The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
John Paul II (1978-2005)
Consistory of February 21, 1998 (VII)


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(138) 1. MEDINA ESTÉVEZ, Jorge Arturo
(1926-

Birth. December 23, 1926, Santiago, Chile. His baptismal name is Jorge Arturo Agustín.

Education. Studied at the Major Seminary of Santiago; and at the Pontifical Catholic University, Santiago, where he earned licentiates in letters and in biology; and doctorates in theology and canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 12, 1954, Santiago, by Pio Alberto Fariña Fariña, titular bishop of Citarizo, auxiliary and vicar general of Santiago. Faculty member of the Major Seminary of Santiago and of the Theological Faculty of Santiago. Attended the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965; as an expert. Judge of the metropolitan tribunal of the archdiocese of Santiago; pro-grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Santiago; and canon penitentiary of the metropolitan cathedral. Consultant to several Vatican dicasteries.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tibili and appointed auxiliary of Rancagua, December 18, 1984. Consecrated, January 6, 1985, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Oportet illum crescere. Transferred to the see of Rancagua, November 25, 1987. Transferred to the see of Valparaíso, April 16, 1993. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, June 21, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, June 21, 1996. Promoted to archbishop, September 19, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Saba, February 21, 1998. Prefect, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of México, México City, May 5-7, 2000. Special papal envoy to the 20th International Mariological-Marian Congress, Rome, September 15 to 24, 2000; to the opening celebrations of the Plenary Council of Venezuela, Caracas, November 26, 2000. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Resigned the prefecture, October 1, 2002. Cardinal protodeacon, February 24, 2005. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. As cardinal protodeacon, announced to the world the election of the new Pope Benedict XVI on April 19, 2005; and bestowed on him the Petrine pallium in the ceremony of the beginning of his pontificate, April 24, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005; by papal appointment. Special papal envoy to the closing of the Plenary Council of Venezuela that took place with the celebration of a mass officiated by the cardinal at "Parque Naciones Unidas", El Paraíso, Caracas, on October 7, 2006. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, December 23, 2006. Ceased as cardinal protodeacon, February 23, 2007. Participated in the 5th General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. He resides in Santiago, Chile.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Santiago de Chile; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Políticos pro aborto no pueden recibir un funeral católico público, precisa Cardenal, ACI, Santiago, 13 Ago. 17 / 06:02 pm.


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(139) 2. BOVONE, Alberto
(1922-1998)

Birth. June 11, 1922, Frugarolo, diocese of Alessandria, Italy. He was the youngest of five boys born to Davide Bovone, a blacksmith, and Nevilia Rolando.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Alessandria; at Turin State University; at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and at the Sacred Roman Rota (lawyer). He was a keen poet, however, he never published any of his works.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Casale Monferrato by Bishop Giuseppe Angrisani of Casale Monferrato. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Alessandria, 1945-1946. Further studies, 1946-1951. Entered service of the Holy See, officer in the S.C. of the Council, October 1951; cappo d'ufficio in the pastoral section. Attended the Second Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to November 6, 1971; special secretary. Undersecretary of the S.C. for the Doctrine of the Faith, May 21, 1973.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Numidia, April 5, 1984. Named secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, April 8, 1984. Consecrated, May 12, 1984, Alessandria, by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, assisted by Ferdinando Maggioni, bishop of Alessandria della Paglia, and by Luigi Dadaglio, titular archbishop of Lero, pro-penitentiary major. His episcopal motto was Fidelis et prudens. Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; he was assigned the deaconry of Ognissanti in Via Appia Nuova on February 21, 1998. He had been sick for a long time and was already ailing on the day of his cardinalitial promotion. Following the consistorial ceremony, Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, personally delivered the red biretta and the cardinalitial ring to Cardinal Bovone at the "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic". Named prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, February 23, 1998. He received the last rites from Cardinal Giovanni Canestri, a lifelong friend who spent days by his deathbed. When he received his last rites, Cardinal Bovone removed his oxygen mask and expressed : "È il regalo più bello che poteva farmi ... non posso non pensare al Santo Padre ... sono felice di essere un sacerdote".

Death. Friday April 17, 1998, at 8 p.m., at "Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic", Rome. His funeral, celebrated on April 20, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, was presided by Pope John Paul II, who delivered the homily; and attended by forty cardinals and sixty bishops. Buried in his family's tomb in the cemetery of Frugarolo, Frugarolo. On Sunday, October 7, 2007, his remains were transferred to the parish church of S. Felice, in Alessandria, in the presence of Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, and reburied in a marble sarcophagus (1).

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the inscription on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:

ALBERTUS S.R.E. CARDINALIS BOVONE
PRAEFECTUS CONGREGATONIS DE CAUSIS SANCTORUM
FRUGAROLO 11-6-1922 - ROMA 17-4-1998


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(140) 3. CASTRILLÓN HOYOS, Darío
(1929-

Birth. July 4, 1929, Medellín, Colombia.

Education. He studied at the Seminary of Antioquia, Medellín; then, at the Seminary of Santa Rosa de Osos, Santa Rosa de Osos; later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law and specialization in religious sociology, political economics and ethical economics; and finally, at the Sociological Faculty, University of Louvain, Louvain, Belgium. He speaks eight languages.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 26, 1952, basilica of Ss. XII Apostoli, Rome, by Alfonso Carinci, titular archbishop of Seleucia di Isauria, secretary fo the S.C. of Rites. Further studies, Rome. Successively, in Colombia, 1954-1971, pastoral ministry in Segovia de Yarumal; director of Cursillos; director of the national pastoral program and of the Legion of Mary; official, diocesan curia of Santa Rosa de Osos; director of radiophonic schools; diocesan delegate of the Catholic Action (1959); ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Workers Youth; diocesan director of catechetics; inspector of the diocesan office of Popular Cultural Action (1962); secretary general of the Colombian episcopate.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Villa del re and appointed coadjutor, with right of succession, of Pereira, June 2, 1971. Consecrated, July 18, 1971, by Angelo Palmas, titular archbishop of Vibiana, nuncio in Colombia, assisted by Aníbal Muñoz Duque, titular archbishop of Cariana, coadjutor of Bogotá, and by Baltasar Alvarez Restrepo, bishop of Pereira. His episcopal motto is Christus in vobis spes gloriae. Succeeded to the see of Pereira, July 1, 1976. Secretary general of the Latin American Episcopal Council, 1983-1987; its president, 1987-1991. He survived an assassination attempt in 1984, when Colombian President Belisario Betancur asked him to lead a peace commission to obtain an agreement with guerrilla groups. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the IV General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bucaramanga, December 16, 1992. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Pro-prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, June 15, 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of archdiocese, June 15, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; one of the three presidents-delegate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano, February 21, 1998. Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy, February 23, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29-May 14, 1998. Papal envoy to the signing of the Global and Definitive Agreement between Perú and Ecuador to settle their border dispute, Brasília, October 26, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the twelfth centennial of the construction of the duomo of Aachen, Germany, January 29 to 30, 2000. President of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei", April 13, 2000. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of the Chilean National Eucharistic Congress and to the dedication of the new cathedral of the diocese of San Bernardo, Chile, November 25 and 26, 2000, respectively. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Reappointed prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and president of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, April 21, 2005. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the prefecture of the Congregation for the Clergy, October 31, 2006. Confirmed by Pope Benedict XVI as cardinal protodeacon on January 2, 2007; and again in the consistory of February 23, 2007; occupied the post until March 1, 2008. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on July 4, 2009. Ended his service as president of the Pontifical Commission "Ecclesia Dei" on July 8, 2009.

Bibliography. Miranda, Salvador. "Castrillón Hoyos, Darío." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyla years. Detroit : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, pp. 242-243.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Castrillon: "I have great hopes for a full reconciliation with the Lefebvrists", video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-24 16:41:43; Colombia: La paz nos entusiasma pero no olvidemos la verdad y la justicia, dice Cardenal by Álvaro de Juana y Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI, Roma, 21 Sep. 16 / 03:38 pm.


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(141) 4. ANTONETTI, Lorenzo
(1922-2013)

Birth. July 31, 1922, Romagnano Sesia, diocese of Novara, Italy. Son of Leopoldo Antonetti and Maddalena Tinelli.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Novara; at Almo Collegio Capranica, Rome; at the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum), Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in canon law; and, from 1949 to 1950, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 26, 1945, Novara, by Leone Giacomo Ossola, O.F.M.Cap., bishop of Novara. Pastoral ministry in diocese of Novara, 1946. Further studies, Rome, 1947-1951. Joined the Vatican Secretariat of State, 1951. Attaché and later secretary in the nunciature in Lebanon, 1952-1955. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, July 28, 1952. Secretary in the nunciature in Venezuela, 1956 to 1959. Worked in the section of Extraordinary Affairs, Secretariat of State, 1959 to 1963. Counselor in the nunciature in France, 1963 to 1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, August 18, 1964. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in the United States, 1968.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Roselle, February 23, 1968. Named nuncio in Honduras and Nicaragua, February 24, 1968. Consecrated, May 12, 1968, Romagnano Sesia, by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani, secretary of State, assisted by Placido Maria Cambiagli, bishop of Novara, and by Edoardo Piana Agostinetti, titular bishop of Eurea di Fenicia, auxiliary of Novara. His episcopal motto was Caritas et patientia Christi. Pro-nuncio in Zaïre, June 29, 1973. Secretary of the Administration of Patrimony of Holy See, June 15, 1977. Nuncio in France, September 23, 1988. Pro-president of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, June 24, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agnese in Agone, February 21, 1998. President of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, February 23, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing of the celebrations of the 9th centennial of the Abbey of Notre-Dame de Cîteaux, France, October 17, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Administration of Patrimony of Apostolic See, November 5, 1998. Pontifical delegate to the patriarchal basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, November 5, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, July 31, 2002. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008.

Death. April 10, 2013, in the early morning, at Casa della Divina Provvidenza, Novara. The body of the late cardinal will be exposed at the bishopric of Novara starting in the evening. The funeral mass took place on Friday April 12 in the church of Romagnano Sesia, his native town, and was presided by Bishop Franco Giulio Brambilla of Novara. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to the bishop of Novara (1). In his will, Cardinal Antonetti had expressed his wish that his remains be interred at the Chiesa Abbaziale della Santissima Annunziata e di San Silvano, via Generale Ragni n. 24, Romagnano Sesia. However, due to a number of bureaucratic problems, his wish could not be realized at this time, and thus, his remains were laid to rest in the family chapel at Cimitero Comunale of Romagnano Sesia, until a definitive tomb is finished at the abbey church.

Bibliography. Code, Bernard. American Bishops 1964-1970. St. Louis : Wexford Press, 1970, p. 21.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Press Office of the Holy See; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
Nell'apprendere la triste noticia della scomparsa del venerato Cardinale Lorenzo Antonetti, desidero esprimere sentimenti di vivo cordoglio a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri, come pure al nipote Mario, agli altri nipoti e rispettivi familiari e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato. Ricordo il compianto Porporato per tanti anni solerte collaboratore della Santa Sede, in particolare come Rappresentante pontificio in diversi Paesi, in Segreteria di Stato, poi come Presidente dell'Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica e infine quale Delegato pontificio per la Basilica Papale di San Francesco in Assisi: ovunque egli ha reso apprezzata testimonianza di fervoroso zelo sacerdotale e di fedeltà al Vangelo. Mentre elevo fervide preghiere al Signore Gesù affinchè, auspice la Vergine Maria, voglia donare al defunto Cardinale il premio eterno promesso ai suoi fedeli discepoli, invio di cuore a Vostra Eccellenza, all'intero presbiterio e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua dipartita, una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

FRANCISCUS P P.
Dal Vaticano, 10 aprile 2013.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinale Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(142) 5. STAFFORD, James Francis
(1932-

Birth. July 26, 1932, Baltimore, United States of America. He was the only child of Francis Emmett and Mary Dorothy Stanton. His father was the owner of a successful furniture store.

Early life. He moved from Loyola High School in 1950 to Loyola College in Baltimore with the intent of pursuing a career in medicine, but in 1952, the violent death of a friend caused him to rethink his future and to enter St. Mary's Seminary in Baltimore.

