The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of June 28, 1988 (IV)


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(62) 1. MARTÍNEZ SOMALO, Eduardo
(1927-

Birth. March 31, 1927, Baños de Río Tobía, diocese of Calahorra y La Calzada, Spain. He had five brothers and four sisters. He has a strong affinity with the Personal Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Opus Dei: one of his sisters is a numerary, and one of his nephewis, is a priest in the Prelature.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Logroño; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained licenciatures in theology and in canon law; at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law, with the thesis entitled Il Concordato spagnolo del 1953 alla luce dei suoi due primi articoli.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1950, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Pastoral ministry; diocesan curia of Calahorra; faculty member, Institute Marco Fabio Quintiliano; further studies, in Rome. Joined Vatican Secretariat of State, August 1, 1956. Secretary of the nunciature and faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, 1957-1970. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, April 14, 1960; June 21, 1963; responsible of the Spanish section of the Secretariat of State; accompanied Pope Paul VI to the XXXI International Eucharistic Congress, Bogotá, Colombia, August 22 to 25, 1968. Counselor at the apostolic delegation in Great Britain, 1970. Assessor of the Secretariat of State, 1970-1975; pastoral ministry in Roman hospitals. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, May 14, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tagora and appointed nuncio in Colombia, November 12, 1975. Consecrated, December 13, 1975, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Francisco Álvarez Martínez, bishop of Tarazona and apostolic administrator, sede plena, of Calahorra y La Calzada-Logroño. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; by papal appointment. Substitute of the Secretariat of State, May 5, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of SS. Nome di Gesù, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, July 1, 1988. Special papal envoy to the 5th National Eucharistic Congress, Guayaquil, Ecuador, November 13 to 20, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Papal legate to the closing ceremony of Ignatian Year, Gesù church, Rome, July 31, 1991. Special papal envoy to the First National Eucharistic Congress, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, November 24, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; one of its three presidents delegate. Prefect of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life, January 21, 1992. Special papal envoy to the 9th International Mariological Congress and the 18th International Marian Congress, Huelva, Spain, September 18 to 27, 1992. Attended the 4th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, April 5, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the IX Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; one of its three presidents delegate; member of its general secretariat, 1994-1998. Cardinal protodeacon, January 29, 1996 to January 9, 1999. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Attended the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture upon reaching the age limit, February 11, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on March 31, 2007. The pope accepted his resignation from the post of camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on April 4, 2007.

Webgraphy. Photograph and ography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(63) 2. SILVESTRINI, Achille
(1923-

Birth. October 25, 1923, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza, Italy. From a family of the middle bourgeoisie. Second of the three sons of Davide Silvestrini, a merchant, and Maria Gambaretti, a school teacher. His uncle Ludovico Silvestrini was a priest and for many years vice-rector and economous of the diocesan seminary of Brisighella.

Education. Initial studies at the school of Brisighella, where his mother was a teacher; then, he did his middle, ginnasiali and liceali studies at the Institute "Evangelista Torricelli" in Faenza; in October 1943, he entered the Seminary of Faenza; in 1944, the seminary was transferred to Villa di Mezzano because Faenza was bombarded by the Allied planes; some students, like Achille, went to live with their families; the seminary reopened in Faenza on March 5, 1945; in 1946, entered the Faculty of Letters and Philosophy of the University of Bologna, where he obtained in 1948 a doctorate in classic letters with a thesis entitled Lo Statuto fondamentale degli Stati di Santa Chiesa promulgated by Pope Pius IX; sent to Rome in 1948, he was inscribed in the Pontifical Seminary for juridical studies Sant'Appollinare, and attended the Pontifical Lateran University, where he obtained a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law; at university, he was condisciple of Fathers Dino Monduzzi and Pio Laghi, future cardinals; then in 1952, he entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, to study diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 13, 1946, cathedral of Faenza, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza. He celebrated his first mass in Brisighella, assisted by his uncle don Ludovico and the archpriest. Further studies, 1946-1953. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, section of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, Secretariat of State, on December 1, 1953; in charge of affairs of Vietnam, China, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia in general. In 1955, he formed part of the section of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, directed by Monsignor Domenico Tardini. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 1, 1957; October 28, 1958. Personal secretary of Cardinals Domenico Tardini and Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretaries of State, 1958-1969. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, December 21, 1965. In the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1969-1979; in charge of the section for international organizations, peace, disarmament, and human rights; traveled to Moscow with Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartagine, secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, to deliver the instrument of adhesion of the Holy See to the Treaty on proliferation of nuclear weapons, 1971; delegate adjunct for Consultations of Helsinki to prepare the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, 1972; participated in all the phases of the conference in Helsinki and Geneva; adjunct chief of the delegation to the Reunion of Belgrade for the verification and development of the Final Act of Helsinki, 1977; head of the Holy See delegation to the United Nations Conference on peaceful use of nuclear energy, Geneva, 1971, and to the Conference on compliance with the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Geneva, 1975. Under-secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of Church, July 28, 1973. Faculty member of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Chaplain of His Holiness, December 1, 1977.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Novaliciana and appointed secretary of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, May 4, 1979. Consecrated, May 27, 1979, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Dourasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated John Joseph O'Connor, future archbishop of New York and cardinal. His episcopal motto is Crux fidelis arbor una nobilis. Head of the Vatican delegation for the revision of Lateran Concordat with the Italian government, 1979-1984. He was Vatican representative to the Meeting for European Security and Cooperation, Madrid, 1980-1983; to Malta, 1981; to the crisis in Falkland Islands, Buenos Aires, 1982; to Nicaragua and El Salvador, 1983; to Haiti for the modification of concordat, 1984; to the tenth anniversary of the signing of the final document of the Conference on European Security and Cooperation, Helsinki, 1985; to Malta for the agreement on religious schools, 1985; to Lebanon and Syria, 1986; to Malta for matters concerning church-state relations, 1986; to Poland, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Benedetto fuori Porta S. Paolo, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, July 1, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches and grand chancellor of the Pontifical Oriental Institute, May 24, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Attended Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Lebanon, Vatican City, November 16 to December 14, 1995; president delegate. Special envoy to the concluding celebrations of the Fourth centenary of Union of Brest, Lviv, Ukraine, October 9to 14, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Papal representative to the funeral of King Hussein, Amman, Jordan, February 8, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the solemn jubilar celebration of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, exarchate monastery of S. Maria di Grottaferratta, Italy, September 7, 2000. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, November 25, 2000. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 25, 2003. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 4th centennial of the arrival in Lithuania of the brief Quae ad sanctorum, of Pope Clement VIII, which authorized the celebration of the Feast of Saint Casimir in Poland and in Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania, May 9, 2004. President of "Fondazione Sacra Famiglia di Nazareth", established by Cardinal Domenico Tardini.

Bibliography. Gordini, Gian Domenico. Due vite per la chiesa : i cardinali Pio Laghi e Achille Silvestrini celebrano quest'anno il giubileo sacerdotale. Faenza : Diocesi di Faenza-Modigliana, 1996, 25-38.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il secondo tempo del Concilio by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 25 ottobre 2013.


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(64) 3. FELICI, Angelo
(1919-2007)

Birth. July 26, 1919, Segni, Italy. Nephew of Ettore Felici, titular archbishop of Corinto, nuncio in Ireland.

Education. Completed his primary and secondary studies in Segni; then, he attended the Pontifical Leonine College, Anagni, from 1934 until 1941, where he studied philosophy and theolgy; later, studied diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, 1941 (after having received the subdiaconate); and finally, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 4, 1942, chapel of the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latino Americano, Rome, with dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age. Further studies, 1942-1945. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, first section, 1945, at the invitation of Msgr. Domenico Tardini, secretary of the S.C. of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, future cardinal. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 15, 1949. Faculty member, Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, November 28, 1958. Under-secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, February 7, 1964. In 1967, Pope Paul VI sent him on a mission to Jerusalem after the Six-Day War between Arabs and Israelis.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesariana and appointed pro-nuncio in Holland, July 22, 1967. Consecrated, September 24, 1967, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, bishop of title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, assisted by Giovanni Benelli, titular archbishop of Tusuro, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Luigi Maria Carli, bishop of Segni. His episcopal motto was In lumine tuo, Nuncio in Portugal, May 13, 1976. Nuncio in France, August 27, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari, June 28, 1988. Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, July 1, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned prefecture, June 13, 1995. President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, December 16, 1995. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, January 9, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 26, 1999. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 14, 2000.

Death. June 17, 2007, at 9:10 a.m., in his Roman residence in Piazza della Città Leonina; he never fully recovered after suffering a fall and breaking his thigh at the Paul VI Audience Hall in 1999. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram to Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals; and another one to Vincenzo Apicella, bishop of Velletri-Segni, diocese of origin of Cardinal Felici (1). The pope presided the capella papale for his exequies on Tuesday June 19, 2007, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the papal Vatican basilica. Buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Segni.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; portrait photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Angelo Felici. Un ricordo del porporato recentemente scomparso by Giulio Andreotti, 30GIORNI, 06 - 2007.

(1) These are the texts of the telegrams, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

Ho appreso con tristezza la notizia della dipartita del caro Cardinale Angelo Felici e desidero esprimere a Lei ed all'intero Collegio Cardinalizio sentimenti di vivo cordoglio ricordando con animo grato la preziosa collaborazione da lui prestata per tanti decenni alla Santa Sede. Innalzo fervide preghiere di suffragio perché il Signore lo accolga nel gaudio e nella pace eterna ed invio a Lei ed a quanti condividono il dolore per la scomparsa di così benemerito Porporato la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI


La notizia della pia morte del Signor Cardinale Angelo Felici illustre figlio della città di Segni riempie il mio animo di affettuoso rimpianto nel grato ricordo della fervorosa opera prestata alla Santa Sede e della chiara testimonianza di solerte collaboratore dei miei venerati predecessori con i quali ha cooperato per lunghi anni con generosa dedizione e riconosciuta competenza. Penso in particolare al suo servizio reso dapprima in Segreteria di Stato in seguito quale Rappresentante Pontificio nei Paesi Bassi in Spagna in Francia e infine come Prefetto della Congregazione delle Cause dei Santi e Presidente della Pontificia Commissione Ecclesia Dei. Imploro dal Signore per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria Regina di tutti i Santi il premio eterno per le fatiche apostoliche di così benemerito Porporato ed esprimo a codesta comunità diocesana ai familiari a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e apprezzato il mio sincero cordoglio avvalorato da una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

BENEDICTUS PP. XVI

Analogous telegrams were sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(65) 4. GRÉGOIRE, Paul
(1911-1993)

Birth. October 24, 1911, Verdun, archdiocese of Montréal, Canada. Of a family of twelve children.

Education. Initial studies in a local school, Verdun; Minor Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blainville (classics); Major Seminary, Montréal (licentiate in theology); University of Montréal, Montréal, 1939-1942 (doctorates in philosophy and history; licentiate in letters and diploma in pedagogy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 22, 1937, Montréal. Professor at the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1937-1939. Further studies, Montréal, 1939-1942. Director of the Seminary of St. Thérèse, Blanville, 1942-1950; faculty member of the Secondary Normal School and at the Pedagogical Institute, Montréal, 1942-1950; chaplain of university students, Montréal, 1950-1961.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Curubi and appointed auxiliary of Montréal, October 26, 1961. Consecrated, December 27, 1961, Montréal, by Cardinal Paul-Emile Léger, P.S.S., archbishop of Montréal, assisted by Émilien Frenette, bishop of Saint-Jérôme, and by Percival Caza, titular bishop of Albule, coadjutor of Valleyfield. His episcopal motto was Caritas et sapientia. Vicar general of Montréal. Apostolic administrator, ad nutum Sanctæ Sedis, of Montréal, December 11, 1967. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Montréal, April 20, 1968. Doctor honoris causa, University of Montréal, 1969; and St. Michael's College, Winooski Park, Vermont, United States of America. Attended the II Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora del Ss.mo Sacramento e Ss. Martiri Canadesi, June 28, 1988. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 17, 1990. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 24, 1991. He dedicated his retirement years to work in charitable institutions such as Accueil Bonneau and Maison du Père.

