28. PAVAN, Pietro
(1903-1994)

Birth. August 30, 1903, Treviso, Italy. Third of the ten children of Giuseppe Pavan and Maria Piccioli (1). The other children were Natalina (married and Englishman and lived in London); Domenico (twice mayor of Povegliano); Pietro; Lazzaro (a priest); Clemente (a carabinieri who died in 1945 fighting the Yugoslav partisans); Aldo (died at two months of age); Marcellino (died at two years of age); Angela Marcella (a nun, missionary in Nigeria); and Giovanni (a professor of letters). He was given the name Fioravante in the baptismal registry of the parish; and the name of Pietro in the municipal registry office. The father and two of his sons were prominent Christian union activists involved in the organization of the anti-Fascist Partito Populare Italiano, founded by the priest and social theorist Luigi Sturzo.

Education. Received his initial religious formation from Archpriests Giovanni Battista Volpano and Cesare Tognana; and his initial education at the state school of Povegliano, where he completed the first, second and third elementary grades; then, he attended the private Institute Mazzarollo, where he completed the fourth elementary grade; in November 1916, at 13, he entered the Seminary of Treviso (2), where he completed the first ginnasiale year, without having done the fifth elementary grade; he had to interrupt his studies from 1917 until 1919 because of the First World War; he reentered the seminary in 1918 and completed the three remaining years of ginnasiali studies; in 1921, he decided to become a missionary and entered the Pontifical Seminary for Foreign Missions (PIME); he was sent to Monza for his liceale studies; there, he became ill several times; then, he went to Milan to study theology and start his novitiate but his health worsened; finally, in 1925, he had to leave the seminary and abandon his intentions of becoming a missionary; in that year, the bishop of Treviso allowed him to return to the seminary, where he finished the last three years of theology; after his priestly ordination, he was sent by his bishop to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, while residing at the Almo Collegio Capranica; he obtained doctorates in philosophy on March 8, 1929; and in theology on January 30, 1932; later, from 1934, he attended the University of Padua and earned a doctorate in political sciences on July 6, 1936.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 8, 1928, by Andrea Giacinto Longhin, bishop of Treviso. Further studies in Rome, 1928-1932; while in Rome, he exercised his pastoral ministry in the region of Boccea, where many faithful from Treviso resided. The bishop recalled him to Treviso in 1932 and named him professor of moral theology at the Seminary of Treviso; later, he was named professor of philosophy and history at Collegio Pio X; of pedagogy at Collegio Canossiane; and of religion and philosophy at the state lyceum "A. Canova". From 1933 to 1939, he was cooperator of Pastor Carlo Bosello at the parish of S. Agnese. From the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the close of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, he was a ndefatigable sower of democratic ideals. Secretary of the Permanent Committee for the Social Weeks of the Italian Catholic from 1945 to 1953; and its vice-president from 1953 to 1965. Ecclesiastical counselor of the Catholic Institute of Social Activity, Rome, 1946. Professor of social economics at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, 1948-1969; its rector magnifico, 1969-1974 (3). Professor of political science (which he taught in Latin) at the Pontifical Gregorian University. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, May 5, 1951. Counselor to Alcide de Gasperi, Italian prime minister. He had an important role in the World Congress for Lay Apostolate celebrated in Rome in 1951; as well as in the Second World Congress of 1957; and in the continental meeting organized by the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL) for Africa in 1953; and for Asia in 1955. In 1953, Pope Pius XII named him member of the Ecclesiastical Commission of the Permanent Committee of the International Congresses for Lay Apostolate (COPECIAL). Professor at the Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., United States of America; and at the Catholic University of Montréal, Canada in 1954. Protonotary apostolic ad instar, January 11, 1962. Consultor of the SS.CC. of the Holy Office, Consistorial, and of Seminaries and Universities of Studies. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965, as an expert; member of the commission for the laity; collaborated in the redaction of the conciliar declaration on religious freedom. Vice-president of the Social Catholic Weeks of Italy. Socius of the International Union of Social Studies of Mechlen, Belgium. The Catholic University of Santiago, Chile, granted him a doctorate honoris causa. He was instrumental in the writing of Pope John XXIII's encyclicals Mater et Magistra, published on May 15, 1961; and Pacem in terris, published on April 11, 1963. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; by papal appointment. Considered a world leading authority in social teachings of the church. He wrote numerous works on social economics, sociology and democracy (4).