Education. Studied at Loyola College, Baltimore; at Saint Mary's Seminary, Baltimore, where he obtained a licenciate in arts; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and at the Catholic University of America, Washington, where he earned a master's in social welfare.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 15, 1957, at the North American College, Rome, by Martin John O'Connor, titular bishop of Tespia, rector of the North American College. In the same ceremony was ordained Edward Michael Egan, another future cardinal. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1958-1962. Further studies, 1962-1964. Pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Baltimore, 1964-1966. Director of Archdiocesan Catholic Charities, Baltimore, 1966-1976. Concurrently, 1966-1976, member of the pastoral council, of the Planning Team for Total Christian Education; member and president of the presbyterial council; archdiocesan consultor; and acting episcopal vicar. Chaplain of His Holiness, July 28, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Respetta and appointed auxiliary of Baltimore, January 19, 1976. Consecrated, February 29, 1976, cathedral of Mary Our Queen, Baltimore, by William Donald Borders, archbishop of Baltimore, assisted by Cardinal Lawrence Joseph Shehan, former archbishop of Baltimore, and by Thomas Austin Murphy, titular bishop of Appiaria, auxiliary of Baltimore. In the same ceremony was consecrated Philip Francis Murphy, titular bishop of Tacarata, auxiliary of Baltimore. His episcopal motto is In principium erat Verbum. Vicar general of Baltimore, 1976-1982. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980. Transferred to the see of Memphis, November 17, 1982. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Denver, May 30, 1986. President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity, August 20, 1996 until October 4, 2003. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, August 20, 1996. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola, February 21, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 29 to May 14, 1998; the Special Assembly for Oceania of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 22 to December 12, 1998; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the dedication of the new cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, in the archdiocese of Los Angeles, United States, September 2, 2002. Penitentiary major, October 4, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the dedication of the new altar of the recently-restored co-cathedral of the archdiocese of Baltimore, United States of America, November 4 to 12, 2006. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, March 1, 2008. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". On June 2, 2009, Pope Benedict XVI accepted his resignation, because of age limit, from the post of penitentiary major. The pope named Fortunato Baldelli, titular archbishop of Bevagna, until then nuncio in France, to succeed him. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on July 26, 2012.

Bibliography. Bransom, Charles N. Ordinations of U. S. Catholic bishops 1970-1989. A chronological list. Washington, D.C. : National Conference of Catholic Bishops ; United States Catholic Conference, 1990, p. 171; Spalding, Thomas W. "Stafford, James Francis." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 416.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, archdiocese of Baltimore; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Card. James Stafford will soon turn 80. Cardinal electors down to 120, video, Rome Reports, 2012-07-25 17:59:58; El cardenal Stafford cumple 80 años, ya son 120 los cardenales con menos de 80 añños. Lista de cardenales ordenada por fechas de nacimiento, Revista Ecclesia, posted 26 julio, 2012.


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(143) 6. DE GIORGI, Salvatore
(1930-

Birth. September 6, 1930, Vernole, diocese of Lecce, Italy. Third of the eight children of Vito De Giorgi and Anna Teresa De Carlo.

Education. Studied at the Episcopal Seminary; and at the Regional Seminary of Molfetta.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1953, Vernole, by Francesco Minerva, bishop of Lecce. Secretary to Bishop Minerva, 1953-1958. Successively, 1953-1973, in the diocese of Lecce, pastoral ministry; diocesan assistant to the Federation of Italian Catholic University Students; secretary of the diocesan catechetical office; ecclesiastical assistant of the youth of Catholic Action; ecclesiastical assistant of the Movement of Catholic Teachers; faculty member, State Classical Lyceum; delegate of the commission for sacred chant; delegate of the Italian Association of Sacred Chant (AISC); episcopal vicar for lay apostolate; episcopal delegate for diocesan organic pastoral and director of its office; member of the presbyteral council; and member of the directive council of the diocesan pastoral institute of C.E.P.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Tulana and auxiliary of Oria, November 21, 1973. Consecrated, December 27, 1973, Lecce, by Francesco Minerva, bishop of Lecce, assisted by Guglielmo Motolese, archbishop of Taranto, and by Alberico Semeraro, bishop of Oria. His episcopal motto is In charitate pax. Named coadjutor, with right of succession, of Oria, November 29, 1975. Succeeded to the see of Oria, March 17, 1978. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Foggia with the dioceses of Bovino and Troia, united in persona episcopi, April 4, 1981. Named archbishop of Foggia-Bovino when Italian dioceses were restructured, September 30, 1986. Resigned the pastoral government of Troia, September 30, 1986. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Taranto, October 10, 1987. General ecclesiastical assistant of the Italian Catholic Action, February 2, 1990. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, May 11, 1990. Ecclesiastical assistant of the international forum of the Catholic Action, 1991. President of the Italian Federation of Spiritual Exercises, 1992. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, April 4, 1996.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Ara Coeli, February 21, 1998. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the closing of the Siracusan Marian Year that took place in the Shrine della Madonna delle Lacrime, Siracusa, Sicily, Italy, September 1, 2003. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Palermo, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on December 19, 2006. Apostolic administrator of Palermo, December 19, 2006 until the installation of his successor on February 10, 2007. The Permanent Episcopal Council of the Italian Episcopal Conference named him president of the Italian Federation of Spiritual Exercises (Fies) on January 30, 2007. Special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the millennium of the dedication of the co-cathedral of Sarsina, Italy, which took place on May 31, 2009. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on September 6, 2010. Special papal envoy to the celebrations that took place on May 30, 2011, in Pozzuoli, Italy, in the occasion of the closing of the diocesan Pauline Jubilar Year in the 1950º anniversary of the landing and the preaching of the Apostle St. Paul in that city. Member of the Commission of Cardinals to investigate the leak of reserved and confidential documents on television, in newspapers and in other communications media, April 24, 2012. On September 19, 2015, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the fifth centennial of the establishment of the diocese of Lanciano (now archdiocese of Lanciano-Ortona), programmed for November 22, 2015.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Palermo; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Presentaron a Benedicto XVI los resultados de la investigación sobre las cartas robadas by H. Sergio Mora, in Spanish, Zenit, el Mundo visto desde Roma, 18-06-2012; Lombardi: Commission is carrying out full scale investigation into Vatican document leaks by Alessandro Speciale, Vatican Insider, 06/18/2012.


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(144) 7. ARAÚJO, Serafim Fernandes de
(1924-

Birth. August 13, 1924, Minas Novas, diocese of Araçuaí, Brazil. Son of José Fernandes de Araújo and Gabriela Leite Araújo. He is the eldest of sixteen children.

Education. Initial studies in 1937 at Coronel Jonas Câmara School, in Itamarandiba; in 1937, he entered the Seminary of Diamantina, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1944; then, he studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome from 1945, obtaining doctorates in theology in 1949; and in canon law in 1951.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 12, 1949, at the patriarchal Lateran basilica, Rome, by Luigi Traglia, titular archbishop of Cesarea di Palestina, vice-gerent of Rome. Further studies, Rome, 1949-1951. Since the beginning of his priestly ministry, he was profoundly identified with the educational work and social communications. Returned to Brazil and exercised his pastoral ministry as pastor in the city of Gouveia from 1951 to 1957, and at the same time, in 1956, he was professor of canon law at the Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; director of Catechesis of that archdiocese; and professor of religion at the Escola Normal of Diamantina. He was pastor of the city Curvelo from 1957 to 1959, teaching, at the same time, at Padre Curvelo School; at the Institute Santo Antônio; and at the Escola Normal. Concurrently, from 1956 until 1957, he was chaplain of the Third Battalion of Police, in Diamantina; 1956-1959, faculty member, Provincial Seminary of Diamantina; archdiocesan director of catechesis; faculty member, Teacher's School of Diamantina and several schools in Gouveia.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Verinopoli and appointed auxiliary of Belo Horizonte, January 19, 1959. Consecrated, May 7, 1959, Diamantina, by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, archbishop of Diamantina, assisted by João Resende Costa, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Martirano, coadjutor of Belo Horizonte, and by José Maria Pires, bishop of Araçuaí. His episcopal motto is Serafim juxta eum. In 1960, he was chosen as rector of the Catholic University of Belo Horizonte, recently founded in Minas Gerais (now Pontifical University) of which law school he was professor; he held this office until 1981, when he left the university with twenty three academic degrees and 15,000 students. He continued with his international experience as an educator. In Brazil, he created links between universities and the workplace and supported many poor students through the establishment of scholarships. He dedicated himself to restructure on a more consistent and dynamic means of social communication available to the archdiocese, revising, planning and modernizing the facilities and technical installations of the Radios América and Cultura, giving new impetus to the Jornal de Opinião, which replaced the weekly Lar Católico. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the Third General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), January 27 to February 13, 1979, Puebla, México. Promoted to coadjutor archbishop with right succession of Belo Horizonte, November 22, 1982. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Belo Horizonte, February 5, 1986. In 1989 he was appointed member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America (CAL). Member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications from 1990 to 1995. For several years he was responsible for a daily program, "A Palavra de Deus" broadcast by Rádio América in Belo Horizonte; and another Sunday program in three different television channels in the capital of Minas Gerais (Bandeirantes, Globo and Minas). On August 15, 1990, proposed that the local Church of Belo Horizonte concentrated a massive effort of evangelization, inviting her to become a missionary Church, participatory and merciful, through the Pastoral Care Project "Construir a Esperança" which became the pastoral model for several dioceses in Brazil, with the approval and the seal of the National Episcopal Conference. The climax of the project was the implementation of the First Assembly of the People of God on October 12, 1996. Vice-president of the National Conference of Brazilian Bishop from 1991 to 1995. He was chosen as head of the Sector of Social Communications of the National Episcopal Conference of Brazilian Bishops and was part for several years of the Department of Social Communication of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM). Attended the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopal Council (CELAM), Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992; one of its three presidents. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. In 1995, he organized and celebrated in Belo Horizonte the Fifth Latin American Missionary Congress (COMLA V). President of the Association Nossa Senhora da Conceição, working to provide assistance to street children and ion the Pastoral Care of Children and marginalized groups, and dedicated, above all, to offer spiritual and material support to the terminally ill patients who lack assistance. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. He was granted several honorary doctorates as well as the title of Commander of the National Order of Educational Merit, with the grand medal of the Inconfidência and with the medal Santos Dumont. He received the title of honorary citizen of the cities of Pedro Leopoldo, Curvelo, Itabira, Luz, Nova Lima, Belo Horizonte, Contagem, Itamarandiba, Diamantina, Bom Despacho and Caeté.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Luigi Maria Grignion de Montfort, February 21, 1998. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese upon having reached the age limit, January 28, 2004. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 13, 2004.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(145) 8. ROUCO VARELA, Antonio María
(1936-

Birth. August 20, 1936 (1), Villalba, diocese of Mondoñedo-Ferrol, Spain. Son of Vicente Rouco and María Eugenia Varela; he was from Santa María del Burgo, Lugo, and she from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; he died very young and she died ten years later, never having recovered from the loss; besides the cardinal, they had Visitación, who still lives in Villalba; Jose, who lives in Canarias; and Manuel and Eugenia, deceased.

Education. Studied Latin, humanities and philosophy at the Seminary of Mondoñedo, 1946-1954; then, from 1954 to 1958, at the Pontifical University of Salamanca, where he obtained a licentiate in theology, in June 1958; and finally, from 1959 until 1964, studied theology and canon law at the University of Münich, Germany, where he earned a doctorate in canon law on July 25, 1964, with the thesis "Iglesia y Estado en la España del siglo XVI".