Death. October 30, 1993, hospital of Notre Dame, Montréal, of a stomach cancer. The funeral was celebrated by Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, on November 3, 1993. Buried, Bishops' Chapel, metropolitan cathedral, Montréal.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 503-505.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(66) 5. PADIYARA, Antony
(1921-2000)

Birth. February 11, 1921, Manimala, archdiocese of Changanacherry, India.

Education. Studied at St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore. Joined the Latin rite (from Syro-Malabar) and was incardinated in diocese of Coimbatore.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 19, 1945. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Coimbatore, 1946-1952; rector of the minor diocesan seminary; and successively, faculty member of St. Peter's Regional Seminary, Bangalore, 1952-1955.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ootacamund, July 3, 1955. Consecrated, October 16, 1955, Ootacamund, by René Feuga, bishop of Mysore, assisted by Francis Xavier Muthappa, bishop of Coimbatore, and by Matthew Kavukatt, archbishop of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Changanacherry of the Syro-Malabars, June 14, 1970, returning to his native Syro-Malabar rite. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974; the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977; the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Ernakulam of the Syro-Malabars, April 23, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987. Vice-president of the Episcopal Conference of India and of the Syro-Malabars. Apostolic visitor for the Syro-Malabars faithful residing in Kerala. President of the Syro-Malabar Episcopal Conference. He was the youngest-ever bishop in India.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" a Monte Verde, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Promoted to archbishop major of Ernakulam-Angamaly of the Syro-Malabars, December 16, 1992, when the see was elevated to that rank. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese major, November 11, 1996. Awarded the Padmashree in 1998, which is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India.

Death. March 23, 2000, at 4:45 a.m., after suffering from Parkinson's disease for a long time, at the Yoga and Nature Cure Centre he had founded near Kochin. Buried on March 24, in St. Mary's Cathedral Basilica, Ernakulam, Kochi, Kerala. A public school in Manimala, district of Kerala, was named after him.

Bibliography. Eranakulam atirupata caritravalokam : satabdi smaranika, 1896-1996 = Souvenir of the centenary of the Archdiocese of Ernakulam, and the sacerdotal golden jubilee of His Eminence Mar Antony Cardinal Padiyara. Ernakulam : Archdiocesan Curia, 1996. Abstract: History of Archdiocese of Ernakulam, educational institutes under it, Catholic churches, and convents of Kerala, India; published on the occasion of the centenary of Archdiocese and golden jubilee of Antony Padiyara.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave;


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(67) 6. FALCÃO, José Freire
(1925-

Birth. October 23, 1925, Ererê, diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, Brazil.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Prainha, Fortaleza.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 19, 1949, Limoeiro do Norte. Successively, 1949-1967, in diocese of Limoeiro do Norte, pastoral ministry; vice-director of diocesan lyceum; faculty member of its minor seminary and other educational institutions; and ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Action.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vardimissa and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Limoeiro do Norte, April 24, 1967. Consecrated, June 17, 1967, by José de Medeiros Delgado, archbishop of Fortaleza, assisted by Vicente de Paulo Araújo Matos, bishop of Crato, and by José Mauro Ramalho de Alarcón Santiago, bishop of Iguatú. His episcopal motto is Servir em humilidade. Succeeded to the see of Limoeiro do Norte, August 19, 1967. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Teresina, November 25, 1971. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Brasília, February 15, 1984. Second vice president of the Latin American Episcopal Council.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luca a Via Prenestina, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, October 23, 2005.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(68) 7. GIORDANO, Michele
(1930-2010)

Birth. September 26, 1930, S. Arcangelo, diocese of Anglona-Tursi, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Potenza; at the Pontifical Regional Seminary, Salerno; and at the Pontifical Inter-regional Seminary, Posillipo.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 5, 1953. Successively, 1953-1971, in the diocese of Anglona-Tursi, pastoral ministry; director of the center for social studies; diocesan assistant of the Catholic Action; professor of religion; vicar general. Chaplain of His Holiness, February 23, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lari Castello and appointed auxiliary of Matera and apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Gravina and Irsina, December 23, 1971. Consecrated, February 5, 1972, by Giacomo Palombella, bishop of Matera e Irsina, assisted by Dino Tomassini, bishop of Anglona-Tursi, and by Giuseppe Vairo, bishop emeritus of Gravina-Irsina. His episcopal motto was Sicut flumen pax tua. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Matera e Irsina, June 12, 1974. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Naples, May 9, 1987. President of the Episcopal Conference of Campania, Italy, September 24, 1987. Grand chancellor of the Pontifical Theological Faculty of Southern Italy.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gioacchino ai Prati di Castello, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the fourth centennial celebration of the Shrine of Madonna dell'Arco, Italy, May 1, 1993; to the closing of the third centennial celebrations of the birth of St. Alphonse Maria Liguori, Pagani, Italy, November 23, 1997. On December 22, 2000, he was acquitted of the charges of complicity in a loan sharking ring that involved his nephew; the cardinal was charged with funneling E 898,553 to his nephew, who allegedly lent it at exorbitant interest rates to struggling businesses. On November 2, 2004, he was given a suspended prison sentence after being found guilty of renovating a building without permission; the criminal conviction was rejected by Italy's highest criminal court on April 28, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese was accepted on May 20, 2006, in conformity to canon 401§ 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Apostolic administrator of the metropolitan see of Naples from May 20, 2006 until the installation of his successor on July 1, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 26, 2010.

Death. December 2, 2010, at 11:05 p.m., after a brief illness, at Hospital "Monaldi", in Naples. In the previous week he had suddenly become ill and had been taken to that hospital. His condition had improved, but then it quickly deteriorated due to respiratory and cardiac complications. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Crescenzio Sepe, current archbishop of Naples. Starting at noon on Friday December 3, the body of the late cardinal was exposed in the basilica dell'Incoronata Madre del Buon Consiglio in Capodimonte. The funeral took place on Saturday December 4, 2010, at 4:30 p.m., at that basilica. It was presided by Cardinal Sepe, and concelebrated by some fifty prelates. According to his wishes, the remains of Cardinal Giordano were buried that basilica, in a lateral chapel opposite to the one in which is buried Cardinal Corrado Ursi, his predecessor. A prize rewarding Catholic editors was named after Cardinal Giordano in 2012. The cardinal had himself organized an annual similar prize named "Premio Buone Notizie" during his episcopate in Naples.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biographical data, in Italian, archdiocese of Naples; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(69) 8. SANTOS, O.F.M., Alexandre José Mária dos
(1924-

Birth. March 18, 1924, Zavala, diocese of Inhambane, Moçambique. His first name is also listed as José Mária.

Education. Studied at the Franciscan Minor Seminary, Amatongas; at the Missionaries of Africa's Seminary of Nyassaland, Malawi; and at the Franciscan Seminary of Varatojo, Lisbon. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans); temporary profession, 1948; solemn profession, 1951.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1953, Lisbon. Pastoral ministry in the Franciscan missions of Inhabane, Moçambique, 1954-1972. Counselor, Franciscan custody of Moçambique and rector of the minor seminary in Vila Pery (Chimoio), 1972-1974.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques), December 23, 1974. Consecrated, March 9, 1975, Sports Palace, Lourenço Marques, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Cardinal Laurean Rugambwa, archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam, and by Eduardo Muaca, bishop of Malanje. His episcopal motto is Servir e não ser servido. He founded and was the first president of Caritas Moçambique. He promoted closer relations with the ecclesiastical communities from the former Portuguese colonies of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, São Tomé and Principe.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Frumenzio ai Prati Fiscali, June 28, 1988. He is the first Moçambican native cardinal. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, February 22, 2003. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, March 18, 2004. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 315.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in Portuguese, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(70) 9. CANESTRI, Giovanni
(1918-2015)

Birth. September 30, 1918, Castelspina, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. His brother, Carlo, was the vicar general of the diocese of Alessandria.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Alessandria from 1929 (secondary studies); then, at the Episcopal Seminary of Alessandria, where he obtained the maturità classica; in 1937, he went to Rome to study at the Pontifical Major Roman Seminary, Rome; at the same time, studied at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a licenciate in theology; and later, a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon law and civil law; and at the Rome State University, where he earned a doctorate in letters.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1941, with papal dispensation for not having yet reached the canonical age, in the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome; in the same ceremony was ordained Father Salvatore Pappalardo, future cardinal. For some months, he was vice-pastor in Garbatella and in Pietralata. Then, for nine years, he was pastor of San Giovanni Battista De Rossi, in the Roman neighborhood of Appio-Latino. In 1950, he became pastor of Santi Ottavio e Compagni Martiri, in the township of Ottavia. From 1951 until 1959, he guided the pariish of Santa Maria della Consolazione in Casalbertone. Professor of religion in several Roman superior institutes. In August 1959, he was named spiritual director of the Pontifical Roman Major Seminary. He was also member of the Commission for the First Diocesan Synod of Rome and apostolic examiner of clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tenedo and appointed auxiliary of the cardinal vicar of Rome, July 8, 1961. Consecrated, July 30, 1961, Rome, by Cardinal Luigi Traglia, pro-vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome, assisted by Ettore Cunial, titular archbishop of Soteropoli, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Peter Canisius van Lierde, O.S.A. titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan and vicar general of His Holiness for Vatican City. His episcopal motto was Opus Tuum Nos O Maria. He was in charge of the pastoral care of the East sector of Rome. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. He was also episcopal delegate for the Italian Catholic Action in the diocese of Rome. Besides, in 1965, he founded a theological center for the formation of the laity. Transferred to the see of Tortona, January 7, 1971. Transferred to the titular see of Monterano, with personal title of archbishop, and appointed vicegerent of Rome, February 8, 1975. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Cagliari, March 22, 1984. Transferred to metropolitan see of Genoa-Bobbio, July 6, 1987, succeeding Cardinal Giuseppe Siri. Titular abbot of San Colombano, united to the see of Genoa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea della Valle, June 28, 1988. On September 16, 1989, the see of Bobbio was separated from Genoa and united to the see of Piacenza. He continued as archbishop of Genoa. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 20, 1995. He was succeeded by Dionigi Tettamanzi archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo, secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference. He moved to Rome in 1995. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 30, 1998. On April 10, 2011, Pope Benedict XVI visited him in his residence. He resided at Via Cernaia 9, Rome.

Death. April 29, 2015, in the afternoon, in Rome. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal rest of his soul and sent Cardinal Agostino Vallini, vicar of Rome, a telegram of condolence (1).The funeral took place in the Altar of the Confession of the papal Vatican basilica. The exequial liturgy was celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, Pope Francis presided over the rite of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. A funeral mass in the metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo was presided by Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco, archbishop of Genoa, who also delivered the homily, and concelebrated by Cardinals Dionigi Tettamanzi, archbishop emeritus of Milan; Domenico Calcagno, president of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See; and Mauro Piacenza, penitentiary major; and ten bishops. The late cardinal wa entombed in the crypt under the altar of Santissimo Sacramento, in the Senarega chapel, in the lateral nave of the cathedral of San Lorenzo.

Bibliography. Alberti, Ottorino Pietro. "Mons. Giovanni Canestri" in La Pontificia Università Lateranense; profilo della sua storia, dei suoi maestri e dei suis discepoli, Rome : Libreria editrice della Pontificia Università lateranense, 1963, p. 510; Del Re, Niccolò. Il vicegerente del vicariato di Roma. Rome : Istituto di Studi Romani Editore, 1976, p. 79.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il grande cuore di Roma by Cardinale Giovanni Canestri, 30Giorni, 01 - 2001; Canestri, quel prete «mangiato» dagli uomini by Gianni Gennari, Vatican Insider, 2/05/2015; Le esequie del cardinale Canestri, una vita spesa al servizio della Chiesa by Filippo Rizzi, Avvenire, 2 maggio 2015.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Al Signor Cardinale Agostino Vallini
Piazza San Giovanni Laterano, 4
00184 Roma

La scomparsa del venerato Cardinale Giovanni Canestri, oriundo della diocesi di Alessandria e appartenente al clero di Roma, suscita nel mio animo profonda commozione e sincera ammirazione per uno stimato uomo di Chiesa, che visse con umiltà e fedeltà il suo lungo e fecondo sacerdozio ed episcopato a servicio del Vangelo e delle anime lui affidate. Ricordo con gratitudine il suo fervido ministero dapprima come viceparroco, negli anni duri della guerra, nelle periferie romane segnate da sofferenze e povertà; poi come parroco in due popolose borgate, intento ad educare specialmente i giovani alla gioia della fede. Nominato vescovo ausiliare di Roma si dedicò con intensità apostolica alle esigenze spirituali e materiali della gente, mentre partecipava assiduamente ai lavori del concilio Vaticano secondo. Nel ministero episcopale a Tortona, in seguito come Vicegerente e poi Arcivescovo di Cagliari e infine di Genova-Bobbio ha testimoniato saggezza pastorale, generosa attenzione alle necessità degli altri, andando incontro a tutti con bontà e mansuetudine. Innalzo fervide preghiere di suffragio perché il Signore accolga il compianto porporato nel gaudio e nella pace eterna, ed invio a Lei e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua dipartita la confortatrice benedizione apostolica, con un pensiero speciale per le Suore Apostole del Sacro Cuore di Gesù che lo hanno amorevolmente assistito specialmente in questi ultimi anni di infermità.