Episcopate. Excused from becoming a bishop, as required of new cardinals, because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon, May 25, 1985; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Francesco da Paola ai Monte, May 25, 1985. He was eighty one years of age when created a cardinal and, therefore, did not have the right to participate in the conclave.

Death. December 26, 1994, Rome. Buried in the chapel of the Daughters of the Church, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. On December 20, 1995, to commemorate the first anniversary of his death, the Daughters of the Church unveiled his bronze statue in a center and park that he had established in Viale Vaticano.

Bibliography. Biffi, Franco. Prophet of our times : the social thought of Cardinal Pietro Pavan. Hyde Park, N.Y. : New City Press, 1992; Cerro, Giovanni. "Un professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa." L'Osservatore Romano, Città del Vaticano, Anno CLII n. 139 (46.085), domenica 17 giugno 2012, pagina 4; Ciriello, Caterina. Pietro Pavan. La metamorfosi della dottrina sociale nel pontificato di Pio XII. Bologna : Società Editrice Il Mulino, 2011. (Santa Sede e politica nel novecento, 8); Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Roma : Edizioni Studium, 2004. (Coscienza studi ; 39). Note: Collected essays and papers (p. 195-271) presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003. Responsibility: a cura di Lino Bosio, Fabio Cucculelli ; prefazione di Romano Prodi. Note: Collected essays and papers presented to the symposium, Treviso, 2003; Kambalu, Lourenço F. La democrazia personalista nel pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994). Rome : Studium, 2011. (Coscienza/Studi); Longoni, Fabiano. Verso l'organizzazione politico giuridica della comunità mondiale : contributo del card. Pietro Pavan alla dottrina sociale della Chiesa. Venezia : [s.n.], 1994. Note: "Excerpta ex dissertatione ad Doctoratum in Facultate Scientiarum Socialium Pontificia[e] Universitatis Gregorianae"; Molinaro, Aniceto. "Mons. Pietro Pavan." La Pontificia Università lateranense : profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri, e dei suoi discepoli. Roma : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 257-258; Pavan, Pietro. Libertà religiosa e pubblici poteri. Milano : Editrice Ancora, 1965; Pietro Pavan tra tradizione e modernità. Roma : Agrilavoro Edizioni Srl, 1999. (Cristiani nel mondo).

Webgraphy. His photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; biography, in German, Wikipedia; biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his photograph and biography by Guy Gagnon, in English, Find a Grave; Lettera al Cardinale Pietro Pavan Diacono di San Francesco di Paola ai Monti, Giovanni Paolo II, 5 giugno 1988, Libreria Editrice Vaticana; Pietro Pavan il mio amico sapiente by Joseph Ratzinger, in Italian, in Convegno sul pensiero del cardinale Pietro Pavan dal titolo «La Sussidiarietà nel tempo della globalizzazione», sede nazionale delle Associazioni Cristiane dei Lavoratori Italiani (Acli), a Roma, il 27 ottobre 1999, Figlie della Chiesa; Le carte Pavan by Giulio Andreotti, in Italian, Editoriale, 30Giorni, nella Chiesa e nel mondo, mensile internazionale diretto da Giulio Andreotti,tratto dal n. 03 - 2003; Una sintesi del magistero sociale Card. Pietro Pavan. Le idee madri della dottrina sociale della Chiesa (1962), Una Pagina Classica. Una sintesi del magistero sociale, Oikonomia; Il professore che difendeva la persona. Il contributo di Pietro Pavan allo sviluppo della dottrina sociale della Chiesa, by Giovanni Cerro, L'Osservatore Romano, 17 giugno 2012.

(1) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his uncle, Agostino Pavan, introduced Maria, his mother, on April 25, 1903, feast of S. Marco, to Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto, patriarch of Venice, future pope Pius X and saint, while she was expecting Pietro, and the cardinal blessed the baby. The mother always said that the priestly vocation of Pietro was born on that day because she had offered her son before the patriarch to God.
(2) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 275, his mother received very well his decision to enter the seminary, but not his father, who wanted him to help in the commercial business of the family.
(3) According to Costruire l'unità della famiglia umana : l'orizzonte profetico del cardinale Pietro Pavan (1903-1994), p. 280, in 1974, after a bitter argument (amara discussione) with the pope about the caso Gennari, he submitted his resignation as rector of the Pontifical Lateran University.
(4) 283 bibliographical entries concerning Cardinal Pietro Pavan, WorldCat.

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