Priesthood. Ordained, March 28, 1959, in the old cathedral, Salamanca, by Francisco Barbado y Viejo, O.P., bishop of Salamanca. Celebrated his first mass on April 1, 1959, in the parish church of Santa María de Villalba. Further studies, Münich, 1959-1964. Faculty member of the Seminary of Mondoñedo (fundamental theology and canon law), 1964-1966.Faculty member, University of Münich and pastoral ministry with Spanish immigrants in Münich, 1966-1969. Faculty member, Pontifical University of Salamanca, 1971-1976; vice-rector, 1972-1976; pastoral ministry with university students in Salamanca. Counselor of the National Catholic Association of Propagandistas, 1972-1976. Peritus of the Pastoral Council of Galicia, 1974-1976.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gergi and appointed auxiliary of Santiago de Compostela, September 17, 1976. Consecrated, October 31, 1976, cathedral of Plasencia, by Angel Suquía Goicoechea, archbishop of Santiago de Compostela, assisted by Maximino Romero de Lema, titular archbishop of Cittanova, secretary of the S.C. for the Clergy, and by Oskar Sater, titular bishop of Rubicon, auxiliary of Freiburg in Breisgau. His episcopal motto is In ecclesiae communione. Apostolic administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis, of Santiago de Compostela, June 11, 1983. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Santiago de Compostela, May 9, 1984. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Madrid, July 28, 1994. Grand chancellor of the Theological Faculty "San Dámaso", Madrid, September 19, 1996.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, February 21, 1998. President of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, March 2, 1999 to March 8, 2005. Special papal envoy to the Ninth Spanish National Eucharistic Congress, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, May 26 to 29, 1999. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; relator general. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pilgrimage of European Youth, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, August 7 to 8, 2004. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Special papal envoy to the solemn celebrations for the Fifth centennial of the birth of of St. Francis Xavier that took place in Javier, Spain, on April 7, 2006. On March 4, 2008, he was elected president of the Spanish Episcopal Conference for the 2008-2011 triennium; and on March 1, 2011, for the triennium 2011-2014; he ceased as president on March 12, 2014. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church". Special papal envoy to the conclusive ceremonies of the Pauline Year observed on June 29, 2009, in Syria. Hosted the Twenty Sixth World Youth Day, Madrid, August 15-21, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. Pope Francis accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archhdiocese of Madrid in conformity to canon 401, § 1, of the Code of Canon Law, on August 28, 2014. To succeed him, the pope named Carlos Osoro Sierra, until then archbishop of Valencia. He was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese of Madrid until the installation of his successor on October 25, 2014 in a solemn ceremony that took place in the metropolitan cathedral of Santa María la Real de la Almudena. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on August 20, 2016.

Bibliography. Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 141; Rouco Varela, Antonio María. Cardenal Rouco : cinco años de magisterio del cardenal Antonio Ma. Rouco Varela en la Iglesia de Madrid [1994-1999]. Madrid : Edibesa, 1999. (Documentos y textos ; 10). Responsibility: prólogo, Ricardo María Carles ; edición preparada por José A. Martínez Puche, Braulio González Romero.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Española; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; one hundred bibliographic entries of his works, WolrdCat; Carta del cardenal Rouco Varela al Papa Benedicto XVI en el primer aniversario de la JMJ 2011 Madrid, Ecclesia, posted 16 agosto, 2012 by editor in Iglesia en España; Rouco desacredita al Papa Francisco ante los seminaristas de Murcia by José Manuel Vidal, Religión Digital, 20 de mayo de 2017 a las 10:46.

(1) This is according to his biography in the site of the Spanish Episcopal Conference, linked above; and Annuario Pontificio per l'anno 2016 (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2016), p. 87. From the 1977 until 2015, Annuario Pontificio, gave the cardinal's date of birth as August 24, 1936.


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(146) 9. AMBROZIC, Aloysius Matthew
(1930-2011)

Birth. January 27, 1930, Gabrje, archdiocese of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Second of the seven children of Aloysius Ambrozic and Helen Pecar. His family escaped to Austria in May 1945 and lived in refugee camps of Vetrnj, Peggez and Spittal an der Drau. Migrated to Canada in September 1948. He had an uncle who was a Franciscan priest. He is also listed as Alojzij Ambrožič.

Education. Initial studies in Dobrova; then, studied at Lyceum of Ljubljana (classics); finished his secondary education in Austria; attended St. Augustine Seminary, Scarborough, Toronto, 1948-1955; later, studied at the Pontifical Angelicum Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology, in 1958; also at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, earning a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures, in 1960; and finally at the University of Würzburg, Germany, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1970.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 4, 1955, Toronto, by Cardinal James Charles McGuigan, archbishop of Toronto. Pastoral ministry at the parish of St. Teresa's, Port Colborne, 1955-1956. Professor of Latin at the Seminary of Toronto, 1956-1957. Further studies in Rome, 1958-1960. Professor of Sacred Scriptures, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1960-1967; and 1970-1976; prefect of studies, 1971-1976. Further studies in Germany, 1967-1970. From 1970 to 1976, professor of New Testament exegesis, School of Theology of Toronto; dean of studies, St. Augustine Seminary, Toronto, 1971-1976; and pastoral ministry in the archdiocese of Toronto. From 1971-1975 he was a member of the Archdiocesan Senate of Priests.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Valabria and appointed auxiliary of Toronto, March 26, 1976. Consecrated, May 27, 1976, Toronto, by Philip Francis Pocock, archbishop of Toronto, assisted by Francis Valentine Allen, titular bishop of Avensa, auxiliary of Toronto, and by Francis Paul McHugh, S.F.M., titular bishop of Legis di Volumnio, prelate emeritus of Itacoatiara. His episcopal motto was Jesus est Dominus. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor with right of succession of Toronto, May 22, 1986. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Toronto, March 17, 1990. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, February 21, 1998. He hosted the Seventeenth World Youth Day, July 23 to 28, 2002, Toronto. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, December 16, 2004. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. His resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Toronto, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted by the pope on December 16, 2006. He was the ninth Archbishop of Toronto. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on January 27, 2010. He was a member of the Congregations for the Oriental Churches; for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments; and for the Clergy; and of the Pontifical Councils for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People; and for Culture. He was a tireless advocate for refugees and immigrants.

Death. August 26, 2011, peacefully, after a lengthy illness with progressive supranuclear palsy, a brain disorder, at the Scarborough General Hospital, Toronto, surrounded by his family. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Archbishop Thomas Collins of Toronto. The funeral Mass for Cardinal Ambrozic took place on Wednesday, August 31, 2011, at 10:30 a.m. at St. Michael's Cathedral. The funeral mass was presided over by Archbishop Collins of Toronto, who also delivered the homily, and concelebrated by several bishops, among them the auxiliaries of Toronto John A. Boissonneau, William McGrattan and Vincent Nguyen; and the retired auxiliary bishop of Toronto, M. Pearse Lacey. Present were Cardinal Jean-Claude Turcotte, archbishop of Montréal, Canada; Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia; and Monsignor Luca Lorusso, representing the Vatican in Canada. About a thousand people gathered at the cathedral to remember the late cardinal. Federal Finance Minister Jim Flaherty, Ontario Lieutenant-Governor David Onley, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford and Mississauga Mayor Hazel McCallion were among the dignitaries attending the funeral at the cathedral. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the Bishops Mausoleum at Holy Cross Cemetery, Thornhill, Ontario, where his immediate predecessor, Cardinal Gerald Emmett Carter, is also buried.

Bibliography. LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 285-286.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Toronto; photograph and biography, in English, Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops; photography and biography, in French, Conférence des Évêques Catholiques du Canada; photograph and biography, in Slovenian, rkc.si; his arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Iindirizzo di ommaggio del Cardinale Aloysisu Matthew Ambrozi all'inizio della concelebrazione eucaristica della XVII GMG, Sunday July 28, 2002; statement of Cardinal Franc Rodé, C.M., on the death of Cardinal Ambrozic, in Slovenian, rkc.si.; statement on the death of the cardinal from Archbishop Anton Stres of Ljubljana, president of the Episcopal Conference of Slovenia, in Slovenian, rkc.si; Homily for the funeral of Cardinal Aloysius Ambrozic, Salt+Light.


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(147) 10. BALLAND, Jean
(1934-1998)

Birth. July 26, 1934, Bué, archdiocese of Bourges, France. He was the fifth child of a family of winemakers. His baptismal name was Jean Marie Julien.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bourges; at the French Seminary, Rome; at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy in 1956; and another in theology in 1962; and at La Sorbonne University, Paris, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology. He did part of his military service in Algeria.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 3, 1961, Bourges. Further studies in Rome, 1961-1962; and in Paris, 1963-1965. Successively, faculty member of the Seminary of Bourges, Bourges, 1962-1968; faculty member of the Major Regional Seminary of Tours, Tours, 1967-1973; faculty member of the Major Seminary of Poitiers, Poitiers, 1971-1972. Pastoral ministry in rural areas, Cher, 1973; episcopal vicar of Cher, 1974; diocesan assistant of the Christians in the Rural World Movement, Bourges; and vicar general of the archdiocese of Bourges, 1980-1982.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dijon, November 6, 1982. Consecrated, December 12, 1982, cathedral of Dijon, by Paul Vignacour, archbishop of Bourges, assisted by Albert Decourtray, archbishop of Lyon, and by Lucien Charles Gilbert Daloz, archbishop of Besançon. His episcopal motto was Veritatem facientes in caritate. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Reims, August 8, 1988. He took possession possession on September 26, 1988 and enthroned the following October 16. Apostolic visitor to the French seminaries, 1992-1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Lyon, May 27, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli, February 21, 1998. Member of the Congregation for Bishops.

Death. March 1, 1998, of lung cancer, in the Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Lyon. Buried in Saint-Jean metropolitan and primatial cathedral, Lyon.

Bibliography. Jore, Alexander. Épiscopologe Français de 1592 à 1973. Mis à jour et continué jusqu'en 2004. Complément de l'article "France" du Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie Ecclésiastiques t. XVIII, colonnes 161 à 532. Pro-Manuscripto, 25 - III- 2004, no. 3261.

Webgraphy. Arms and biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Lumière dans l'épreuve by Pierre Berger, Administrateur diocésain. Source: éditorial d'Église à Lyon, nº 6, 11 mars 1998; Le cardinal Balland, la force de la discrétion by Bernard Gorce, La Croix, 03/03/1998.


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(148) 11. TETTAMANZI, Dionigi
(1934-2017)

Birth. March 14, 1934, Renate, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. Eldest of the three children of Egidio Tettamanzi and Giuditta Ciceri, who died at 101 in February 2012. The other siblings were Antonio and Giovanna.

Education. Studied at the Minor Seminary of Seveso, Milan from 1945; at the Seminary of Venegono Inferiore, (licentiateship in theology); and at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology. He became an expert in themes such as sexuality, bioethics and marriage.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1957, Milan, by Giovanni Battista Montini, archbishop of Milan. Further studies in Rome, 1957-1960. Successively, in Milan: pastoral ministry; faculty member, Minor Seminary of Masnago and of Seveso San Pietro, 1960-1966. Faculty member, Seminary of Venegono, 1966-1986; faculty member, Lombard Pastoral Institute; member, Scientific Committee of International Center of Studies on the Family; judge of the Regional Ecclesiastical Tribunal of Lombardy; ecclesiastical assistant of the Catholic Physicians Association; ecclesiastical consultant of the National Federation of Catholic Family Counselors; chaplain in Turate for more than 15 years. Attended the Fifth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 26 to October 25, 1980; expert. Attended the Seventh Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 30, 1987; assistant to the special secretary. Rector of the Pontifical Lombardian Seminary, September 11,1987 until 1989. President of the Administrative Council of the Catholic newspaper Avvenire, April 28, 1989.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, July 1, 1989. Consecrated, September 23, 1989, Milan, by Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, archbishop of Milan, assisted by Carlo Maccari, archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo, and by Bernardo Citterio, titular bishop of Floriana, auxiliary of Milan. His episcopal motto was Gaudium et Pax. Secretary general of the Italian Episcopal Conference, ad quinquenium, March 14, 1991. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Ancona-Osimo, April 6, 1991. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Genoa, April 20, 1995. Vice-president of the Italian Episcopal Conference, May 25, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Ambrogio e Carlo, February 21, 1998. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999; president of the commission for the message. Member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See, March 6, 2000. He strongly questioned the benefits of globalization for the working class during the Group of Eight summit held in Genoa in 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Milan, July 11, 2002. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On June 28, 2011, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Milan, in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. The pope named Cardinal Angelo Scola, until then patriarch of Venice, to succeed him. Cardinal Tettamanzi was apostolic administrator of Milan until the taking of possession (by procurator Carlo Redaelli, auxiliary bishop and vicar general of Milan) of his successor on September 9, 2011. On July 23, 2012, he was named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Vigevano, vacant due to resignation on July 21, 2012 because of health of Bishop Vincenzo Di Mauro, until the taking of possession by the new bishop. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on March 14, 2014.

Death. August 5, 2017, serenely, in the morning, because of an illness that had developed in the last seven months, in Villa Sacro Cuore di Triuggio, in Brianza, Milan. After learning the news of the death of Cardinal Tettamanzi, Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Cardinal Scola and to Archbishop elect of Milan Mario Delpini (1). The funeral for the late cardinal took place on Tuesday August 8 at 11 a.m. in the metropolitan cathedral of Milan, il Duomo. Buried on the right side of the cathedral at the foot of the Virgo Potens Altar, where is also the urn of Blessed Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, O.S.B., archbishop of Milan from 1929 to 1954.