FRANCISCUS P P

Analogo telegramma é stato inviato dal cardinale Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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(71) 10. JAVIERRE ORTAS, S.D.B., Antonio María
(1921-2007)

Birth. February 21, 1921, Siétamo, diocese of Huesca, Spain. One of his brother, José María Javierre Ortas, operario diocesano, is a priest and one of the most distinguished and successful writers and journalists in the Spanish language countries (1).

Education. Joined the Pious Society of St. Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco); professed in 1940. Salesian houses of study in Huesca, Saragossa and Barcelona (middle studies); Gerona, Barcelona and Salamanca (philosophy); Gerona and Santander (pedagogy); Salamanca, Rome, Italy, and Louvain, Belgium (doctorate in theology; wrote his thesis on the apostolic succession).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 24, 1949. Professor of fundamental theology at the Pontifical Salesian Athenaeum, Turin, 1951-1976; later the athenaeum was transferred to Rome as the Pontifical Salesian University; dean of the theological faculty, 1959-1971; rector magnifico, 1971-1974. Delivered conferences and lectures at the universities of Salamanca, Lima, Guatemala, Navara, Lublin, Warsaw, and Rome (Regina Mundi, Angelicum, Marianum, Gregorian and Lateranense). He had an active participation in several congresses, especially on fundamental theology. Creator, cofounder and secretary general of the "Symposium" of fundamental theology in Louvain and Gazzada. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1959, as expert of the Spanish episcopate. Member of the Faith and Constitution Department, Ecumenical Council of Churches for three years; participated in its World Conferences in New Delhi, Upsala and Nairobi; and in several conferences of "Faith and Constitution", particularly in Montréal, Louvain and Accra; also, in conferences of "Church and Society" of Génève; and in several meetings of the central committee of The Ecumenical Council of Churches held in Paris, Geneva, Utrecht and Heraclion. Consultor of the Vatican Secretariat for Christian Unity. Preached the spiritual exercises for Pope Paul VI and the Roman Curia in Lent.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Meta and appointed secretary of the S.C. for Catholic Education, May 20, 1976. Consecrated, June 29, 1976, cathedral of Huesca, by Cardinal Vicente Enrique Tarancón, archbishop of Madrid, assisted by Javier Osés Flamarique, titular bishop of Abula, apostolic administrator, sede vacante, of Huesca, and by Rosalio José Castillo Lara, S.D.B, titular bishop of Precausea, secretary of the Pontifical Commission for the Revision of the Code of Canon Law. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Liberatrice a Monte Testaccio. Librarian and archivist of Holy Roman Church, July 1, 1988 until April 9, 1992. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the 4th centennial of St. John of the Cross' death, December 15, 1991, Ubeda, Spain. Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, January 24, 1992 until June 21, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the 6th Bolivian Marian Eucharistic Congress, October 7 to 12, 1997, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Opted for the order of priests and his deaconry was elevated pro illa vice to title, January 9, 1999. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 21, 2001. On Wednesday January 31, 2007, feast of San Giovanni Bosco, founder of the Salesians, the cardinal celebrated mass in the chapel of his residence, near the Vatican; after dinner, the cardinal, the religious of the Congregation of the Servants of Jesus Christ Priest, who took care of his household, and some of his close friends watched the movie "Don Bosco".

Death. Thursday February 1, 2007, at 6:30 a.m., of a cardiac arrest, in his residence in Rome. He had been undergoing dialysis for some time. The body was exposed in his Roman residence, Via Rusticucci nº 13, until Friday, February 2, 2007 at 9:30 a.m., and then transferred to the papal Vatican basilica. On that day, at noon, in the Altar of the Chair, took place the exequies for the late cardinal, presided by Pope Benedict XVI. After the eucharistic celebration, his mortal remains were buried in the chapel tomb of the Salesians next to the Catacombs of San Callisto, Rome (2).

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 140.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Spanish.

(1) Some of his works are Pío X, several editions (Juan Flors, Editor, 1955); Merry del Val (Juan Flors, 1956); El arzobispo mendigo : biografía de Marcelo Spínola (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1974); and Juan XXIII : reto para hoy (Editorial Sígueme, 2000).
(2) This is the inscrition in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

Card. ANTONIO M. JAVIERRE
N. SPAGNA 21.2.1921        M. ROMA 1.2.2007


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(72) 11. PIMENTA, Simon Ignatius
(1920-2013)

Birth. Monday March 1, 1920, at 10:20 a.m., parish of Saint John the Evangelist, Marol, archdiocese of Bombay, India. Son of Joseph Anthony and Rosie Pimenta. He was baptized in the church of Marol on March 14, 1920. He received the first communion on February 27, 1927, in the church of Marol; and confirmation on January 8, 1933 in the same church.

Education. Studied at the local Marathi School (up to Std. IV); at Saint John the Evangelist Parochial School, Marol, 1929-1930 (for Std. II, English ); at St. Xavier's College, Bombay (1930-1936); at the State University, Bombay, 1936-1940 (B.A. in Pedagogy and Mathematics); at the Diocesan Seminary at Parel, Bombay, 1940-1944 (humanities, philosophy and theology); at Saint Andrew's High School, Bandra, 1944-1946 (regency); and at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide", Rome, 1951-1954, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in June 1954.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1940, Saint Peter's church, Bandra, by Valerian Gracias, titular bishop of Tenneso, auxiliary of Bombay. He celebrated his first mass on December 22, 1949, in the church of Marol. On the staff of Holy Name cathedral and of the archbishop's house, Bombay, May 1950-1951. Further studies in Rome, 1951-1954. Secretary, archbishop's house, vice chancellor of the archdiocese and defensor of the matrimonial bond, September 1954 to June 1959. Assistant at the church of Our Lady of Grace, Papdy, Vasai, June 1959 to June 1960. Vice-rector of the cathedral of the Holy Name, Bombay, June 1960 to August 1960; its rector, August 1967. Visiting professor of liturgy, St. Pius College Seminary, Goregaon, 1960 to 1965; its rector, March 1971. Named chaplain of His Holiness, October 7, 1964. Episcopal vicar for the liturgy and for the pastoral formation of the junior clergy, March 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bocconia and appointed auxiliary of Bombay, June 5, 1971. Consecrated, June 29, 1971, St. Peter's church, Bandra, by Cardinal Valerian Gracias, archbishop of Bombay, assisted by Longinus Gabriel Pereira, titular bishop of Vada, auxiliary of Bombay, and by William Zephyrine Gomes, bishop of Poona. His episcopal motto was "Rooted and grounded in love". Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bombay, April 10, 1976; the appointment was suspended due to conflict with the Indian government concerning ecclesiastical appointments. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Bombay, February 26, 1977. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Bombay, September 11, 1978. Elected president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India (CBCI ), Tiruchirapalli meeting, January 11, 1982; re-elected, Nagpur meeting, February 3, 1984; re-elected, Goa meeting, April 14, 1986. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Regina Mundi a Torre Spaccata, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; one of its three president delegates; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 2, 1993, for five years. Elected president of the Conference of Catholic Bishops of India, Latin Rite (CCBI -LR ), March 3, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 8, 1996. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, March 1, 2000. During his episcopate in Bombay, he opened twelve hospitals and forty four dispensaries as well as several educational facilities.

Death. July 19, 2013, unexpectedly, at 9 p.m., after having dinner, while resting, at the Clergy Home, the residence for aged priests in Bandra, suburban Mumbai. Waiting for the renovation of his house near the Holy Name cathedral, he had moved to a Clergy Home. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Pimenta, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Oswald Gracias, archbishop of Bombay (1). On Tuesday July 23, 2013, at noon, there was a Missa Coram Corpore (Mass with the body present) for the late cardinal at the Holy Name Cathedral, presided over by Cardinal Gracias. The funeral mass, also presided by Cardinal Gracias, followed by burial, took place at Saint John the Evangelist Church, Marol, at 5.00 p.m., in accordance to the late cardinal's wish.

Bibliography. Pimenta, Simon. Memoirs & milestones. Bombay : Printania, 2000.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in English, archdiocese of Bombay, (fifth item on page); his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, published by the Press Office of the Holy See:
To my Venerable Brother
Cardinal Oswald Gracias
Archbishop of Bombay
Having learned with sadness of the death of Cardinal Simon Ignatius Pimenta, archbishop emeritus of Bombay, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to all the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the archdiocese. Recalling with gratitude Cardinal Pimenta's long years of devoted service to the Catholic community there and his many years of faithful assistance to the Successor of Peter as a member of the College of Cardinals, I join you in praying that God our merciful Father will grant him the reward of his labours amd welcome his noble soul into the joy and peace of the heavenly kingdom. To Cardinal Pimenta's relatives and all assembled for the solemn requiem mass I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and strength in the Lord.

Franciscus PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(73) 12. REVOLLO BRAVO, Mario
(1919-1995)

Birth. June 19, 1919, Genoa, Italy, where his father was Colombian consul in that city. He was the third of the six children of Enrique Revollo del Castillo and Soledad Bravo Arbélaez.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Bogotá (bachillerato; at the Major Seminary of Bogotá, from 1936 to 1938 (philosophy); then, he went to Rome to study; while in Rome, he resided in the Pontifical Collegio Pio Latinoamericano; studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, from 1939 to 1943 (theology); and at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, where he obtained a licenciate in Sacred Scriptures.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 31, 1943, Gesú church, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Bogotá. Further studies, Rome, 1943-1948. In Bogotá, chaplain to Catholic schools, 1948-1967; faculty member of the Major Seminary, 1948-1960 and 1963-1964; pastoral ministry, 1967-1970; archdiocesan secretary of Education and Catechesis, 1965; pastoral ministry and archbishop's representative to the regional council of SENA, 1970-1973; director of the journal El Catolicismo, 1949-1966; press director for the 39th International Eucharistic Congress and papal visit to Bogotá, August 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tinisa di Numidia and appointed auxiliary of Bogotá, November 13, 1973. Consecrated, December 2, 1973, Bogotá, by Cardinal Aníbal Muñoz Duque, archbishop of Bogotá, assisted by Alfredo Rubio Diaz, archbishop of Nueva Pamplona, and by Pablo Correa León, bishop emeritus of Cúcuta. His episcopal motto was Vis pacis. Vicar general for pastoral ministry, 1973-1978. Attended the Third Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 27 to October 26, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Nueva Pamplona, February 28, 1978. President of the Episcopal Conference of Colombia, 1978-1984. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979; Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Bogotá, June 25, 1984.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, June 28, 1988. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Bogotá, December 27, 1994.

Death. November 3, 1995, died after a long battle with cancer, in Bogotá. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Bogotá.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biographical entry, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; Archbishops of Bogotá, in Spanish, archdiocese of Bogotá; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(74) 13. CLANCY, Edward Bede
(1923-2014)

Birth. December 13, 1923, Lithgow, diocese of Bathurst, Australia. Son of John Bede Clancy, a school teacher, and Ellen Lucy Edwards. He had three suster, Kathleen (deceased), Mary and Iris; and a brother, Brother Ken, a member of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart. His mother died when he was young and he was brought up by his headmaster father, who imbued young Edward (Ted) with the disciplined spirit of the times.

Education. Studied at Holy Camp Public School, Grenfell; St. Monica's Primary School; and Good Samaritan School, Richmond; and Marist Brothers' College, Parramatta; then at St. Columba's College, Springwood; at St. Patrick's College, Manly; at the Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1955; at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, where he earned a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures in 1955; at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology in 1965.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 23, 1949, at St. Mary's etropolitan cathedral, Sydney, by Cardinal Norman Thomas Gilroy, archbishop of Sydney. Father Edward Idris Cassidy, future cardinal, was ordained in the same ceremony. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Sydney as curate in Belmore, 1949-1952. Further studies, Rome, 1952-1955; while in Rome, he resided at Collegio San Pietro. Pastoral ministry in Sydney, 1955-1958, as assistant priest of Elizabeth Bay, and later Liverpool; faculty member, St. Columban College Seminary 1958-1961; he was also dean of discipline. Further studies in Rome, 1961-1963. Chaplain of the University of Sydney and professor of theology of St. Patrick's College, Manly, 1963-1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ard Carna, and auxiliary of Sydney, October 25, 1973. Consecrated, January 19, 1974, Sydney, by Cardinal James Darcy Freeman, archbishop of Sydney, assisted by Cardinal James Robert Knox, archbishop of Melbourne, and by Thomas Vincent Cahill, archbishop of Canberra. His episcopal motto was Fides mundum vincit. He was entrusted with the pastoral care of the western part of the city, Blacktown, devoting himself with particular care to the construction of new churches and parochial schools. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Canberra and Goulburn, November 24, 1978. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sydney, February 12, 1983. Member of the Order of Australia (OAM) in January 1984. President of the Australian Episcopal Conference, 1986-2000. In 1986, at his suggestion, the dioceses of Parramatta and Broken Bay were formed (by splitting the archdiocese of Sydney) so that parishioners had more access to their bishop. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; member of its general secretariat, 1987-1990. During his episcopate, he established the Australian Catholic University and was its founding chancellor; oversaw the renovation St. Mary's Cathedral and the completion of the two spires in architect William Wardell's original 1860's plans for the basilica; and St. Patrick's College of Manly saw the transition to the new Seminary of the Good Shepherd in Homebush.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Vallicella, June 28, 1988. Member of the Congregation for Bishops, and of the Pontifical Councils for Social Communications and for the Pastoral of Health Care Workers. Attended Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, October 1988 through November 6, 1995. In 1992 he was made a Companion in the Order of Australia (AC) for service to religion, learning and the disadvantaged in the community. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; president delegate; member of the general secretariat, 1994-1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. He was scolded by the Vatican for setting up a heroin injecting room in Kings Cross, run by the Sisters of Charity at St Vincent's Hospital in 1999. Special papal envoy to the Marian Congress on the Holy Trinity, Manila, Philippines, January 27 to 29, 2000. He completed St. Mary's Cathedral by having its spires built and erected in 2000. Special papal envoy to the Ninth World Day of the Sick, Sydney, February 11, 2001. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, March 26, 2001. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 13, 2003. His support, especially in Rome, resulted in the eventual canonization of Australia's first saint, Mary MacKillop; she was beatified by Pope John Paul II in the cathedral of Sydney on January 19, 1995; and later, canonized on October 17, 2010 by Pope Benedict XVI. The latter visited him during the journey undertaken in Australia in July 2008 on the occasion of World Youth Day.

Death. August 3, 2014, peacefully, early in the morning, at the Mount Saint Joseph's Hostel and Nursing Home of the Little Sisters of the Poor at Randwick, where he had been receiving care for the past eight years. A priest friend was by his bedside when he died. He is survived by two sister, Iris and Mary, and his brother, Brother Ken Clancy, a member of the Missionaries of the Sacred Heart. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Clancy, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Peter Andrew Comensoli, titular bishop of Tigisi di Numidia, apostolic administrator of Sydney (1). There was a funeral mass at St. Mary's metropolitan cathedral, Sydney, on Saturday August 9, 2014, presided by the apostolic nuncio to Australia and concelebrated by Cardinal Edward Idris Cassidy, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity and former classmate of Cardinal Clancy, sixteen bishops, among them the apostolic adminsitrator of Sydney, Peter Andrew Comensoli, titular bishop of Tigisi in Numidia; and the auxiliary bishop of Sydney, Terence John Gerard Brady, titular bishop of Talattula; as well as dozens of priests. He was buried in the crypt of the cathedral following the funeral mass.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Sydney; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; A faithful son of the church: former Sydney Archbishop Edward Clancy dies by Kerry Myers, The Sydney Morning Herald, August 3, 2014 - 3:36PM; Archbishop Edward Clancy on his way to Paradise by Stephanie Wood, The Sydney Morning Herald, August 3, 2014 - 7:06PM.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Bulletin of the Holy See Press Office:

TO MONSIGNOR PETER COMENSOLI
APOSTOLIC ADMINISTRATOR
ARCHDIOCESE OF SYDNEY

I WAS SADDENED TO LEARN OF THE DEATH OF CARDINAL EDWARD BEDE CLANCY, ARCHBISHOP EMERITUS OF SYDNEY, AND I OFFER MY HEARTFELT CONDOLENCES, TOGETHER WITH THE ASSURANCE OF MY PRAYERS, TO YOU AND TO ALL THE FAITHFUL OF THE ARCHDIOCESE. I JOIN YOU IN COMMENDING THE LATE CARDINAL�S SOUL TO GOD THE FATHER OF MERCIES, WITH GRATITUDE FOR HIS YEARS OF EPISCOPAL MINISTRY AND HIS WISE PASTORAL LEADERSHIP OF THE ARCHDIOCESE OF SYDNEY, AS SEEN IN HIS CONCERN FOR THE NEEDS OF THE POOR, HIS SUPPORT FOR CATHOLIC EDUCATION AND HIS BROAD ECUMENICAL AND CIVIC VISION. TO ALL PRESENT AT THE MASS OF CHRISTIAN BURIAL AND TO ALL WHO MOURN CARDINAL CLANCY IN THE HOPE OF THE RESURRECTION, I CORDIALLY IMPART MY APOSTOLIC BLESSING AS A PLEDGE OF STRENGTH AND CONSOLATION IN THE LORD.

FRANCISCUS PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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(75) 14. NEVES, O.P., Lucas Moreira
(1925-2002)

Birth. September 16, 1925, São João del Rey, Brazil. The eldest of ten children of Victor Neves, a shoemaker, and Margarita Moreira, a school teacher. His father's ancestors descend from African slaves, who came from Benin. He was a first cousin of Tancredo Neves, prime minister of Brazil, who although elected president, never took office due to ill health.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Mariana; then, joined the Order of Preachers; made his solemn profession on March 7, 1945; studied at the convent Santo Alberto Magno, São Paulo, (philosophy, 1945-1947) and at the Saint-Maximin Theological School, Var, Fréjus-Toulon, France (theology, 1947-1951).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 9, 1950, Saint-Maximin, Var. Further studies, 1950-1952. In Brazil, vice-master of novices and students, 1952-1953; sub-prior of the Dominican convent of Rio de Janeiro; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic University Youth, São Paulo, 1952-1953; director of the journal Mensageiro do Santo Rosario, Rio de Janeiro, 1954-1962; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic University Youth, Rio de Janeiro, 1954-1959; spiritual counselor of the Christian Family Movement; its national vice-assistant, 1959-1965; spiritual counselor to intellectuals and artists, especially theater, in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, 1962-1967; official in the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Brazil, 1966-1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Feradi maggiore and appointed auxiliary of São Paulo, June 9, 1967. Consecrated, August 26, 1967, São João del Rei, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, archbishop of São Paulo, assisted by Delfim Ribeiro Guedes, bishop of São João del Rei, and by Alain Marie Hubert Antoine Jean Roland du Noday, O.P., bishop of Porto Nacional. Attended the Second General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Medellín, Colombia, August 24 to September 6, 1968. President of the Brazilian Cáritas, 1971-1974. Vice-president of the Council for the Laity, March 7, 1974; December 10, 1976. Attended the III General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979. Secretary of the S.C. for Bishops and promoted to the rank of archbishop, October 15, 1979. Secretary of the Sacred College of Cardinals, November 15, 1979. He received a doctorate honoris causa in theology from the University of St. Thomas Aquinas of Rome in 1986; and another one from Providence College, Rhode Island, United States of America. He was decorated as commendatore of the Ordem de Rio Branco (1986); Grão Cruz da Ordem do Mérito Militar (1988); Honorary Citizen of São Salvador da Bahia (1988); Mérito da Aeronáutica (1991); and Mérito da Marinha (1994).Transferred to the titular see of Vescovio, January 3, 1987. Transferred to the metropolitan see of São Salvador da Bahia, July 9, 1987. A prolific author of newspaper columns, theater criticism and books, efforts that earned him membership in the Brazilian Academy of Letters and the Roman Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, June 28, 1988. Attended the VIII Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; relator general; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago del Estero, Argentina, August 31 to September 4, 1994. President of the Episcopal Conference of Brazil, 1995-1998. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops ad iuris normam and president of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America ad iuris normam, June 25, 1998; he was first Latin American to occupy the presidency of this commission. Bishop of the title of the suburbicarian see of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, retaining in commendam the title of Ss. Bonifacio ed Alessio, June 25, 1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, June 25, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the II Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Resigned the prefecture and the presidency, September 16, 2000.

Death. Sunday September 8, 2002, at 5 p.m., of diabetes related complications, assisted by one of his sisters, at the Pius XI Clinic in Rome, where he spent his last week, undergoing daily dialysis due to acute kidney deficiency. After learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II sent his sister, Mrs. Judith Moreira Neves, a telegram of of condolence (1). The funeral mass took place at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on Wednesday, September 11. Although in attendance, Pope John Paul II did not celebrate the mass himself due to ill health, but delivered the homily. The mass was presided by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, vice-dean of the College of Cardinal, and concelebrated by the cardinals. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of São Salvador da Bahia, as he had requested shortly before his death (2). The Memorial Dom Lucas Moreira Neves, established in São João del Rei, Minas Gerais, in 2003, houses a museum.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Encyclopaedia Britannica; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

PROFUNDAMENTE CONSTERNADO PELA PASSAGEM SUA EMINÊNCIA CARDEAL LUCAS MOREIRA NEVES, DESEJO MANIFESTAR MINHAS SINCERAS CONDOLÊNCIAS A VOSSA SENHORIA E DEMAIS MEMBROS FAMILIA ENLUTADA. PEÇO A DEUS TODOPODEROSO QUE RECOMPENSE ABUNDANTEMENTE ESTE FIEL SERVIDOR DA IGREJA NO BRASIL E DESTA SÉ APOSTOLICA, EM DIVERSOS DICASTÉRIOS DA CÚRIA ROMANA. AO INVOCAR DO ALTÍSSIMO A PAZ E O CONFORTO ESPIRITUAL EM SUFRÁGIO DA SUA ALMA, APROVEITO A OPORTUNIDADE PARA RENOVAR MEUS PÊSAMES AO OUTORGAR, EM SINAL DA MINHA, BENEVOLÊNCIA, UMA PROPICIADORA BÊNÇÃO APOSTÓLICA EXTENSIVA FAMILIARES E AMIGOS CARDEAL NEVES

IOANNES PAULUS II

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
DOM FREI
LUCAS CARDEAL MOREIRA NEVES, OP.
ARCEBISPO DE SÃO SALVADOR DA BAHIA
PRIMAZ DO BRASIL
1987 - 1998

SÃO JOAO DEI REY MG - 16.09.1925
+ ROMA. 08.09.2002

"PASSOU SUA EXISTENCIA NA BUSCA DO
ROSTO SERENO E RADIOSO DO SEU SENHOR
AGORA O ENCONTROU"


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(76) 15. HICKEY, James Aloysius
(1920-2004)

Birth. October 11, 1920, Midland, diocese of Saginaw, Michigan, United States of America. Son of James Peter Hickey, a dentist who taught his son about charity by example, treating patients who could not pay for their dental care during the Depression, and Agnes Ryan.