Bibliography. Valli, Aldo Maria. Voi mi sarete testimoni : [Dionigi Tettamanzi arcivescovo a Milano]. Milano : Rizzoli, 2009. (Rizzoli best; Variation: Rizzoli best). Note: Contains brief biography of D. Tettamanzi (1934-).

Webgraphy. Photograph, biography, pastoral activities, homilies, interventions, leters and message, and discourses, in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography, in Italian, chiesadi milano.it; photographs, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Serie cronologica dei vescovi di Milano (III-XXI secolo), in Italian, archdiocese of Milan; 8 settembre 2011 - Pontificale di Santa Maria Nascente in Duomo Milano, in Italian, farewell mass of Cardinal Tettamanzi, You Tube; 8 settembre 2011 - Omelia del card. Tettamanzi, in Italian, homily of Cardinal Tettamanzi, You Tube; Nuovo Amministratore Apostolico, Comunicato Stampa, diocese of Vigevano, 24 luglio 2012; Il card. Tettamanzi sarà l'amministratore apostolico della diocesi di Vigevano, Chiesa, Avvenire, 24 luglio 2012; Cardinal hopes for upcoming beatification of Pope Paul VI, CNA/EWTN News, Aug 10, 2012 / 12:01 pm; Tettamanzi: "Card. Martini è stato un grande alimento per il cammino della Chiesa" by Domenico Agasso Jr, Vatican Insider, 26/08/2013; E' morto il cardinale Tettamanzi, adnkronos.com, pubblicato il: 05/08/2017 11:59; È morto il cardinale Dionigi Tettamanzi, chiesadimilano.it; Morto Tettamanzi, amato arcivescovo di Milano. Scola: amico discreto, Radio Vaticana, audio, 2017-08-05; Progressive champion once seen as papal candidate dies in Milan by Claire Giangravè, Crux, Rome, August 5, 2017; Papa Francisco envía condolencias por muerte de Cardenal que fue Arzobispo de Milán, ACI, Vaticano, 05 Ago. 17 / 08:43 am; Pope Francis Mourns the Death of Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi by Elise Harris, National Catholic Register, CNA/EWTN News, Vatican, Aug. 7, 2017; Homenaje del Papa al card. Tettamanzi: Testimonio alegre del Evangelio by Rosa Die Alcolea, Zenit, 7 agosto 2017; Un vescovo amato. I funerali del cardinale Tettamanzi, L'Osservatore Romano, 08 agosto 2017; Italian cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi has died, video, Rome Reports; Reflections on ‘Tettamanzi lesson’ for handicapping papal elections by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, August 8, 2017.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
A Sua Eminenza Rev.ma Il Cardinale Angelo Scola
Amminstratore Apostolico
A Sua Eccellenza Rev.ma mons. Mario Delpini arcivescovo eletto
Piazza Fontana 2
20122 Milano
Nell’apprendere la notizia del decesso del caro Cardinale Dionigi Tettamanzi, desidero esprimere le mie condoglianze ai familiari e a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri e tra i suoi pastori più amabili e amati. Penso con affetto e ricordo con gratitudine l’intensa opera culturale e pastorale profusa da questo benemerito fratello che nella sua feconda esistenza ha testimoniato con gioia il Vangelo e servito docilmente la Chiesa, dapprima come presbitero nell’Arcidiocesi di Milano, poi come Vescovo ad Ancona-Osimo, Segretario della Conferenza Episcopale Italiana, Arcivescovo di Genova, in seguito Arcivescovo della diletta Chiesa ambrosiana, infine amministratore apostolico di Vigevano. Sempre si distinse come pastore sollecito, totalmente dedito alle necessità e al bene dei sacerdoti e dei fedeli tutti, con una peculiare attenzione ai temi della famiglia, del matrimonio e della bioetica, dei quali era particolarmente esperto. Elevo la mia preghiera al signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, che egli ha tanto amato, accolga questo suo fedele servitore nel gaudio e nella pace eterna, e di cuore imparto a coloro che ne piangono la scomparsa la Benedizione Apostolica, con un pensiero speciale per quanti lo hanno amorevolmente assistito in questi ultimi tempi di malattia.

FRANCISCUS PP.
Dal Vaticano, 5 agosto 2017


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(149) 12. PENGO, Polycarp
(1944-

Birth. August 5, 1944, Mwazye, diocese of Sumbawanga, Tanganyika. He has four brothers and four sisters.

Education. Studied at the Preparatory Seminary of Mwazye; at the Minor Seminary of Karema; at the Major Seminary of Kipalapala, Sumbawanga; at Accademia Alfonsiana, Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he earned a doctorate in moral theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1971, Sumbawanga, by Charles Msakila, bishop of Sumbawanga. Secretary of the bishop of Sumbawanga, 1971-1973. Further studies in Rome, 1973-1977. Faculty member, Seminary of Kipalapala, 1977-1978. Rector, faculty member and economous of the Major Seminary of Segerea, 1978-1983. Also, in charge of pastoral of the laity and of vocations.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Nachingwea, November 11, 1983. Consecrated, January 6, 1984, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Durasamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalora, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Jan Pieter Schotte, C.I.C.M., titular archbishop of Silli, vice-president of the Pontifical Commission Iustitia et Pax, future cardinal. His episcopal motto is Ecce ego Domine. Transferred to the see of Tunduru-Masasi, October 17, 1986. Promoted to coadjutor with succession of Dar-es-Salaam, January 22, 1990. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Dar-es-Salaam, July 22, 1992. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, April 10 to May 8, 1994; member of the council of the General Secretariat of the Special Assembly for Africa.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest, February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Nostra Signora de La Salette, February 21, 1998. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Elected president of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM) at the end of the First Panafrican Congress of Evangelization and of the 14th Plenary Assembly of SECAM, celebrated in Dar-es-Salaam on Sunday January 21, 2007. Attended the XII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; by papal appointment. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World". Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economical Problems of the Holy See, June 23, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate.

Webgraphy. Photgraph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(150) 13. SCHÖNBORN, O.P., Christoph
(1945-

Birth. January 22, 1945, Skalsko, diocese of Litomerice, Bohemia, Czechoslovakia. Son of Count Maria Hugo Damian Adalbert Josef Hubertus von Schönborn and Baroness Eleonore von Doblhoff. His baptismal name is Christoph Maria Michael Hugo Damian Peter Adalbert. His family moved to Austria in September 1945. Besides his native German, he also speaks English, French, Italian.

Education. Joined Order of Preachers in 1963. Studied at Dominican houses of studies in Walberberg, Bonn, Germany; at Le Saulchoir, Paris, where he earned a doctorate in theology; thesis on the Byzantine iconoclastic debate about whether sacred images should be forbidden or allowed; at the "École Practique de Hautes Études", La Sorbonne University, Paris; and at the "Institute Catholique", Paris. His thesis to fulfill the post-doctoral lecturing requirement as a professor was "The Icon of Christ or the Human Face of God".

Priesthood. Ordained, December 27, 1970, Vienna, by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop of Vienna. Further studies, 1970-1974. Chaplain to university students, Graz, Austria, 1973-1975. Faculty member, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, 1976-1991. Member of the International Theological Commission, 1980-1991; of the Foundation "Pro Oriente", 1984-1991. Attended the Second Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 24 to December 8, 1985; assistant to the special secretary. Faculty member, Superior Philosophical School of the Cisterciense Abbey of Heiligenkreuz, Vienna, Austria. Secretary of the commission of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to edit the new Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1987-1992.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Sutri and appointed auxiliary of Vienna, July 11, 1991. Consecrated, September 29, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Vienna, by Cardinal Hans Hermann Groër, O.S.B., archbishop of Vienna, assisted by Cardinal Franz König, archbishop emeritus of Vienna, and by Vojtech Cikrle, bishop of Brno. His episcopal motto is Vox autem dixi amicos. Promoted to archbishop coadjutor with right of succession of Vienna, April 13, 1995. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Vienna, September 14, 1995. Ordinary for the Byzantine-rite faithful residing in Austria, November 5, 1995. Preached the spiritual exercises for the pope and the Roman Curia, Lent 1996. Almoner of the Knights of the Austrian Order of the Golden Fleece.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of Gesù Divin Lavoratore, February 23, 1998. President of the Austrian Episcopal Conference, 1998-. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He presided the First World Apostolic Congress on Mercy, which was held in Rome from April 2 to 6, 2008. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the millennium of the diocese of Pécs, Hungary, which took place on August 23, 2009. Special papal envoy to the celebration of the 450th anniversary of the formal renewal of the archbishopric of Prague, which took place on May 12, 2012. On September 18, 2012, the pope appointed him synodal father of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On January 15, 2014, he was named member, for the next quiquennium, of the Commission of Cardinals overseeing the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR). He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches for another quinquennium on February 19, 2014. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On November 22, 2014, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 25th anniversary of the new-found freedom of the Greek-Catholic Church in Ukraine, programmed in Kyiv on December 10, 2014. On October 22, 2015, he was elected member of the 14th Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. On May 7, 2016, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the erection of the archdiocese of Minsk-Mohilev, Belarus, programmed for July 1 and 2, 2016.

Bibliography. Schönborn, Chrstoph. Sulla felicità. Meditazioni per i giovani. Bologna : Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 2012.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in German, archdiocese of Vienna; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; The Schönborn Site, in English; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Austrian cardinal cracks down on rebel priests by Michael Shields, Reuters/Chicago Tribune, 9:49 a.m. CDT, June 27, 2012; Cardinal Schönborn: Pope Francis has already changed church by Christa Pongratz-Lippitt, National Catholic Reporter, Feb. 7, 2014; Schönborn: Will we manage to maintain the pace of Francis' reforms? by Iacopo Scaramuzzi, Vatican Insider, 01/20/2015; Austrian cardinal calls upon EU bishops to "find a common line" for migrant crisis by Christa Pongratz-Lippitt, National Catholic Reporter, Sep. 8, 2015; Wednesday's Texas execution on Vatican radar, cardinal says by Allan Turner, Chron, Published 10:40 am, Tuesday, January 19, 2016; Cardinal who backs progressives tapped to present family manifesto by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, Rome, March 31, 2016; Cardinal Schonborn criticizes clergy's 'hardening of the heart' against mercy by Joshua J. McElwee, National Catholic Reporter, Rome, Mar. 31, 2016; Card. Schönborn: "Amoris Laetitia" is not a rupture, it is a development of doctrine, Rome Reports, 2016-04-08; Cardinal Schönborn: Pope Francis follows John Paul II's teaching on communion, Catholic Herald, Friday, 8 Apr. 2016; Card. Schönborn sobre Amoris Laetitia: "El Papa es un buen pastor, sabe de lo que habla" by Deborah Castellano Lubov, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 13 abril 2016; Cardinal Schönborn: Amoris Laetitia is a great catechesis, Echoes, Wednesday, April 13, 2016; Schönborn: Amoris Laetitia, atto di Magistero colmo di Misericordia, Radio Vaticana, 2016-07-08; Cardenal alerta ante posible "conquista islámica de Europa", ACI, Viena, 14 Sep. 16 / 05:15 pm; Cardinal Schönborn: 'Europe's Christian legacy is in danger - but not because of Islam', Catholic Herald, Thursday, 15 Sep 2016; Key papal ally says ‘Amoris’ means tougher line on divorce in the West by John L. Allen Jr. and Inés San Martín, Crux, Vienna, Austria, June 1, 2017; Forget ‘Left v. Right’ — look for ‘bright’ and ‘Catholic,’ cardinal says by John L. Allen Jr. and Inés San Martín, Crux, Vienna, Austria, June 2, 2017; Cardinal Schönborn accuses dubia cardinals of trying to force public response from Pope Francis, Catholic Herald, posted Friday, 14 Jul 2017; Cardinal Schönborn: Moral theology needs both principles and prudence by Austen Ivereigh, Crux, Limerick, Ireland, July 15, 2017; Card. Schönborn: “Los parlamentarios católicos se sienten alentados por la Iglesia”, Zenit, 29 agosto 2017.


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(151) 14. RIVERA CARRERA, Norberto
(1942-

Birth. June 6, 1942, La Purísima,Tepehuanes, archdiocese of Durango, México. Son of Ramón Rivera Cháidez and Soledad Carrera. He has a sister who is a nun.