Education. Studied at the Sacred Heart Seminary College, Detroit; at the Catholic University of America, Washington; at the Pontifical Lateran University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law; and at the Pontifical Angelicum University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 15, 1946, Saginaw, by William Francis Murphy, bishop of Saginaw. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Saginaw, 1946-1947. Further studies, Rome, 1947-1951. In Saginaw, pastoral ministry; secretary to the bishop, 1957-1966; founder and rector of St. Paul Seminary. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; as expert and assistant to Bishop Stephen Stanislaus Woznicki of Saginaw. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, October 31, 1963.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Taraqua and appointed auxiliary of Saginaw, February 18, 1967. Consecrated, April 14, 1967, cathedral of St. Mary, Saginaw, by John Francis Dearden, archbishop of Detroit, assisted by Stephen Stanislaus Woznicki, bishop of Saginaw, and by Stephen Aloysius Leven, titular bishop of Bure, auxiliary of San Antonio. His episcopal motto was Veritatem in caritate. Rector of the North American College, Rome, March 1969. Transferred to the see of Cleveland, May 31, 1974. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Washington, June 17, 1980.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; member of the general secretariat, 1990-1994. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the ceremonies for the 150th anniversary of the erection of the diocese of Cleveland, U.S.A., August 17, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 11, 2000. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, November 21, 2000.

Death. October 24, 2004, at 6:15 a.m., in his sleep while suffering from pneumonia, at the Jeanne Jugan Home of the Little Sisters of the Poor, Washington, D.C. The funeral took place in the basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (1); Cardinal William Wakefield Baum, penitentiary major emeritus and former archbishop of Washington, represented the pope; the main celebrant was Cardinal Theodore Edgar McCarrick, archbishop of Washington. The late cardinal was buried in St. Francis Chapel of the metropolitan cathedral, the burial chamber for the archbishops of the archdiocese of Washington (1). Cardinals Patrick O'Boyle and William Wakefield Baum are also buried in that chamber.

Bibliography. Bransonm, Charles N. Ordinations of U.S. Catholic bishops, 1790-1989. A chronological list. Washington : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 151; Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 9 MacGregor, Morris. "Hickey, James Aloysius." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 309-310.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Washington; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, archdiocese of Washington; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) He was dressed in a white miter and the same white vestments he wore when he was consecrated bishop in 1967. As he had requested, his hands were entwined with a rosary that had been owned by his mother and he wore a ring given him by Pope John Paul II. Under his hands was a prayer card from his 1946 priestly ordination with a quote from Saint Paul: “God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of Our Lord Jesus Christ”.
(2) This is the simple inscription in his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

JAMES CARDINAL HICKEY
1920 - 2004
ARCHBISHOP OF WASHINGTON
1980 - 2000


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(77) 16. SZOKA, Edmund Casimir
(1927-2014)

Birth. September 14, 1927, Grand Rapids, United States of America. Son of Casimir Szoka, from Belarus, and Mary Wolgat, from Poland. They divorced when Edmund was about three years old. He was raised in the Muskegon area.

Education. Studied at Saint Paul's Seminary, Grand Rapids; at Saint John's Interdiocesan Seminary, Plymouth (bachelor of arts); at the Sacred Heart Seminary, Detroit (theology); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (licentiate in canon law). Besides his native English, he spoke fluent Polish.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 5, 1954, St. Peter cathedral, Marquette, by Thomas Lawrence Noa, bishop of Marquette. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Saginaw and secretary to its bishops, 1954-1962; accompanied Bishop Thomas Lawrence Noa to the first session of the Second Vatican Council, 1962; chaplain at the Sawyer Air Force base, 1956. Further studies, Rome, 1957-1959. In Saginaw, official of the diocesan ecclesiastical tribunal, 1960-1971; assistant to the chancellor secretary, 1962-1969; pastoral ministry, 1962-1971. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 14, 1963. Vicar for religious and vicar general of Marquette, 1968-1971; chancellor, 1971.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Gaylord, June 11, 1971. Consecrated, July 20, 1971, Our Lady of Mount Carmel cathedral, Gaylord, by Cardinal John Francis Dearden, archbishop of Detroit, assisted by Charles Alexander Salatka, bishop of Marquette, and by Joseph Crescent McKinney, titular bishop of Lentini, auxiliary of Grand Rapids. His episcopal motto was To live in faith. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Detroit, March 21, 1981. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, June 28, 1988. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of Holy See, 1989. President of the Prefecture for Economic Affairs of the Holy See, January 22, 1990 to October 15, 1997. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, April 28, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Special papal envoy to the National Catechetical Congress, Manila, Philippines, December 5 to 8, 1990. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Special papal envoy to the Holy See's Day, International Exposition, Taejon, South Korea, September 19, 1993. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 400th anniversary of the martyrdom of 26 Japanese saints, Nagasaki, Japan, February 5, 1997. President of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, October 14, 1997. Special papal envoy to the ceremonies of the reconsecration of the cathedral of Minsk, Belarus, October 21, 1997. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 13, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998. Special papal envoy to the concluding celebrations for the 450th anniversary of the first evangelization of Japan, in Kagoshima, October 11, 1999. Special papal envoy to the millennial celebrations of archdiocese of Wrocław, Poland, June 24, 2000. President of the Governatorato for the State of Vatican City, February 22, 2001. Papal delegate to the inauguration of the "Pope John Paul II Cultural Center" in Washington, United States, March 21-22, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. On June 22, 2006, the pope accepted, according to canon 354 of the Code of Canon Law, his resignation as president of the Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City and president of the Governatorato of the same state, asking him to remain in the posts until September 15, 2006, with all inherent faculties of those offices. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 14, 2007. He resided in Northville, Michigan, in retirement. He suffered from congestive heart failure in his last years.

Death. Wednesday night August 20, 2014, of natural causes, in Providence Park Hospital in Novi, Michigan; he received the last rites from Archbishop Allen Vigneron of Detroit. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Szoka, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Archbishop Allen H. Vigneron of Detroit a telegram of condolence (2). Funeral services and visitation took place at the Cathedral of the Most Blessed Sacrament in Detroit. Visitation took place Sunday and Monday between 2:00 p.m and 9:00 p.m. as well as Tuesday morning between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. His funeral mass was celebrated on Tuesday at 11 a.m., and presided by Archbishop Vigneron. Burial took place at the Holy Sepulchre Cemetery in Southfield, Michigan (2).

Bibliography. Carson, Thomas. "Szoka, Edmund Casimir." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 417-418.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

To The Most Reverend
Allen H. Vigneron
Aarchbishop of Detroit
Having learned with sadness of the death of Cardinal Edmund Casimir Szoka, archbishop emeritus of Detroit, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the Archdiocese. Recalling with gratitude the late Cardinal's tireless episcopal ministry in Gaylord and Detroit, and his years of service to the Apostolic See and the Vatican City State. I willingly join you in commending the soul of this generous servant of Christ and the Church to the merciful love of God our heavenly Father. To all who mourn Cardinal Szoka in the hope of the resurrection I cordially, impart my Apostolic Blessing Has a pledge of Consolation and peace in the Lord.

FRANCISCUS PP.

(2) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
HIS EMINENCE
EDMUND CARDINAL SZOKA
ARCHBISHOP OF DETROIT, 1981 - 1990
DIED 8-20-2014


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(78) 17. PASKAI, O.F.M., László
(1927-2015)

Birth. May 8, 1927, Szeged, Hungary. Son of Ádám Paskai and Mária Ördög. They were Jews who had converted to the Roman Catholic faith before the arrival of their son and who later died during the Holocaust.

Education. Joined the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) and chose the name Pacifik upon entering the order. Studied at Franciscan houses of formation; at the Franciscan theologate, Gyongyos; at the Central Seminary, Budapest; and at the Academy of Budapest, where he obtained a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 3, 1951. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Nagyvarad, 1951-1952. Further studies, Budapest, 1952. In Szeged, episcopal master of ceremonies, 1952-1955; faculty member and librarian of its seminary, 1955-1962. Prefect of the Interdiocesan Seminary, faculty member and spiritual director, 1962-1965. Faculty member and spiritual director, Central Seminary, Budapest, 1965-1973; rector, 1973-1978.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Bavagaliana and appointed apostolic administrator of Veszprém, March 2, 1978. Consecrated, April 5, 1978, parish church of Szent Marguerite, Veszprém, by Cardinal László Lekai, archbishop of Esztergom, assisted by László Kadar, archbishop of Eger, and by Imre Kisberk, bishop of Székesfehérvár. His episcopal motto was In Virtute Spiritus. Transferred to the see of Veszprém, March 31, 1979. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop of Kalocsa, April 5, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1983. President of the Episcopal Conference of Hungary, 1986-1989. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Esztergom, March 3, 1987. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Teresa al Corso d'Italia, June 28, 1988. Became archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest when the name of the see was changed, May 31, 1993. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On December 7, 2002, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese presented in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. In 2005, he became the Spiritual Protector of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem (Paris/Orléans Obedience). Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age on May 8, 2007. On October 23, 2008, he was elected honorary citizen of Esztergom. On July 17, 2011, he celebrated a requiem mass for Otto von Habsburg, Hungary's last Crown Prince and pretender to the throne, in St. Stephen's Basilica in Budapest. After he retired, he lived in Esztergom-Szentgyörgymezo, near St. Adalbert basilica.

Death. August 17, 2015, in the morning, from a cancer recently diagnosed, in Esztergom. Upon learning the news of the death, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Cardinal Péter Erdö, archbishop of Budapest-Esztergom, a telegram of condolence (1). The funeral took place on Saturday August 22, 2015 at 10:30 a.m. in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Esztergom. Previously, at 10 a.m., presided Cardinal Erdö, who also delivered the homily. Concelebrating were Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, archbishop of Kraków, Poland; Cardinal Josip Bozanić, archbishop of Zagreb, Croatia; Ivan Šaško, titular bishop of Rotaria, auxiliary of Zagreb; Alberto Bottari de Castello, titular archbishop of Oderazom, apostolic nuncio to Hungary; twenty one bishops and about three hundred priests. Present were Prime Minister Viktor Orbán; Deputy Prime Minister Zsolt Semjen, representatives of the public, social and cultural life; members of the diplomatic corps; and representatives of sister churches. The faithful filled the cathedral basilica to capacity. Previously, at 10 a.m., a Rosary was said before the coffin of the late cardinal. Burial took place in the crypt of the metropolitan cathedral basilica (2).

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B., André and Charles N. Bransom. "Franciscan bishops." Franciscan Studies, XLVIII (1988), 317; Beke, Margit. "Paskai III. László. 1987. március 3. - 2002. december 7." in Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, p. 405-408; In virtute spiritus : a Szent István Akadémia emlékkönyve Paskai László bíboros tiszteletére. Edited by Stirling János. Budapest : Szent István Társulat, 2003; Paskai, Antal. Menekülésünk története 1944-1945 [The Story of our Escape 1944-1945], Budapeszt: Kármelita Rendház, 2009; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.

Webgraphy. Phoograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph, arms and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram of condolence, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

His Eminence Péter Cardinal Erdö
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
I was saddened to learn the news of the death of His Eminence Cardinal László Paskai, OFM. I offer prayerful condolences to you, the clergy, men and women religious and lay faithful of the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, and I thank Almighty God for his many years of service to the Church in Hungary. In commending his soul to the merciful love of the Father and uniting myself spiritually to all assembled for the solemn funeral rites, I impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and peace in the Lord.

Francis PP.
Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.
(2) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

PASKAI LÂSZLŎ OFM.
BÎBOROS, PRÎMÂS,
ESZTERGOM-BUDAPESTI ÉRSEK
1927 - 2015
“IN VIRTUTE SPIRITUS”


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(79) 18. TUMI, Christian Wiyghan
(1930-

Birth. Wednesday October 15, 1930, in Way'ngoylum, a quarter in Kikaikilaki, diocese of Kumbo, Bui Division, North West Region, Cameroun (1). He is the fourth of seven children, five girls and two boys, of Thomas Tumi and Catherine La'ka, who is still alive and is about 111 years old; two boys died before the birth of Christian; the youngest child was a girl named Celine. He was baptized one week after his birth. His middle name, Wiyghan, means "he is on a journey and will be here just for a moment", reflecting pessimism given the early death of his two older brothers; it proved to be unfounded. His first name is also listed as Christian Wiyghansaï Shaaghan; and his last name as Ntoumi. He received first communion in 1939.

Education. Initial studies at the Catholic school in Kikaikelaki; when the family went to Nigeria, he continued his primary studies at the school in Jos, where he obtained the First School Leaving Certificate; he decided to become a teacher, his first love, he started studying at the College of Mary Immaculate Kafanchan, Jos, Plateau Province, Nigeria, where he graduated three years later with a teacher's Grade III Certificate; while attending the college, a friend of his, Stephen Sunjo, a student at Saint Theresa Minor Seminary of Ibadan, inspired him with the idea of entering the priesthood; after a period of discernment, he entered the Saint Theresa Minor Seminary, Okeare, Ibadan, Nigeria in 1954; he obtained the Ordinary Level certificate five years later; Major Seminary of Ibadan; after his first year of philosophy, his family decided to return to Cameroun, and he followed them and transferred to the Seminary of Enugu, as a student of the diocese of Buea, where he had been received by its bishop; there, he studied philosophy and theology for six years; in 1969, he was sent to the Theological Faculty of Lyon, France, where he obtained a master's in philosophy; and two years later, one in theology; with permission from his bishop, he went to the Catholic University of Fribourg, Switzerland, for his post-graduate studies; he obtained a doctorate, magna cum laude, in philosophy in 1973.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 17, 1966, Regina Pacis cathedral grounds, Small Soppo Buea, by Julius Joseph Willem Peeters, M.H.M., bishop of Buea; he celebrated his first mass in his village, Way'ngoylum, on the following April 24. He ministered as curate of the parish of Fiango, Kumba, for a year; then he was named professor of philosophy at the Minor Seminary of Soppo, where he remained from 1967 until 1969; and also served as cathedral parish curate. Further studies in France and Switzerland, 1969-1973. He returned to Cameroun in 1973 and was curate of Bafut for a brief time. He was entrusted with the mission of setting up the Saint Thomas Aquinas Major Seminary, Bambui, archdiocese of Bamenda, which he opened with twelve students and was its rector from August 13, 1973 until 1979; he introduced the teaching of Hebrew and Greek, knowing these subjects were be indispensable to priests who would want to pursue further studies.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Yagoua, December 6, 1979. Consecrated, January 6, 1980, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Ferdinando Maggioni, titular bishop of Subaugusta, auxiliary of Milan. In the same ceremony was consecrated Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., archbishop of Milan, future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Me voici je viens faire ta volonté. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop, with right of succession, of Garoua, November 19, 1982. Attended the Sixth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 28, 1983. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Garoua, March 17, 1984. He received the pallium in Garoua on January 6, 1985, from Donato Squicciarini, titular archbishop of Tiburnia, pro-nuncio in Cameroun, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. President of the Episcopal Conference of Cameroun from 1985 until 1991; and president of the Association of Episcopal Conferences of Central Africa, positions he used to ask for a Catholic University of Central Africa to be created in Yaounde; he served as the university's grand chancellor until November 11, 2009, when he stepped down. He welcomed Pope John Paul II in Garoua on August 11, 1985. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Apostolic visitator to the major seminaries in Malawi and Zambia.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Martiri dell'Uganda a Poggio Ameno, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; one of its three president delegates; member of its general secretariat, 1990-1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Douala, August 31, 1991; he was installed the following September 28; he was apostolic administrator of Garoua until the appointment of his successor, Bishop Antoine Ntalou of Yagova, on January 23, 1992. Received the pallium from Pope John Paul II in the patriarchal Vatican Basilica on June 29, 1992. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; one of its three president delegates; member of the Council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa. Special papal envoy to the Ghana National Eucharistic Congress, Tamale, January 4 to 12, 1998. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On October 15, 2005, when he turned seventy five years old, in accordance with the Code of Canon Law, canon 401 § 1, he submitted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Douala; the pope accepted the request nunc pro tunc, that is requesting that the cardinal should continue to govern the archdiocese for some time. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Douala was accepted by the pope on November 17, 2009; he was succeeded by Samuel Kleda, until then archbishop coadjutor of that see; the cardinal was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on January 9, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on October 15, 2010. He is the first cardinal from Cameroun.

Bibliography. Lingo, Célestin. Christian Cardinal Wiyghan Tumi : premier Cardinal Camerounais. s.l. : s.n., 1995; Sofack, Noël. L'affaire cardinal Tumi d'octobre 2000 : un débat revisité : pour comprendre le rôle politique de l'Église dans un Etat laïc. Cameroon? : s.n., 2002; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan. Le Cardinal Christian W. Tumi face à la presse : texte intégral de la conférence de presse donnée à Yanoundé le 11 juin 1990. Yaoundé : s.n., 1990; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan. The political regimes of Ahmadou Ahidjo, and Paul Biya, and Christian Tumi, priest. Douala, Cameroon : s.n., MACACOS, 2006. Responsibility: Christian Wiyghansaï Shaaghan Cardinal Tumi ; preface by Paul Verdzekov; Tumi, Christian Wiyghan ; Oum, Edouard. Christian Cardinal W. Tumi : le normalien devenu cardinal. Yaoundé? : s.n., 2006. Note: "Ce livre est également publié en anglais sous le titre "From college of teachers to college of cardinals". Responsibility: entretiens avec Edouard Oum ; préface de Victor Tonye Bakot.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; Les Confessions du Cardinal Tumi, in French, Camerpress, Agence Camerounaise d'information; arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) At the time of the cardinal's birth, Cameroun was a French and British mandate territory; it became independent on January 1, 1960, becoming the Republic of Cameroun.


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(80) 19. GROËR, O.S.B., Hans Hermann
(1919-2003)

Birth. October 13, 1919, Vienna, Austria, of German parents; moved with his parents to Czechoslovakia in 1929 and lived there for ten years; attended Austrian schools; kept Czech citizenship until 1939. His second middle name was Wilhelm.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Hollabrunn; and later, at the Seminary of Vienna, where he earned a doctorate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 12, 1942, Sankt Andreas chapel, archbishop`s palace, by Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, archbishop of Vienna. Military service and chaplain in Petronell and Bad Voeslau, 1942-1946. Prefect of studies, minor seminary of Hollabrunn and further studies, 1946-1952. Faculty member, Institute of Hollabrunn, 1952-1974; organizer of the traditional pilgrimages to the shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf; chamberlain of honor, July 31, 1963; rector of the shrine and director of pilgrimages, 1969-1976; National spiritual director of the Legion of Mary, 1974. Joined the Order of St. Benedict at the abbey of Göttweig, diocese of Sankt Pölten, in 1974; took the name Hermann; solemn profession, September 8, 1980, in Göttweig. Spiritual director and rector of the church of the convent of Mariendorf, Marian shrine of Our Lady of Roggendorf, 1982-1986.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Vienna, July 15, 1986. Consecrated, September 14, 1986, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop emeritus of Vienna, assisted by Karl Berg, archbishop of Salzburg, and by Stefan László, bishop of Eisenstadt. His episcopal motto was In verbo autem tuo. Ordinary for the faithful of the Byzantine rite residing in Austria, February 21, 1987; resigned the post, September 14, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Gioacchino ed Anna al Tuscolano, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of the Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Vienna, September 14, 1995, under accusations of sexual abuse. After his resignation, he became abbot of the monastery of Roggendorf until 1998. Relinquished all ecclesiastical duties and privileges as an archbishop and cardinal and left Austria, after he was asked to do so by Pope John Paul II, April 14, 1998. He never admitted any guilt. State prosecution never took place because the statute of limitations had long since expired when the allegations occurred. At the request of the Vatican, he spent several months near Dresden, Germany. Later, he lived in retirement at the priorate of Sankt Josef, Marienplatz, Maria Roggendorf, Austria. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, October 13, 1999.

Death. March 24, 2003, during the night, of pneumonia, at a hospital in Sankt Pölten, about 40 miles west of Vienna, where he was being treated for cancer. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II sent Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, O.P., archbishop of Vienna, a telegram of condolence (1). Buried in the cemetery of the Cistercian monastery of Marienfeld, Austria (2).

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken fromm the Press Office of the Holy See:

Seiner Eminenz
Hochwürdigstem Herrn Kardinal Christoph Schönborn OP
Erzbischof von Wien
Eerzbischöfliches Palais
Rotenturmstr. 2 A–1010 Wien
MIT TRAUER HABE ICH DIE NACHRICHT VOM HEIMGANG IHRES VORGÄNGERS IM AMT DES ERZBISCHOFS VON WIEN, DES HOCHWÜRDIGSTEN HERRN KARDINALS HANS HERMANN GROËR OSB AUFGENOMMEN. MIT GROßER LIEBE ZU CHRISTUS UND SEINER KIRCHE HAT ER IN TREUE ZUM NACHFOLGER PETRI DAS ERZBISTUM WIEN VON 1986 BIS 1995 UNTER DEM MOTTO „IN VERBO AUTEM TUO" GELEITET UND STAND AUCH EINIGE JAHRE AN DER SPITZE DER ÖSTER-REICHISCHEN BISCHOFKONFERENZ. IN DEN LETZTEN JAHREN, DIE ER ZURÜCKGEZOGEN VERBRACHTE, WAR ER VON KRANKHEIT GEZEICHNET. INDEM ICH IHNEN VERSICHERE, DAß ICH BETEND AM GEDENKEN, DAS DIE ERZDIÖZESE WIEN IHREM FRÜHEREN OBERHIRTEN SCHENKT, ANTEIL NEHME, EMPFEHLE ICH IHN DEM HERRN, DEM ER SEIN LEBEN ÜBEREIGNET HATTE. MÖGE IHM DER EWIGE LOHN ZUTEIL WERDEN, DEN DER HERR SELBST SEINEN TREUEN DIENERN VERHEIßEN HAT. AUF DIE FÜRSPRACHE MARIENS, DER MUTTER DER PRIESTER, ERTEILE ICH ALLEN, DIE UM DEN VERSTORBENEN TRAUERN, ALS UNTERPFAND REICHEN GÖTTLICHEN TROSTES DEN APOSTOLISCHEN SEGEN.

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II

(2)This is the simple inscription in his tomb, provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

HANS HERMANN CARD. GROER
13.10.1919      24.03.2003


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(81) 20. MARTIN, Jacques
(1908-1992)

Birth. August 26, 1908, Amiens, France. His baptismal name was Jacques-Paul.

Education. Studied at the University of Strassbourg, where he obtained a licentiate in letters); at the Pontifical French Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1929 to 1936, where he obtained a doctorate in theology; thesis: "Le Louis XIV de Charteaux, Dom Innocent Le Masson"); at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, from 1936 to 1938 (diplomacy); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 14, 1934. Further studies, Rome, 1934-1938. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1938. Member of the papal delegation to the 34th International Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, Hungary, May 12, 1938. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, June 2, 1941. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, June 20, 1951. Special envoy to the celebration of the Silver Jubilee of coronation of Haile Selassie I, emperor of Ethiopia, 1954. Canon of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and protonotary apostolic supernumerary, December 10, 1958. Accompanied Pope Paul VI in his pilgrimage to the Holy Land, January 1964.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Neapoli di Palestina, January 5, 1964. Consecrated, February 11, 1964, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Paolo Marella, archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican basilica and prefect of the S.C. for St. Peter's basilica, assisted by Angelo Dell'Acqua, titular archbishop of Calcedonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State and secretary of the Cipher, and by Paul-Pierre Philippe, O.P., titular archbishop of Eraclea, secretary of the S.C. of Religious. Appointed prefect of the Papal Household, April 9, 1969. Promoted to archbishop and and appointed prefect emeritus, December 18, 1986.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, June 28, 1988. Lost the right to participate in conclave when turned eighty years of age, August 26, 1988.

Death. September 27, 1992, in the early hours of the morning, after suffering a severe heart attack, in his residence in Vatican City. Pope John Paul II presided over the exequies celebrated in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, on the following Thursday October 1; the cardinals present in Rome concelebrated with the pope, who also pronounced the homily. Buried in the chapel of the canons of St. Peter's basilica, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome. His body was transferred to "Reconciliazione" chapel, basilica of Sacro Cuore di Cristo Re, Rome, on December 2, 1997.

Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 405-406; Martin, Jacques. Oltre il portone di bronzo. (Appunti di un cardinale vissuto a fianco di 6 Papi). Milan: Edizioni Paoline, 1996.


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(82) 21. HENGSBACH, Franz
(1910-1991)

Birth. September 10, 1910, Velmede, archdiocese of Paderborn, Germany. Son of Johann and Theresia Hengsbach; he had five brothers and two sisters.

Education. Institute of Brilon, Brilon; Seminary of Paderborn, Paderborn; Seminary of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau; Theological Faculty, Münich (obtained a doctorate in theology in 1944; dissertation: Das Wesen der Verkündigung - Eiene homiletische Untersuchung auf paulinischer Grundlag).