Education. Studied at the Conciliar Seminary of Durango; and later, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 3, 1966, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI. From 1967 to 1985, in Durango, pastoral ministry in Río Grande, Zacatecas; faculty member, Seminary of Durango for 18 years and prefect of discipline; founder and ecclesiastical assistant of the movement "Jornadas de Vida Cristiana"; diocesan assistant of "Movimiento Familiar Cristiano" and of Youth Catholic Action; member and coordinator of the presbyteral council; secretary of the archdiocesan pastoral commission; director of social communications; cathedral canon lector; faculty member, Pontifical Mexican University, México City, 1982-1985; executive secretary of pastoral care for the family, Episcopal Commission for Lay Apostolate, 1983-1985.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tehuacán, November 5, 1985. Consecrated, December 21, 1985, Minor Seminary of Tehuacán, by Antonio López Aviña, archbishop of Durango, assisted by Adolfo Suárez Rivera, archbishop of Monterrey, and by Rosendo Huesca Pacheco, archbishop of Puebla; another twenty three bishops also participated in the ceremony. His episcopal motto is Lumen Gentium. Apostolic visitor for the diocesan and religious seminaries of México. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of México, June 13, 1995. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Francesco d'Assisi a Ripa Grande, February 21, 1998. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate that took place from May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 23, 2010. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. He was named member of the Council for the Economy for a quinquennium on March 8, 2014. He was named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy on June 9, 2014. Will participate in the 14th General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which will take place at the Vatican from October 4 to 25, 2015 on the theme "The vocation and mission of the family in the Church and in the contemporary world". On May 14, 2016, he was named special papal envoy to the concluding celebrations of the bicentenary of the consecration of the metropolitan cathedral of Santiago de Guatemala that was held in conjunction with the Archdiocesan Eucharistic Congress from May 31 to June 5, 2016.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of México; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Corte de Los Àngeles cierra definitivamente demanda contra Cardenal Rivera, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 24 Jul. 12 / 03:15 am.; "­No saquemos a Dios de la familia!", clama Cardenal Rivera, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 08 Ago. 12 / 07:32 am; Cardenal Rivera a abogados: Dios valorará todo acto que haya sido justo, ACI, 13 Ago. 12 / 07:52 pm; Cardenal Rivera pide acercarse más dinámicamente a jóvenes, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 17 Ago. 12 / 05:05 am; Cardenal pide a catequistas no claudicar en compromiso misionero, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 27 Ago. 12 / 05:42 pm; Cardenal Rivera pide a mexicanos hacer labor pastoral con humildad, ACI, 31 Ago. 12 / 09:20 am; El cardenal Rivera cumple 20 años en la Arquidiócesis de Mé;xico, Zenit, 27 de julio de 2015; ¿Vengarse o perdonar en un mundo violento? El desafío que plantea el Arzobispo de México by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI, México, D.F., 22 Nov. 15 / 11:43 am; Que todo hogar sea un nuevo Belén, exhorta Cardenal Rivera en Navidad, ACI/EWTN Noticias, México, 26 Dic. 15 / 04:09 pm; México: Cardenal Rivera recuerda que la familia es un proyecto divino y no invento humano, México, ACI, 28 Dic. 15 / 02:24 pm; La emotiva carta del Arzobispo de México para el Papa Francisco en la víspera de su viaje, Ciudad de México, ACI, 08 Feb. 16 / 10:52 am; Cresce attesa Papa in Messico. Card. Rivera: tocca il cuore della gente, Radio Vaticana, 2016-02-11; El Papa Francisco dejó a México esta importante lección, explica Cardenal, ACI, México, D.F., 22 Feb. 16 / 11:03 am; Arzobispo de México: Urge ser testigos de la Resurrección de Cristo, ACI, Ciudad de México, 27 Mar. 16 / 03:05 pm; México: Denunciar injusticias para que no queden ocultas, pide Cardenal, ACI/EWTN Noticias, Ciudad México, 14 Abr. 16 / 09:32 am; El Papa saluda al Cardenal Rivera en México por sus 50 años de sacerdote, ACI, Ciudad de México, 04 Jul. 16 / 12:27 pm; Fotos: Cardenal mexicano celebra 50 años de sacerdote en la Basílica de Guadalupe, ACI, Ciudad de México, 29 Jul. 16 / 04:05 pm; Arzobispo de México a homosexuales: Nunca he querido ofenderles, ACI, Ciudad de México, 02 Nov. 16 / 01:01 pm; Cardenal mexicano pide a compatriotas no culpar a Estados Unidos por problema migratorio, ACI, Ciudad de México, 20 Dic. 16 / 01:07 pm; Cardenal Rivera habla sobre su próxima renuncia al Arzobispado de México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 21 Dic. 16 / 03:33 pm; Arzobispo de México ratifica tolerancia cero ante abusos contra menores, ACI, Ciudad de México, 23 Dic. 16 / 11:26 am; En Basílica de Guadalupe, Arzobispo de México pide que Constitución proteja la vida, ACI, Ciudad de México, 15 Ene. 17 / 01:40 pm; Cardenal Rivera: Muro de la vergüenza de Trump lo aislará no solo de México sino del mundo, ACI, Ciudad de México, 30 Ene. 17 / 12:43 pm; ¿Sacerdotes “rebeldes” escribieron carta contra Arzobispo Primado de México? by David Ramos, Ciudad de México, 25 Abr. 17 / 12:21 pm; Cardenal Rivera pide oraciones por sacerdote apuñalado en Catedral de México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 25 May. 17 / 01:11 pm; Arquidiócesis rechaza malintencionadas especulaciones sobre renuncia de Cardenal Rivera, ACI, Ciudad de México, 04 Jun. 17 / 04:37 pm; Ex-priest alleges Mexican cardinal didn’t report abuse, Crux, Associated Press, Mexico City, June 4, 2017; Cardenal Norberto Rivera cumple 75 años, 22 como Arzobispo de México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 06 Jun. 17 / 11:17 am; Arzobispo Primado de México: Cristianos no deben vivir su fe con complejo de inferioridad, ACI, Ciudad de México, 18 Jun. 17 / 02:45 pm; Arzobispo Primado de México concede indulgencia por 50 años de la Renovación Carismática, ACI, Ciudad de México, 01 Jul. 17 / 12:01 pm; Jesús es exigente y no admite medias tintas, recuerda Cardenal mexicano, ACI, Ciudad de México, 03 Jul. 17 / 03:55 pm; Rechazan acusaciones de encubrimiento de abusos contra Cardenal Rivera en México, ACI, Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, 06 Jul. 17 / 08:07 pm; Cardenal Rivera no encubrió abusos de sacerdotes, reitera Arquidiócesis de México, ACI Ciudad de México, 18 Jul. 17 / 07:10 pm; Cardenal expresa condolencias por muerte de sacerdote apuñalado en Catedral de México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 03 Ago. 17 / 01:20 pm; Cardenal Rivera demostró falsedad de acusaciones sobre encubrimientos, afirma Arzobispado, ACI, Ciudad de México, 11 Ago. 17 / 05:32 pm; Archdiocese of Mexico Counters Claims That Cardinal Covered Up Abuse, National Catholic Register, CNA/EWTN News, Aug. 15, 2017; No caigamos en la tentación de creernos el centro por encima de Jesús, exhorta Cardenal, ACI, Ciudad de México, 27 Ago. 17 / 12:04 pm; “Todos de alguna manera somos migrantes”, afirma Arzobispo Primado de México, ACI Ciudad de México, 05 Sep. 17 / 04:25 pm; México: Cardenal pide rezar por víctimas de terremoto y huracanes, ACI, Ciudad de México, 11 Sep. 17 / 12:02 pm; Cardenal Rivera a parroquias en Ciudad de México: Ayuden a damnificados de terremoto, ACI, Ciudad de México, 20 Sep. 17 / 10:53 am; Cardenal Rivera dona criptas de Basílica de Guadalupe para víctimas de sismo en México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 22 Sep. 17 / 11:08 am; Es una lección ver a tantos jóvenes ayudando tras terremoto, dice Arzobispo de México, ACI, Ciudad de México, 24 Sep. 17 / 02:30 pm; ¿El Arzobispo de México es dueño de un colegio? Desmienten bulo de WhatsApp, ACI, 25 Sep. 17 / 12:25 pm.


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(152) 15. GEORGE, O.M.I., Francis Eugene
(1937-2015)

Birth. January 16, 1937, Chicago, United States of America. Son of Francis J. George, an engineer with the public school system, and Julia R. McCarthy, who worked at an advertising agency. Both were active Catholics. He had an older sister, Margaret. He contracted polio when he was thirteen and was rejected by Chicago's archdiocesan seminary because he had a limp; he went on to run the archdiocese that once turned him away.

Education. Primary education at St. Pascal's School, Chicago, where he received first communion. Joined the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, August 14, 1957. Studied at St. Henry's Preparatory Seminary, Belleville; made his solemn profession in Godfrey in 1958; continued his formation at Pine Hills Scholasticate, Ottawa, Canada; at the University of Ottawa; at the Catholic University of America, Washington (master in philosophy); at Tulane University, New Orleans (doctorate in philosophy); and at the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome (doctorate of sacred theology in ecclesiology, dissertation: Inculturation and communion). He spoke multiple languages, including Spanish and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1963, St. Pascal Church, Chicago, by Raymond Hillinger, titular bishop of Derbe, auxiliary of Chicago. Further studies, 1963-1965; 1967-1970. Faculty member, Creighton University, Omaha; chairman, Philosophy Department, 1970-1973. Provincial of the United States Western region of his order, 1973-1974. Vicar general of his institute, Rome, 1974-1986. Member and coordinator of the Circle of Associates of Cambridge Center for the Study of Faith and Culture, Boston 1986-1990.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Yakima, July 10, 1990. Consecrated, September 21, 1990, cathedral of Yakima, by Agostino Cacciavillan, titular archbishop of Amiterno, pro-nuncio in the United States of America, assisted by Roger Lawrence Schwietz, O.M.I., bishop of Duluth, and by William Stephen Skylstad, bishop of Spokane. His episcopal motto was Christo Gloria in Ecclesia. Attended the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Portland in Oregon, April 30, 1996. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Chicago, April 8, 1997. He is the first Chicagoan to occupy the see of his native city. Attended the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997; its special secretary.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Bartolomeo all'Isola, February 21, 1998. Preached the Lent Spiritual Exercises of the Pope and the Roman Curia, March 4 to 10, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. He helped shape the American Catholic bishops' response to the child sexual abuse scandal adopting a zero tolerance policy. He was credited with then shepherding the policy change through an initially resistant Vatican. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. He underwent surgery for bladder cancer in July 2007. Elected president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops on November 13, 2007, for a three year term. He also oversaw the new English-language translation of the Roman Missal, one of the biggest changes in Catholic liturgy in generations. Attended the Twelfth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, on "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church"; elected member of the Twelfth Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops, October 22, 2008. Named member of the Council of Cardinals for the Study of the Organizational and Economic Problems of the Holy See on October 23, 2010. He led the opposition of the Catholic Conference of Catholic Bishops to President Barack Obama's Affordable Care Act because of its mandate that employers include coverage of birth control in their health plans. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014; on that same date, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. On September 20, 2014, his resignation from the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Chicago, in conformity to canon 401, § 1, of the Code of Canon Law, was accepted. To succeed him, the pope named Bishop Blase Joseph Cupich of Spokane. Cardinal George continued as archbishop of Chicago until the installation of his successor on November 18, 2014.

Death. April 17, 2015, at 10:45 a.m., at his residence in Chicago, from cancer, which had afflicted him for a long time. After learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent Archbishop Blase Cupich of Chicago a telegram of condolence (1). The funeral mass for the late cardinal took place on Thursday April 23, at 12 p.m., in the metropolitan cathedral of the Holy Name. It was presided by Archbishop Cupich and concelebrated by nine U.S. cardinals, twelve archbishops, more than fifty bishops and hundreds of priests. The cathedral was full of faithful to capacity. Archbishop J. Peter Sartain of Seattle delivered the homily. Immediately following the funeral mass, the Committal Service took place at All Saints Cemetery in Des Plaines. According to the cardinal's wishes, he was buried in the George family plot, where his parents and grandmother are buried.