Priesthood. Ordained, March 13, 1937, Paderborn, by Kaspar Klein, archbishop of Paderborn. Vicar, Herne-Bukau, St. Mariren, 1937-1946. Secretary general of the Academy Bonifat-Eingung in Paderborn, 1946-1948. General secretary of the Central Committee for the Preparation of German Catholics, 1947. Director of the archdiocesan pastoral office of Paderborn, January 1, 1948-1958. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1952. General secretary of the Central Committe of German Catholic, April 30, 1952.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cantano and appointed auxiliary of Paderborn, August 20, 1953. Consecrated, September 29, 1953, metropolitan cathedral of Paderborn, by Lorenz Jaeger, archbishop of Paderborn, assisted by Wilhelm Weskamm, bishop of Berlin, and by Friedrich Maria Rintelen, titular bishop of Cusira, auxiliary of Paderborn. Transferred to the see of Essen, November 18, 1957. Founder of "Adveniat", organization of the German episcopate to assist the church in Latin America. Military ordinary for Germany, October 10, 1961 until May 22, 1978. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971. Grand prior of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. President, German episcopal commission for Universal Church affairs, 1976. Member, Council of the European Episcopal Conference, 1977. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Puebla, México, January 27 to February 13, 1979.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora di Guadalupe a Monte Mario, June 28, 1988. Lost the right to participate in conclave when turned eighty years of age, September 10, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, February 21, 1991. He was known throughout Germany as the "workers' bishop". He wore a piece of coal in his bishop's ring to symbolize his concern for miners and other workers.

Death. June 24, 1991, in a hospital in Essen, from complications after a stomach surgery. Buried in the crypt of the cathedral of Essen (1). A lifesize colored statue of the cardinal was erected in the cathedral grounds of Essen on the occasion of the centenary of his birth in 2010. The conference center for the training of priests, pastoral education and retreats in the diocese of Essen is named the "Kardinal-Hengsbach-Haus" in his honor.

Bibliography. Brandt, Hans Jürgen ; Hellmich, Klaus. Zeitzeuge Kardinal Franz Hengsbach : zum Gedenken an den Gründerbischof des Bistums Essen, 1910-1991. Essen, Germany : Verlag Ferdinand Kamp GmbH & Co., 1991; Gatz, Erwin. Die Bischöfe der deutschsprachigen Länder, 1945 2001 : ein biographisches Lexikon. Unter Mitwirkung von Franz Xaver Bischof ... [et al.] ; herausgegeben von Erwin Gatz. Berlin : Duncker & Humblot, 2002, p. 192-198.

Webgraphy. His arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the inscription in his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici from Malta:

FRANZ KARDINAL HENGSBACH
10. SEPT. 1910   24. JUNI. 1991
BISCHOF VON ESSEN
1958 - 1991


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(83) 22. SLADKEVIČIUS, M.I.C., Vincentas
(1920-2000)

Birth. August 20, 1920, Guroniai, parish of Šv. Jurgio in Žasliai, diocese of Kaišiadorys, Lithuania. He was the youngest of the five children of Mykolas Sladkevičius and Uršule Kavaliauskaite, a family of farmers; the other siblings were Ona, Emilija, Jonas and Marija. He was baptized in that parish church. His father died when he was nine years old.

Education. Initial education at the elementary school in in Žasliai, in 1926; in 1932, he went to the Gymnasium of Kaišiadorys; in 1933, to the Catholic Gymnasium of Kaišiadorys; in 1934, to the Jesuit Gymnasium of Kaunas; from 1939 to 1944, he studied at the Theological Faculty of Kaunas, where he obtained a licentiate in theology in 1944.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 25, 1944, Kaunas, by Juozapas Skriveckas, archbishop of Kaunas. Incardinated in the diocese of Kaišiadorys. On April 10, 1944, he celebrated his first mass at the parish of Šv. Jurgio in Žasliai. From 1944 to 1948, he was chaplain in the parish of Švč. Trejybés in Kietaviškése; in the parish of Švč. M. Marijos Émimo ị dangų in Merkiné; in the parish of Kristaus Atsimainymo in Aukštadvaris; in the catheral-parish of Kristaus Atsimainymo in Kaišiadorys; in the parish of Šv. Jono Krikštytojo in Čiobiškis; in the parish of Švč. Trejybés in Nedzingéje; in the parish of Šv. Juozapo in Šešiuoliuose; and in the parish of St. Šv. Jono Krikštytojo in Kuktiškése. From 1948 to 1952, he was parish priest of Švč. M. Marijos Émimo ị dangų in Inturkéje. In 1952, he was named prefect of the Theological Seminary in Kaunas, as well as lecturer of dogmatics. In 1956, he was named named canon of the cathedral chapter of Kaišiadorys.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Abora and auxiliary, sedis datus, of Kaišiadorys, November 14, 1957. Consecrated, December 25, 1957, in secret, in the kitchen of the parish-house of Šv. Antano Paduviečio, in Birštonas, by Teofilius Matulionis, bishop of Kaišiadorys, without co-consecrators. His episcopal motto was Fac Meum Signum in Bonum. In March 1958, he was expelled from his office by the Soviet authorities. Until 1959 he lived in a private flat in Kaunas. Impeded from exercising his episcopal ministry by the government, he resided in Neumunélio Radviliškis, diocese of Panevėž ys, under virtual house arrest from 1963 to 1982; from 1970, he was allowed to administer the sacraments in private in the parish of Švč. M. Marijos in Nemunélio Radviliškis. He joined the Congregation of the Marian Clerics of the Immaculate Conception in secret; took the temporary vows in 1972; and the final vows in 1975. In 1976, he was sent to Pabiržé, diocese of Panevéžys, until 1982; in 1980, he was allowed to celebrate the mass privately in the parish of Švč. Trejybés. Appointed apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of Kašiadorys, July 15, 1982. Elected president of the Episcopal Conference of Lithuania, April 27, 1988.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Spirito Santo alla Ferratella, June 28, 1988. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kaunas, March 10, 1989. He received the pallium from Pope John Paul II on June 29, 1989, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. On September 6, 1993, he welcomed Pope John Paul II to Kaunas. The Holy Father referred to the cardinal as a "diligent servant of God who can undoubtedly be considered the 20th century's model of morals, service to God, truth and humanness". In December 1993, he received the honorary citizenship of Kaunas. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, for having reached the age limit, on May 4, 1996. In 1998, he was decorated with the merit cross, first class, of the Order of Merit of "Vytautas Magnus" of the Republic of Lithuania.

Death. May 28, 2000, after suffering from prostate cancer for seven years, in his apartment at Valančius gatve 6, Kaunas, while receiving the last rites. The funeral was celebrated in the metropolitan cathedral-basilica of Kaunas on Thursday June 1, 2000; his remains were buried in that same cathedral-basilica (1). On June 2, 2001, in commemoration of the first anniversary of his death, in Kaunas, at M. Valančiaus gatve 6, a memorial exposition was opened in the apartment where he lived from 1990-2000. In 2001, a street in the city of Kaunas was named "Kardinolas Vincentas Sladkevicius". In 2003, a stamp with his portrait was issued by the Republic of Lithuania. In 2006, a coin with his portrait was also issued by the Republic of Lithuania.

Bibliography. Laurinavičius, Jonas. Guronys: Kardinolo Vincento Sladkevičiaus tévišké. Kaišiadorys, 1995; Laurinavičius, Jonas.Kaišiadorių krašto ž monés: 100 biografijų. Kaišiadorys : Kaišiadorių Muziejus, 2002; Laurinavičius, Jonas. Kilnus artimo meilés liudytojas (Kardinolas Vincentas Sladkevičius). Kaišiadorys, 2001; Petraitiene, Irena. Kardinolas : Jo Eminencijos Vincento Sladkevičiaus laikas ir asmenybe. Kaunas : Santara, 2000; Sladkevičius, Vincentas. Laimékime gerumu: Kardinolo V. Sladkevičiaus mintys. Compiled by Jonas Laurinavičius. Kaišiadorys, 2001; Sladkevičius, Vincentas. Padaryk mane gerumo ženklu: prisiminimai apie kardinolą Vincentą Sladkevičių. Compiled and prepared by Irene Petraitiené. Kaunas, 2003.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Lituanian, Wikipedia; his death notice and biography, in Lithuanian. archdiocese of Kaunas; photograph and biography, by Eman Bonnici, in English, Find a Grave; his effigy on a coin and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Sladkevicius by Michael Bourdeaux, The Guardian, Tuesday 6 June 2000 20.17 EDT; 50 litas coin dedicated to Cardinal Vincentas Sladkevicius (1920�2000), Lietuvos Bankas; his monument, Panoramio.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

S.R.E. CARDINALIS
VINCENTAS
SLADKEVICIUS
ARCHIEPISCOPUS
METROPOLITA
KAUNENSIS 1920 - 2000

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(84) 23. MARGÉOT, Jean
(1916-2009)

Birth. February 3, 1916, Quatre-Bornes, diocese of Port-Louis, Mauritius. Son of Joseph Margéot and Marie Harel.

Education. Secondary education at Collège Père-Laval (later Collège du St. Esprit) and Collège Royal, Port-Louis; in 1933, he was admitted to the French Seminary, Rome; did his ecclesiastical studies at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome (licentiate in philosophy and in theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1938, patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome. Returned to Mauritius on August 25, 1939. In 1939, he was named parochial vicar at La Visitation, in Vacoas, where he quickly organized the Catholic Youth Association. On April 28, 1940, he was named spiritual director of the Légion de Marie, which he promoted with great success throughout the country. Later, he was vicar at St.Pierre-ès-Liens, Moka; at Ste. Thérèse, Curepipe; at Notre Dame du Rosaire, Quare Bornes; at St. Sauveur; at Bambous; and at the cathedral of St. Louis. At the end of 1945, at the invitation of Bishop François Émile Marie Cléret de Langavant, C.S.Sp., of Saint-Denis, he went to La Réunion to establish the Légion de Marie. In 1947, he represented the diocese in Antananarivo, in the celebrations marking the canonization of Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort. On December 29, 1947, he was named secretary of the Roman Catholic Education Authority, with residence in the presbytery of the cathedral; on June 20, 1952, he became its president. Founder of "Foyers de Notre Dame" in 1953. Founder of "Foyer Monsignor Murphy", for the formation of native clergy. He was administrator of the diocese during the illness of Bishop Daniel Liston, C.S.Sp. He became the first Mauritian vicar general of the diocese of Port Louis on April 1, 1956; occupied the post until June 1, 1968; vicar capitular, June 1, 1968, at the resignation of Bishop Liston; occupied the post until February 6, 1969. Domestic prelate of honor of His Holiness, September 19, 1956. On that same date, he was named prelate of the Maison du Pape. Pastor of the parish Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes, Rose-Hill, when that important parish of Plaines-Wilhems passed from the Jesuit Fathers to the diocesan clergy in October of 1957. Because of the long absences of Bishop Liston in Rome during the sessions of the Second Vatican Council, he was closely associated with the direction of the diocese. In 1963, he founded l'Action Familiale to face the problems created by the population increase. Named member of the Pontifical Commission for the Family, he participated in two of its sessions in Rome. At the beginning of 1968, when the country lived serious social disturbances related to its independence, he was the trusted pastor who accurately listened to Catholic community. In the same way, he ensured the successful progress of the Church within the new Mauritian state, recently created. In Lent 1969, he asked the clergy and the faithful to work for the development of the country.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Port-Louis, February 6, 1969. Consecrated, May 4, 1969, shrine of Marie-Reine-de-la-Paix, Port Louis, by Paolo Mosconi, titular archbishop of Leges, pro-nuncio in Madagascar, assisted by Angelo Innocent Fernandes, archbishop of Delhi, and by Georges-Henri Guibert, C.S.Sp., bishop of Saint-Denis-de-La Réunion; 80, 000 people attended the ceremony, which was considered the most important in the history of the city until then. His episcopal motto was Non ministrari sed ministrare. Named assistant at the Pontifical Throne on October 10, 1972. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. President of the Episcopal Conference of Indian Ocean, 1985-1989.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acque Traversa, June 28, 1988. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, February 15, 1993. He went to reside at the Convent of Bonne Terre, where he continued giving retreats and conferences; in October 2005, he was affected by a grave illness; after a period of convalescence, he resumed all his normal activities. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Special papal envoy to the celebration of 150th anniversary of the evangelization of New Caledonia, Numea, May 22, 1994. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, February 3, 1996. Grand Officer of the Order of the Star and Key, March 12, 1997. In February 1999, he played an important mediation role to calm the disorders that affected the country. He was the first bishop and the first cardinal from Mauritius.

Death. Friday July 17, 2009, at 9:40 a.m., local time, in his room in the pavillion situated in the convent of the Filles de Marie, Bonne-Terre, Vacoas. Although still mentally lucid, his health had deteriorated since the heart attack that he suffered back in 2005. He was a priest for over 70 years, a bishop for 40, and a cardinal for 21. His body was taken from his residence to the cathedral of St. Louis on Friday July 17, at 5 p.m., and there it laid in state from 6 p.m.; a book of condolences was available. The funeral mass was celebrated on Sunday, July 19, at noon, at the Shrine of Marie-Reine-de-la-Paix; the body of the cardinal was taken from the cathedral at 11 a.m., accompanied by members of the SMF and the orchestra of the police. A national day of mourning was decreed by the Republic of Mauritius for the occasion. Interment followed in the crypt of the cathedral; only relatives and priests were present. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Maurice Piat of Port-Louis; and the family of the late cardinal.

Bibliography. Margéot, Jean ; Nagapen, Amédée; Appassamy, Freddy ; Dinan, Jacques ; Foy, Joseph. Cardinal Jean Margéot, évêque de Port-Louis de 1969 ` 1993 : livre-souvenir publié à l'occasion de la messe d'action de grâce célébrée au Monument Marie, Reine de la Paix, le dimanche 16 mai 1993. Port Louis : Diocèse de Port-Louis, 1993; Margéot, Jean ; Le Gall, Robert. Le voyage intérieur : Dialogues sur la prière et la méditation. Paris : Presses de la renaissance, 2007; Tong, Franéçoise Yaw Kan ; Conchiano Mootoosamy. Cardinal Jean Margéot, premier Mauricien évêque et cardinal. Préface pour Cardinal Bernardin Gantin. Rose-Hill, Mauritius : Ile aux Trésors, 2006.

Webgraphy. Photographs, audios and biography, in French (site created to celebrate his 90th birthday on February 3, 2006); photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; photograph and biography, in French, diocese of Port-Louis; and the diocese of Port-Louis.


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(85) 24. WU CHENG-CHUNG, John Baptist
(1925-2002)

Birth. March 26, 1925, in the village of Ho Hau, in the country of Wu-hua (Province of Guangdong) diocese of Shui-tsai (Kaying), China. Son of Shing Sing Wu and Mary Chow. He was baptized in the parish church of the same village.

Education. Primary education in Ho Hau; the studied at the Seminary of Kaying from 1940 to 1946 (secondary education); at the South China Regional Seminary, Aberdeen, Hong Kong, from August 1946 (philosophy and theology); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in canon law, summa cum laude, on June 23, 1956; his thesis was De forma canonica extraordinaria celebrationis matrimonii.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 6, 1952, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Antonio Riberi, titular archbishop of Dara, nuncio in China. Pastoral ministry at the Refugee Center at Tung Tau Tsuen, Kowloon, Hong Kong, now a part of St. Patrick's Parish, 1952-1953. Further studies in Rome, 1954-1956. July 1956: Sent to the United States to gain experience in diocesan administration, working respectively at the chancery of the archdiocese of New York (July-September 1956); of Boston (September-December 1956); and of Chicago (December 1956-January 1957). Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Hsin-chu, Taiwan, May 1957-1975; moderator of the diocesan synod, 1971-1972.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hong Kong (Xianggang), April 5, 1975. Consecrated, July 25, 1975, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Hong Kong, by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, assisted by Petrus Pao-Zin Tou, bishop of Hsinchu, and by Frederic Anthony Donaghy, M.M., bishop of Wuchow (Wuzhou). His episcopal motto was Veritatem in caritate. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985. Led delegations in official visits to the People's Republic of China in 1985, 1986 and 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 1988; received the red biretta and the title of Beata Vergine Maria del Monte Carmelo a Mostacciano, June 28, 1988. Special papal envoy to the National Missionary Congress of the Philippines, Cebu, September 27 to October 1, 2000. He was the first cardinal from Hong Kong.

Death. September 23, 2002, from advanced stages of melanoma and bone marrow cancer, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. After learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II sent Bishop Joseph Zen of Hong Kong a telegram of condolence (1). Buried in St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery, Happy Valley, Hong Kong.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 204 and 246.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biographical information, in Chinese and English, Hong Kong Catholic Diocesan Archives; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Holy See Press Office:

Bishop Joseph Zen
Hong Kong
ON LEARNING OF THE SERENE AND HOLY PASSING OF CARDINAL JOHN BAPTIST WU I EXPRESS MY HEARTFELT CONDOLENCES AND JOIN YOU AND THE CLERGY, RELIGIOUS AND LAITY OF HONG KONG IN COMMENDING YOUR FORMER SHEPHERD TO OUR HEAVENLY FATHER'S MERCIFUL LOVE. MINDFUL OF THE LATE CARDINALS LIFE-LONG, DEDICATED SERVICE OF THE CHURCH AS PRIEST AND BISHOP AND WITH IMMENSE GRATITUDE FOR HIS FRUITFUL AND UNTIRING COOPERATION WITH THE HOLY SEE AND WITH ME PERSONALLY THROUGHOUT MY PONTIFICATE, I AM CERTAIN THAT HIS MEMORY WILL LIVE ON IN THE COMMUNITY HE SO FAITHFULLY SERVED, INSPIRING ALL TO EVER GREATER GENEROSITY IN CHRISTIAN LIVING. AS A PLEDGE OF COMFORT IN OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST I IMPART MY APOSTOLIC BLESSING TO ALL WHO MOURN HIM IN THE HOPE OF THE RESURRECTION

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II

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BALTHASAR, Hans Urs von
(1905-1988)

Birth. August 12, 1905, Lucerne, Switzerland. Of an old patrician family. Son of Oscar Ludwig Carl von Balthasar, the Lucerne canton builder, and Gabrielle Pietzcker, co-foundress and first general secretary of the Swiss League of Catholic Women. He had a sister, Renée, who was superior general of the Franciscan Sisters of Saint-Marie des Anges from 1971 to 1983; and a younger brother, Dieter, who served as an officer in the Swiss Guard. He was baptized and received first communion in the Franciscan church of Lucerne. He had an extraordinary talent for music and for a long time he wavered between musical and literary studies.

Education. Initial studies at the Benedictine high school, Engelber, Switzerland; Jesuit high school, Feldkirch, Switzerland; left a year before graduating; the program in German studies, leading to a doctorate, consisted of nine study semesters alternating between three universities: University of Zürich, Switzerland; University of Vienna, Austria; and University of Berlin, Germany (dissertation: Geschichte des eschatologischen Problems in der moderners deutschen Literatur, 1930). In the summer of 1927, he attended a thirty-day retreat directed by Fr. Friedrich Krtonseder, S.J.; this was a decisive turning point in his life. Joined the Society of Jesus, October 31, 1929; novitiate at Feldkirch of the Jesuit Province of Southern Germany, November 18, 1929-1931; one of his classmates was Alois Grillmeier, future cardinal; philosophy at Berchmanskolleg, Pullach, Münich, 1931-1933; theology at Fourviere, Lyons, 1933-1937; he studied under Henri de Lubac, future cardinal (obtained licentiates in philosophy and theology).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1936, Münich, by Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, archbishop of München und Freising. Associate editor of the journal Stimmen der Zeit, München, Germany, 1937-1939. Jesuit tertianship, Pullach, Münich, Germany, 1939; under the direction of Fr. Albert Steger; he did another thirty-day retreat. University chaplain, Basel, Switzerland, 1940-1948 (1). Founder and director of "Johannes Verlag", Einsiedeln, publishing firm, 1947. With Adrienne von Speyr, a Swiss physician and visionary and the wife of Werner Kaegi, later professor of history at Basel, he founded and worked in the Community of Saint John, Basel, Switzerland. His Jesuit superiors thought that this work was not compatible with membership in the Society. Left the Society of Jesus on February 11, 1950; it was not until February 2, 1956, that the bishop of Chur, Switzerland, granted him incardination in his diocese. Publisher and theological writer, Basel, Switzerland, 1950-1988. For several years, he fell out of favor and was not invited to be present at the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Doctor honoris causa, theological faculty of Münster, Germany, and Edinburgh, Scotland, 1965. Doctorate in theology honoris causa, University of Fribourg, 1967. Pope Paul VI appointed him member of the International Theological commission, 1969; remained a member until his death. Co-founder, with Joseph Ratzinger, future cardinal and Pope Benedict XVI, of Communio: International Catholic Review. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; assistant to the special secretary. Received a doctorate honoris causa in human letters, The Catholic University of America, Washington, United States of America, 1980. Received the "Pope Paul VI International Prize", June 23, 1984. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; special guest. Awarded the "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Prize" in Innsbruck, Austria, May 22, 1987. The announcement of his creation as a cardinal was made on May 29, 1988; he had declined the promotion in the past.

Episcopate. Asked the pope to be excused from receiving episcopal consecration because of advanced age.

Cardinalate. Was to be created cardinal deacon of S. Nicola in Carcere in the consistory of June 28, 1988 but died two days earlier. He is considered one of the greatest Catholic theologians of the 20th century. He was called "the pope's favorite theologian" in the pontificate of Pope John Paul II and greatly influenced Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger's theological thought. Feeling the end was near, he wrote to a friend: "Those above, seem to have a different plan", shortly before his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals and his unexpected demise.

Death. June 26, 1988, Basel, suddenly, as he was preparing to celebrate morning mass. Buried in his family's vault at the cemetery of Sankt Leodegar im Hof church, Lucerne.

Bibliography.
-Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Man in History. A Theological Study. New York : Sheed and Ward, 1982;
-Balthasar, Hans Urs von. My work : in retrospect. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 1993. (Communio books). Note: Translation of: Mein Werk--Durchblicke;
-Balthasar, Hans Urs von. Romano Guardini: reform from the source. Translated by Albert K. Wimmer and D.C. Schindler. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2010;
-Balthasar, Hans Urs von ; Chantraine, Georges. Le cardinal Henri de Lubac, l'homme et son œuvre. Paris : Editions Lethielleux ; Namur : Culture et vérité, 1983. (Sycomore., Série "Chrétiens aujourd'hui" ; 9);
-Balthasar, Hans Urs von ; Nichols, Aidan. Mysterium Paschale : the mystery of Easter. Edinburgh, Scotland : T & T Clark, 1990;
-The Cambridge companion to Hans Urs von Balthasar. Edited by Edward T. Oakes and David Moss. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2004. (Cambridge companions to religion);
-Dickens, William Thomas. Hans Urs von Balthasar's theological aesthetics : a model for post-critical biblical interpretation. Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, 2003;
-Hans Urs Von Balthasar. Edited by Martin Redfern. Sheed and Ward : London, 1972;
-Hans Urs von Balthasar. Cento anni dalla nascita. Milano : Editoriale Jaca, 2005;
-Nichols, Aidan, O.P. A key to Balthasar : Hans Urs Von Balthasar on beauty, goodness, and truth. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Academic, ©2011;
-O'Donnell, John. Hans Urs von Balthasar. Michael Glazier : Collegeville, 1992. (Outstanding Christian Thinkers);
-Schindler, David. L. Hans Urs von Balthasar: His life and work. San Francisco : Communio Books, Ignatius Press, 1991;
-Scola, Angelo. Hans Urs Von Balthasar. A Theological Style. Eerdmans : Grand Rapids, 1995.

Webgraphy. Biography and bibliography, in English, Ignatius Insight; biography, in English, Wikipedia; bibliography and biography, in German, Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Von Balthasar a Patmos by Cardinal Angelo Scola, Avvenire, 13 settembre 2013.

(1) At the beginning of the Second World War, his superiors gave him the choice of going to Rome as a professor of the Pontifical Gregorian University or to Basel as a student chaplain; in Rome, he and other Jesuits were to set up an institute for ecumenical studies, a project that never materialized; he chose Basel because he preferred pastoral ministry.

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