Bibliography. Cameli, Louis J. "George, Francis E." New Catholic encyclopedia : jubilee volume, the Wojtyła years. Detroit, MI : Gale Group in association with the Catholic University of America, 2001, p. 304-305.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, archdiocese of Chicago; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; 'Vatileaks' sheds light on Cardinal George's role in politics by Manya A. Brachear, Chicago Tribune, Posted on Tue, Jun. 05, 2012 02:06 AM., The Kansas City Star; Cardinal enters Chick-fil-A fray, by Bridget Doyle, Chicago Tribune, August 2, 2012; Cardinal Francis George, Archbishop of Chicago, has cancer by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 08/21/2012 Cardinal George speaks about cancer diagnosis, WTHITV10.com, Monday, 27 Aug 2012, 10:09 AM EDT; Chicago's exiting cardinal: 'The Church is about true/false, not left/right by John L. Allen Jr., Crux, Boston Globe Media Partners; A Lion of the American Church: Thoughts on the Passing of Cardinal George by Father Robert Barron, Echoes, A forum of Catholic thought, Tuesday, April 21, 2015; The Difference God Made through Francis Cardinal George, by Father Roger J. Landry, Echoes, A forum of Catholic thought, Tuesday, April 21, 2015; The difference Cardinal George made by George Weigel, The Boston Pilot, Tuesday, May 12, 2015; Cardinal George Funeral Mass, video, CatholicChicago, YouTube, published on Apr 28, 2015; Cardinal George Committal Service, video, CatholicChicago, YouTube, published on Apr 28, 2015.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See ("Portland" as used below refers to Portland in Oregon):

To the Most Reverend Blase Cupich
Archbishop of Chicago
Saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal Francis E. George, Archbishop Emeritus of Chicago, I offer heartfelt condolences to you and to the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the Archdiocese. With gratitude for Cardinal George's witness of consecrated life as an Oblate of Mary Immaculate, his service to the Church's educational apostolate and his years of episcopal ministry in the Churches of Yakima, Portland and Chicago, I join you in commending the soul of this wise and gentle pastor to the merciful love of God our heavenly Father. To all who mourn the late Cardinal in the sure hope of the Resurrection, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of consolation and peace in the Lord.

Franciscus PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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(153) 16. SHAN KUO-HSI, S.J., Paul
(1923-2012)

Birth. December 3, 1923, Puyang, Hopeh, diocese of Taming (Daming), China. His last name is also listed as Shàn Guóxǐ (1).

Education. Studied philosophy at the Regional Seminary Saint Joseph, Chiughsien, from 1944 to 1946; and at the Jesuit Philosophical Institute, Berchmans College, Manila, Philippines, from 1946 until 1951, where he obtained a licentiate in philosophy (PhL); completed his theological formation at Bellarmine College, Baguio, Philippines, from 1952 to 1956 , where he obtained a licentiate in sacred theology (STL); completed his formation at the Jesuit Theologate of Novaliches, Philippines, from 1956 to 1957. Joined Society of Jesus on September 11, 1946, in Peking; took religious vows on September 12, 1948 in Peking; and the final vows on February 2, 1963, in the Jesuit novitiate in Thuduc, Vietnam. He also studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, from 1959 to 1961, where he earned a doctorate in spiritual theology. Besides Mandarin, his first language, he also spoke Latin, English, French, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1955, Baguio. Further studies, Novaliches, 1955-1957. Director of the Chinese section of Sacred Heart School, Cebu, 1957-1959. Further studies in Rome from 1959 to 1961. Minister of the house and socius of the master of novices, Thuduc, Vietnam, 1961 to 1963 . Master of novices and rector of Manresa House, Changhua, Taiwan, 1963-1970. Rector of St. Ignatius Institute, Taipei, 1970-1976. President of the Catholic Schools Association, Taiwan, 1972-1976. President of the Kuangchi Program Service, 1976-1979. Episcopal vicar of Taipei, 1976-1979.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Hwalien, Taiwan, November 15, 1979. Consecrated, February 14, 1980, by Matthew Kia Yen-wen, archbishop of Taipei, assisted by Stanislaus Lokuang, archbishop emeritus of Taipei, and by Joseph Kuo Joshih, archbishop emeritus of Taipei. His episcopal motto was Instaurare omnia in Christo. He was installed on February 14, 1980. In 1981, he was elected president of the Episcopal Commission for Evangelization of the Chinese Regional Episcopal Conference. In that same year, he was named member of the office for social communications of the Federation of Episcopal Conferences of Asia (Fabc). In 1983, he was elected episcopal organizer of the celebrations marking the 400th Anniversary of the arrival of Father Matteo Ricci, S.J., in China. Between 1983 and 1985, he was president of the office for inter-religious dialog of the Fabc; and from 1985 to 1991, he headed its office for social communications. Elected president of the Regional Episcopal Conference of China in 1987; he was reelected for three terms until 1999. In 1987, he became member of the central committee of the Fabc. On January 25, 1991, he was named president of the National Council of Churches in Taiwan. He was transferred to the see of Kaohsiung on March 4, 1991; he was installed the following June 17.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Crisogono, February 21, 1998. Attended the Special Assembly for Asia of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 19 to May 18, 1998; relator general; member of the post-synodal council, May 8, 1998; he was instrumental in the invitation made to two China mainland bishops to attend the synod but they were not allowed to attend by the Chinese government and two chairs were left empty during the sessions of the assembly. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years older December 3, 2003. By papal appointment he attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law on January 5, 2006. He had just been diagnosed with cancer; he continued to direct retreats and hold conferences, promoting evangelization on both Taiwan and China. He was member of the S. C. for the Evangelization of the Peoples; of the Pontifical Councils of Health Workers and for the Legislative Texts; of the Special Council for Asia of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops; and of the Commission for the Church in China. He was honorary chairman of Fu Jen Catholic University, which is located in New Taipei City. In October 2012, the Tzu Chi Foundation, the largest Buddhist charity in Taiwan, was going to grant him an award. He never forgot that he was a son of the Church in mainland China and always prayed for it and offered to the Holy See his valuable contribution of advice and reflection. He was heavily involved on the front of evangelization and interreligious dialogue, with a strong focus on the formation of priests and a laity well prepared. Great were his social activities with many initiatives on behalf of the poor, the sick, the elderly, exploited women, and prisoners. The cardinal intervened several times, even publicly, asking the government of Taiwan to reduce the gap between the rich and the poor and to abolish the death penalty. In recent years, he had visited all the dioceses of the island of Taiwan to offer his testimony as a terminally ill patient in the light of faith, trying to instill in people the courage to face the challenges that life presented.

Death. August 22, 2012, at 6:42 p.m., of multiple organ failure brought on by acute pneumonia, secondary to his long standing cancer, in Cardinal Tien Hospital in New Taipei. His last act was celebrating mass, only a few hours before his death, on the liturgical feast of the Queenship of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the hospital where he was a patient for a serious condition. A short time later he died to the singing of Salve Regina chanted by the counselor and chargé d'affaires of the apostolic nunciature, Monsignor Paul Fitzpatrick Russell, the archbishop of Taipei, John Hung Shan-chuan, S.V.D., and various other collaborators. Upon learning of the death of the cardinal, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Peter Liu Cheng-Chung of Kaohsiung (2). President Ma Ying-jeou and Premier Sean Chen also extended their condolences to the bishops of Taiwan. The body was brought back to Kaohsiung by Bishop Liu earlier in the day from Taipei. The body laid in repose in the parish of the Holy Family. Three requiem masses were celebrated every day in the funeral chapel. The Straits Exchange Foundation, which handles Taiwan-China affairs in the absence of official ties, said the government contacted Cardinal Shan's family in China and helping to arrange their trip to attend the funeral. The funeral took place in the chapel of St. Dominic Catholic High School, in that city, attended by thousand of people. The mass was presided over by Bishop Peter Liu of Kaohsiung and concelebrated by numerous bishops and priests. Among them Cardinal Joseph Zen Ze-kiung, S.B.D., bishop emeritus of Hong Kong; Cardinal John Tong Hon, current bishop of Hong Kong; Savio Hon Tai-Fai, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Sila, secretary of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith; and Monsignor Paul Fitzpatrick Russell, counselor and chargé d'affaires of the nunciature in China (Taiwan), who read a message from Pope Benedict XVI. In accordance with the late cardinal's wishes, the chapel was simply decorated with candles and crucifixes, and flower bouquets were not accepted. Cardinal Shan had said in his will that as he took a vow of poverty throughout his life, his departure from this world should not be in any sense luxurious. The relatives of the late cardinal from the Popular Republic of China were allowed to attend. President Ma Ying-jeou of Taiwan also attended the ceremony and paid tribute to Cardinal Shan's religious dedication.The cardinal said in his will that his funeral should be a simple affair, held "as the poor people would" and that the chapel should be decorated only with candles, the Bible and crucifixes, he added. He also indicated that his epitaph should include the words "Born in Christ, lived in Christ, died in Christ, forever belongs to Christ". After the funeral, the body of the late cardinal was buried in the local Catholic cemetery in a simple coffin on a site no bigger than 1 ping (3.3 square meters) in compliance with his will. A foundation will be established in the cardinal's memory to assist the disadvantaged people to continue his dedication to Taiwan's less fortunate.

Bibliography. Brender, Andreas ; Kierein-Kuenring, Mandred D. Catholic Hierarchy in China since 1307. Cluj-Napoca, 2012, pp. 171 and 288; "Shan Kuo-hsi Paul, S.I." in Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1999. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1999, p. 83*;

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Italian, The Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Spanish, aciprensa; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cardinal Paul Shan dies at age 88 by Chen Ching-fang and Jamie Wang, Focus Taiwan, The Central News Agency, 2012/08/22 22:27:36; Morto il cardinale di Taiwan Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, Chiesa, Avvenire, 22 agosto 2012; Leading Catholic figure Cardinal Paul Shan passes away by Yang Chiu-ying and Jake Chung, Taipei Times, Thu, Aug 23, 2012; Card Paul Shan, the great evangeliser and unifier of the Church in China, has died, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 03:25; Card. Gracias: prayers for Card. Paul Shan, joyful and dedicated servant of the Church, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 10:14; Taiwan remembers Card. Shan, communicator of the faith, even during illness by Xin Yage, Asia News, 08/23/2012 12:34; Pope's sorrow for the death of Card Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, AsiaNews, 08/23/2012 13:18; Funeral of late cardinal set for Sept. 1 by Wang Shu-fen, Chang Che-fon, Emmanuelle Tzeng, Hsu Chih-wei, Chen Hung-chin and Kendra Lin, Focus Taiwan, The Central News Agency, 2012/08/23 17:57:41; Cardinal Paul Shan "belongs forever to Christ": the funeral on 1 September, Agenzia Fides, news.va, 23/08/2012; The Pope's condolences on the death of Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, L'Osservatore Romano, news.va, 2012-08-24; Burial Mass for late Catholic Cardinal Shan set for Sept. 1, Taipei Times, Fri, Aug 24, 2012; Chinese cardinal who considered cancer "A blessing", dies in Taiwan by Gerard O'Connell, Vatican Insider, 08/23/2012; El cardenal jesuíta Paul Shan, de Taiwan, será enterrado el 1 de septiembre, Internacional, Ecclesia, 23 agosto, 2012; Pope and the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples condole death of Cardinal Shan, Agenzia Fides, 24/08/2012; Cardinal of Taiwan, Paul Shan Kuo-Hsi, passes away at 89, Rome Reports, 2012-08-24 15:02:58; Card. Shan's work for youth of Taiwan and mainland China by Xin Yage, AsiaNews, 08/24/2012; Pope Benedict XVI sends condolences for Cardinal by Loa Iok-sin, Taipei Times, Sat, Aug 25, 2012; Card. Zen remembers Card. Paul Shan, brother, teacher and now protector from Heaven by Card. Joseph Zen Ze-kiun, Asia News, 08/27/2012 10:45; Tributes for Taiwan cardinal, The Tablet, 28 August 2012.

(1) This is in Hanyu Pinyin, the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into Latin script in the People's Republic of China, Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore.
(2) This is the text of the telegram published by the Press Office of the Holy See:

The Most Reverend Peter Liu Cheng-chung
Bishop of Kaohsiung

I was deeply saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, Bishop Emeritus of Kaohsiung. With gratitude to Almighty God, I recall his years of dedicated service there, as well as his ministry as Bishop of Hwalien and as President of the Chinese Regional Bishops' Conference. I offer you, the clergy, religious and lay faithful of those Dioceses, and indeed the entire Church in Taiwan, my condolences and the assurance of my prayers. In joining you and all who mourn him, including his Jesuit confreres, I commend his priestly soul to the infinite mercy of God our loving Father. To all assembled for the solemn funeral Mass, and as a pledge of peace and consolation in the Lord, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing.

Benedictus PP. XVI


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(154) 17. KOZŁOWIECKI, S.J., Adam
(1911-2007)

Birth. April 1, 1911, Huta Komorowska, diocese of Przemyšl, Poland, Austrian Empire. Of noble parents. Son of Adam Kozłowiecki, and Maria Janochów. He had two brothers, Czesław and Jerzy.

Education. Studied at the Jesuit school in Chyrów (now in Ukraine); because of young Adam's interest in the Society of Jesus, his parents sent him to a private school in Poznan; after he finished school, he renounced his title and heritage and entered the order in Stara Wies, on July 30, 1929; Novitiate of Brzozów, Brzozów; Jesuit Faculty of Philosophy, Kraków; magisterium in Chyrów; Bobolanum Theological Faculty, Lublin; third probation, Lviv. Took the final vows, August 15, 1945, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1937, Lublin, by Karol Niemira, titular bishop of Tavio, auxiliary of Pinsk. Arrested by the Gestapo, November 10, 1939, incarcerated in Kraków; interned in the Auschwitz concentration camp, June-December, 1940; in the Dachau concentration camp, December, 1940 to April 29, 1945, freed by the U.S. army troops. Taught at the Jesuit School, Pullach. Volunteered as a missionary to the Jesuit mission in North Rhodesia, now Zambia. Pastoral ministry, especially in education, Kasisi, 1946-1950. Apostolic administrator of the apostolic vicariate of Lusaka, 1950.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Diospoli inferiori and appointed apostolic vicar of Lusaka, Zambia, June 4, 1955. Consecrated, September 11, 1955, by James Robert Knox, titular archbishop of Melitene, apostolic delegate in British Africa, assisted by Aston Sebastian Joseph Chichester, S.J., archbishop of Salisbury, and by Joseph van den Biesen, M. Afr., titular bishop of Tullia, vicar apostolic of Abercorn. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lusaka, April 25, 1959. Participated in the Second Vatican Council, 1962-1965. Attended the First Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 29 to October 29, 1967. He resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese so that an African prelate could be named archbishop; transferred to the titular see of Potenza Picena, May 29, 1969. After his retirement and until 1989, he was director of the Pontifical Missionary Society of Zambia; he then resigned his post to hand it over to the young up coming priests; despite his advanced age, he worked in Chikuni, Chingombe, Mulungushi, Lusaka missions and others. In 1987 he was made a companion of the Order of Freedom of the Republic of Zambia. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. He was decorated with the Commenda of Merit of the Republic of Poland in 1995 by Lech Walesa, president of that republic.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the title of S. Andrea al Quirinale, February 21, 1998. Promoted to the cardinalate when he was over 80 years old, and thus, he did not have the right to participate in the conclave. He continued living in Lusaka after his promotion to the cardinalate. On December 21, 2006, he was decorated with the Legion d'honneur of France.

Death. September 28, 2007, at 8:30 a.m., in a hospital in Lusaka. He was buried on Friday October 5, 2007, in the grounds of the metropolitan cathedral of the Child Jesus, Lusaka.

Bibliography. Cieślak, Stanisław. Kardynał Adam Kozłowiecki. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Kozłowiecki, Adam. Ucisk i strapienie. Kraków: Wydawnictwo WAM 2008; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 371-381.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; Misjonarz Kardynałem, in Polish, by Ks. Czesław Drążek S.J., Fundacja "Opoka".


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(155) 18. CHELI, Giovanni
(1918-2013)

Birth. October 4, 1918, Turin, Italy. Son of Egidio Cheli, a native of Suvereto, Tuscany, and Annunziata Sacco, from San Damiano, Asti.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Asti; then, at the Pontifical Lateran Athenaeum, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology and a doctorate in canon law; and later, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 21, 1942, at the cathedral of Asti, by Bishop Umberto Rossi of Asti. In the diocese of Asti, from 1942 until 1949, diocesan vice-counselor of the Young Men of Catholic Action; prefect of discipline and professor of French, history and mathematics at the Seminary of Asti. At the same time, he was diocesan assistant of the juvenile section of Catholic Action and vice-pastor festivo in Isola d'Asti. During the Second World War, thanks to a short-wave radio, he established a network of correspondence between the captive Italians soldiers and their families. Radio London broadcast periodically a message adding the names of the prisoners. Once the contents of the transmission were picked up, Father Cheli compiled for each of them a text with the message and the name of the soldier. Then, with the help of young seminarians who traveled by bicycle, the texts were delivered to the families. By the end of the conflict, he organized the Pontificia Opera di Assistenza to help the prisoners of war, sick and disbanded, who were returning home. Further studies and pastoral ministry in Rome, 1949-1952; he was assigned as chaplain of the Sisters of Mercy of Verona, in the populous district of Prenestino; and in his leisure hours from the university courses, he had an intense pastoral work in the chapel of the Sacred Heart Institute, which served as a branch church of the parish of Sant'Eelena. In addition to the long hours spent in the confessional and preaching to the people, he devoted himself especially to the youth, forming a large group of altar boys and the Department XX ASCI Scout. Returned to Asti and very soon, in that same year, went back to Rome to enter the Vatican diplomatic service. Attaché of the nunciature in Guatemala, 1952-1955; where, with the coming to power of the Communist Party, the relations of the government with the Church and the Holy See were difficult. In that context, in addition to working in the papal representation, he devoted himself to the religious formation of young people, giving life to Catholic scouting and teaching at the Catholic University of Santa María, Guatemala City, founded by the Jesuits in those years. Named privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness on March 2, 1953; confirmed on October 28, 1958. Secretary of the nunciature in Spain and pastoral ministry in Madrid, 1955-1962. Counselor of the nunciature in Italy, 1962-1967. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, March 1, 1965. At the service of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1967-1973, closely collaborating with the secretary of that section, Archbishop Agostino Casaroli, with the task of conducting negotiations between the Holy See and some Eastern European countries. Among other things, he worked in the negotiations for the release of Cardinal József Mindszenty, archbishop of Esztergom, Hungary. Named permanent observer of the Holy See at the United Nations Organization, July 25, 1973; where he reorganized the office's activities, mainly through an extensive network of external collaborators, and participated in many international conferences, including one on the Law of the Sea, which lasted for ten years; he became the first apostolic nuncio named before that organization.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Santa Giusta and named apostolic nuncio, September 8, 1978 (1). Consecrated, September 16, 1978, Vatican City, by Cardinal Jean Villot, bishop of the title of suburbicarian see of Frascati, secretary of State, prefect of Pontifical Council for Public Affairs of the Church, camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Giuseppe Caprio, titular archbishop of Apollonia, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Agostino Casaroli, titular archbishop of Cartago, secretary of the S.C. for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs. His episcopal motto was Unitas in charitate. Pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for the Pastoral Care of Migrations and Tourism on September 18, 1986; the name of the commission was changed to Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants on June 28, 1988. Named president of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Itinerants on March 1, 1989. Attended the Eighth Ordinary Assembly of Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 28, 1990; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994; the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for America, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. Within the dicastery, he confirmed and consolidated the practice, already in place, for the differences in the field of human mobility in most areas: migrants, refugees, maritime, tourism, travelers, airport, students, fair workers and circus performers and workers, entrusting the responsibility to a fixed staff, which had favored the specialization. Several global and regional conferences were convened by the Pontifical Council in those years, as well as initiatives to support the apostolate of the sea and assistance to refugees and displaced persons. During his presidency, were discussed in-depth the complex issues of the new migration. In the vast world of human mobility, the care of the spiritual dimension always had a special place, with a particular attention to the experience of the pilgrimage.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Ss. Cosma e Damiano, February 21, 1998. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Commission for Migrants and Itinerants on June 15, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned 80 years of age, October 4, 1998. He was an outspoken critic of the United States invasion of Iraq in 2001. Opted for the order of cardinal priests and his deaconry was elevated pro hac vice to title, March 1, 2008. On June 8, 2009, he participated in the celebration of the bicentennial of the birth of Cardinal Guglielmo Massaia, O.F.M.Cap., which took place in Asti. He has been decorated among others with the Order of Isabel la Católica, of Spain, and named commendatore of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic; and of the Verdienstkreuz of the Federal Republic of Germany. He received doctorates honoris causa from several universities in the United States of America: St. John's, Fordham, and Seton Hall.

Death. February 8, 2013, in the early hours of the morning, in his apartment at the Palace of S. Calixto, Rome. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Bishop Francesco Ravinale of Asti, the diocese in which the cardinal had been incardinated (2). The exequies took place on Saturday February 9, 2013, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the cathedra of the papal Vatican basilica, celebrated by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with the other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Main concelebrants were Cardinals Francis Arinze and Giovanni Battista Re. Cardinal Sodano also delivered the homily. On February 10, 2013, the body of the late cardinal was transported to Asti and exposed in the cathedral of that city starting at 8:30 p.m. The funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Severino Poletto, archbishop emeritus of Turin, took place at 9:30 a.m. on February 11. Bishop Francesco Ravinale of Asti concelebrated with the cardinal. All the civil and military authorities with the banners were present. At the end of the ceremony, the late cardinal was buried in the crypt of the bishops in that cathedral..

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, EWTN; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Il cardinale da 70 anni al servizio della Chiesa. Giovanni Cheli sarà festeggaito stamattina in Duomo, LaStampa.it, 21.06.2012; Addio al cardinale Giovanni Cheli, LaStampa.it, 08.02.2013.

(1) This is according to Acta Apostilcae Sedis, LXX, No. 11 (September 30, 1978), 776; and Annuario Pontifico per l'anno 2011, Città del Vaticano : Libreria Edirice Vaticana, 2011) p. 43*, during the pontificate of Pope John Paul I. Originally, the election was announced by L'Osservatore Romano [electronic resource]. Città del Vaticano : L'Osservatore Romano, CXVIII, n. 160 (July 14, 1978), p. 1; and L'Osservatore Romano, Spanish edition, X, no. 29 (July 16, 1978), p. 5, during the pontificate of Pope Paul VI.
(2) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Daily Bulletin of the Vatican Press Office:

A Sua Eccelenza Reverendissima
Mons. Francesco Ravinale
Vescovo di Asti

Ho appreso con tristezza la notizia della dipartita del venerato Cardinale Giovanni Cheli e desidero esprimere sentimenti di vivo cordoglio a codesta comunità diocesana, che lo annovera tra i suoi figli più illustri, come pure ai familiari e a quanti lo hanno conosciuto e stimato. Ricordo con animo grato la preziosa e solerte collaborazione da lui prestata per tanti decenni alla Sede Apostolica nelle Rappresentanze Pontificie, in Segreteria di Stato, poi come Osservatore della Santa Sede alle Nazioni Unite, infine quale Presidente del Pontificio Consiglio della Pastorale per i Migranti e gli Itineranti. Egli lascia la testimonianza di una vita spesa nell'adesione coerente e generosa alla propria vocazione, quale sacerdote sollecito per le necessità dei fedeli, specialmente per la formazione cristiana della gioventù. Innalzo fervide preghiere di suffragio perché il Signore accolga nel gaudio e nella pace eterna così zelante pastore, fedele al Vangelo e alla Chiesa, e invio a Vostra Eccellenza, all'intero presbiterio e a quanti condividono il dolore per la sua scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

Benedictus PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(156) 19. COLASUONNO, Francesco
(1925-2003)

Birth. January 2, 1925, Grumo Appula, archdiocese of Bari, Italy.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Bari; then, at the Regional Seminary of Molfetta; later, at the University of Bari; also, at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained doctorates in theology and canon law; and finally, at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, where he studied diplomacy.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 28, 1947, parish church of S. Maria Assunta, Grumo Appula, by Marcello Mimmi, archbishop of Bari. Further studies in Rome. Faculty member of the Seminary of Bari, Bari. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service and was attached to the Council for Public Affairs of the Church, 1960-1962. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, December 13, 1961; June 21, 1963. Secretary and later auditor of the apostolic delegation in the United States of America, 1962-1967. Auditor of the nunciature in India (1968-1972). Prelate of honor of His Holiness, October 17, 1971. Counselor of the nunciature and chargé d'affaires ad interim in China (Taiwan), 1972-1974.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tronto and appointed apostolic delegate in Mozambique, December 6, 1974. Consecrated, February 9, 1975, cathedral of Bari, by Cardinal Corrado Ursi, archbishop of Naples, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Anastasio Alberto Ballestrero, O.C.D., archbishop of Bari. Pro-nuncio in Zimbabwe, March 7, 1981. Pro-nuncio in Yugoslavia, January 8, 1985. Nuncio with special charges and chief of the Holy See permanent delegation for working contacts with the government of the Republic of Poland, April 9, 1986. Representative of the Holy See before the Russian Federation, March 15, 1990. Nuncio in Italy, November 12, 1994. Nuncio also in San Marino, April 22, 1995.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Eugenio, February 21, 1998. Special papal envoy to the closing celebrations of 5th Centennial of the Evangelization of Mozambique, Maputo, August 11 to 16, 1998.

Death. May 31, 2003, after a lengthy illness, at his family's residence in Grumo Appula, Bari. Upon learning the news of the death of the cardinal, Pope John Paul II sent telegrams of condolence to Francesco Cacucci, archbishop of Bari, and to Signora Teresa Colasuonno, sister of the late cardinal (1>. His funeral mass, presided by Cardinal Achille Silvestrini, was celebrated at the parish church of S. Maria Assunta, Grumo Appula, on Monday, June 2, 2003, at 4 p.m., with the participation, among others, of Cardinal Luigi Poggi; and Paolo Romeo, titular archbishop of Vulturia, nuncio to Italy; and Francesco Cacucci, archbishop of Bari-Bitonto. His body was placed in a beautifully crafted coffin by the local funeral home. He was buried in a specially constructed marble sarcophagus, in that parish church (2). Beside his sarcophagus stands a cabinet which holds a permanent display which includes his pastoral staff, pectoral cross, red biretta and cardinalitial ring.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograp and arms, Araldica Vaticana.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

HA SUSCITATO PROFONDA ECO NEL MIO ANIMO LA MORTE DEL SIGNOR CARDINALE FRANCESCO COLASUONNO FIGLIO ILLUSTRE DI CODESTA TERRA E DESIDERO PORGERE A LEI AL PRESBITERIO ED AI FEDELI TUTTI L’ ESPRESSIONE DEL MIO SENTITO CORDOGLIO PER IL LUTTO CHE HA COLPITO L’INTERA COMUNITA’ ECCLESIALE SPECIALMENTE LA PARROCCHIA DI GRUMO APPULA (.) NEL RICORDARE CON SENTIMENTI DI VIVA AMMIRAZIONE IL FECONDO SERVIZIO ALLA CHIESA ED ALLA SANTA SEDE DEL COMPIANTO PORPORATO CHE AVEVA ASSUNTO COME MOTTO "LAETUS SERVIAM" RENDO GRAZIE A DIO PER IL DONO DI QUESTO GENEROSO PASTORE CHE CON LA SUA VITA HA ONORATO LA DIOCESI DI BARI-BITONTO E MENTRE ELEVO FERVIDE PREGHIERE PERCHE’ DIO LO ACCOLGA NEL GAUDIO ETERNO INVIO A LEI AI PRESENTI AL RITO FUNEBRE ED A QUANTI CONDIVIDONO IL DOLORE PER LA SCOMPARSA DI QUESTO FRATELLO A ME TANTO CARO LA CONFORTATRICE BENEDIZIONE APOSTOLICA SEGNO DELLA MIA INTENSA PARTECIPAZIONE

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II

APPRESA CON TRISTEZZA LA NOTIZIA DELLA MORTE DEL SUO AMATO FRATELLO IL VENERATO CARDINALE FRANCESCO COLASUONNO DESIDERO ESPRIMERE A LEI E AL SIG. GENNARO E AI FAMILIARI LA MIA PROFONDA PARTECIPAZIONE AL LORO DOLORE PENSANDO CON STIMA E AFFETTO A QUESTO CARO E BENEMERITO PORPORATO CHE HA SAPUTO SERVIRE GENEROSAMENTE E SAPIENTEMENTE LA CHIESA (.) RICORDANDO CON GRATITUDINE AL SIGNORE L’AMPIA MESSE DI BENE RACCOLTA DAL COMPIANTO CARDINALE MEDIANTE LA SUA INTENSA E PAZIENTE OPERA COME NUNZIO APOSTOLICO SPECIALMENTE IN OCCASIONE DEL SUO SERVIZIO NEI PAESI DELL’EST EUROPEO DURANTE UN PARTICOLARE E SOFFERTO PERIODO DELLA STORIA DI QUELLE NAZIONI ELEVO FERVIDE PREGHIERE A CRISTO BUON PASTORE PERCHE’ ACCOLGA IL SUO ZELANTE SERVITORE CONCEDENDOGLI IL PREMIO ETERNO PROMESSO AI GIUSTI E DI CUORE IMPARTO A LEI AI CONGIUNTI E A QUANTI NE PIANGONO LA SCOMPARSA LA CONFORTATRICE BENEDIZIONE APOSTOLICA

IOANNES PAULUS PP. II

(2) This is the inscription on his sarcophagus, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
EMINENZA REVERENDISSIMA
FRANCESCO COLASUONNO
CARDINALE
DI SANTA ROMANA CHIESA
2-1-1925    31-5-2003


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(157) 20. MONDUZZI, Dino
(1922-2006)

Birth. April 2, 1922, Brisighella, diocese of Faenza (now Faenza-Modigliana), Italy. Son of Secondo Damiano Monduzzi and Ida Ragazzini.

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Faenza (ginnasiale, liceale and theological studies); and at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome (licentiate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 22, 1945, Brisighella, by Giuseppe Battaglia, bishop of Faenza; celebrated his first mass on July 23, 1945 in archpresbyteral church of Brisighella. Further studies, Rome. Collaborator in the Catholic Action social missions in several Italian regions, especially, Calabria and Sardinia. Spiritual assistant to the agrarian reform zones of Fucino, 1954-1959. From May 1959 to 1967, entered the service of the Holy See as adjunct, and later, secretary for the audiences in the Office of the Master of the Papal Chamber. Privy chamberlain supernumerary of His Holiness, March 24, 1961; June 28, 1966; title changed to chaplain of His Holiness, March 28, 1968. From 1967-1986, secretary, and later regent of the Pontifical Household, Vatican City. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, June 6, 1970.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Capri and appointed prefect of the Pontifical Household, December 18, 1986. Consecrated, January 6, 1987, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. In the same ceremony was consecrated Gilberto Agustoni, titular archbishop of Caorle, secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy, another future cardinal. His episcopal motto was Patientiam praeficere caritati. As prefect of the Papal Household, he was in charge of, among other things, the pontifical ceremonies, excluding their liturgical aspect, and the private and public audiences of the pope. He participated in the preparation of 130 pastoral pilgrimages of Pope John Paul in Italy and 268 pastoral visits to Roman parishes. He occupied the post until his promotion to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of February 21, 1998; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Sebastiano al Palatino, February 21, 1998. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years of age, April 2, 2002. He was a chain smoker, known to rush out of papal audiences to light up a cigarette.

Death. October 13, 2006, at 1 a.m., after a long and painful illness, Vatican City. Exposed in the church of S. Stefano degli Abisini, Vatican City. On Monday October 16, at 5 p.m., in the altar of the Chair of the patriarchal Vatican basilica, took place the exequial liturgy presided by the pope. Cardinals Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, and Roger Etchegaray, sub-dean, were the main concelebrants. On Tuesday October 17, 2006, at 3 p.m., a funeral mass was celebrated in the collegiate church of Brisighella. His remains were buried in the tomb of his family in the cemetery of Brisighella.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sedel photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(158) 21. JAWORSKI, Marian
(1926-

Birth. August 21, 1926, Lwów, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). Son of Wincenty Jaworski and Stanisława Łastowiecka. His baptismal name is Marian Franciszek.

Education. Studied at the Lviv Major Seminary; then, moved to Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, Poland, in 1945; then, studied at the Jagellonian University, Kraków, where he obtained a doctorate in theology, in 1952; later, studied at Lublin Catholic University, where he earned a doctorate in philosophy, in 1954; and also, at the Warsaw Theological Academy, earning a doctorate in the philosophy of religion, in 1965.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 25, 1950, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, by Eugeniusz Baziak, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins. Vicar of Bashnia parish, Lubachiv, 1950-1952; vicar of Poronin parish. Further studies in Kraków, 1952-1954; further studies in Lublin and Warsaw, 1954-1965. Secretary of the Scientific Council of the Episcopate of Poland, 1970-1984. Dean of the Pontifical Theological Department, Kraków, 1976-1981. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, December 14, 1976. Rector of the Pontifical Theological Academy, Kraków, 1981-1987.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Lambesi and appointed apostolic administrator of Lviv for territories within Poland (Lubachiv), May 21, 1984. Consecrated, June 23, 1984, Wawel, Kraków, by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, assisted by Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz, archbishop of Wrocław, and by Jerzy Ablewicz, bishop of Tarnów. Doctor Honoris Causa of Bonn University, Germany, 1985. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lviv of the Latins, January 16, 1991. Attended the First Special Assembly of the the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991. Elected president of the Conference of Roman Catholic Bishops of Ukraine, 1992. Attended theNinth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994, by papal appointment. Apostolic administrator of Lutsk, 1996-1998. Rector of the Major Theological Seminary, Lviv-Briuhovychi, 1997. Attended the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore in the consistory of February 21, 1998; published in the consistory of February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Sisto, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned 80 years old, August 21, 2006. On October 21, 2008, the pope accepted his resignation from the pastoral government of the see according to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law.

Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 179-180; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, pp. 383-398.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biographical data, in Ukrainian, archdiocese of Lviv; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms Araldica Vaticana.


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(159) 22. PUJATS, Jānis
(1930-

Birth. November 14, 1930, Nautrēni, archdiocese of Riga (now diocese of Rēzekne-Aglona), Latvia. From a profoundly Catholic family. His father was a farmer. He had four sisters and three brothers; two brothers also became priests. His last name, Pujats, means cardinal in Latvian, but not referring to church hierarchy.

Education. After finishin his studies at the seondary school of Rezekne in 1948, he entered the Theological Seminary, Riga; the Seminary was closed by the Soviet authorities on January 18, 1951; the persecution of the Catholic Church increased. Archbishop Antonijs Springovics of Riga decided (with papal permission) to ordain all students of the 3rd year and up. Besides his native Latvian, he is fluent in Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, German and Latin. He is the only prelate who spoke exclusively Latin at the Synod of Bishops of 1991, 1994, 1999, 2001 and 2005.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 29, 1951, in secret, by Archbishop Antonijs Springovics in his private chapel. On April 15, 1951, he celebrated his first mass at the parish of Jaunavas Marijas Debesīs Uznemšanas in Preiļi; pastoral ministry in this parish until July 3, 1951. From July 3, 1951 to September 22, 1953, parish priest of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Zosna of Sv. Ercenéīa Miķeīa in Balta; and of Jaunavas Marijas in Dukstigals; in addition, he was also chaplain of Sv. Krusta pagodināšanas in Rozentova. From September 22, 1953 to October 13, 1954 chaplain of Sv. Anna in Bērži. From October 13, 1954 to April 8, 1957, parish priest of Sv. Jēkaba in Rudzāti. From April 8, 1957 to February 28, 1958, parish priest of Sv. Laurencija in Stirnienē. From February 28 to June 28, 1958, chaplain of Sv. Alberta in Riga and Sv. Pētera in Pēternieki. From June 28, 1958 to July 1, 1959, parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga. From July 1, 1959 to March 7, 1962, chaplain of Sv. Franciska (seminary church) in Riga. From March 7, 1962 to April 22, 1964, chaplain of Sāpju Dievmāātes in Riga. From April 22, 1964 to October 11, 1966, parish priest of Sv. Antona in Riga. From October 11, 1966 to November 9, 1979, professor of history and liturgy at the Theological Seminary of Riga and vicar of St. Franciskus Seminary Church. Chaplain of His Holiness, November 14, 1972. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 28, 1974. Vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga, from November 9, 1979 to December 27, 1984; concurrently, since 1981, archpriest of the cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga. Secretary of the liturgical commission and chaplain at St. Franciskus Seminary Church, December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Declared persona non grata by the Soviet authorities and expelled from his duties as vicar general of the archdiocese of Riga; he was impeded from December 27, 1984 to December 22, 1987. Inspector of the Theological Seminary of Riga, October 9, 1986; professor for history and liturgy and faculty member of the Theological Seminary of Riga and dean of the deanate of Riga, December 22, 1987 to June 1, 1991. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 23, 1988. Parish priest of Kristus Karaļa in Riga from January 26, 1989. Head of the commission for the implementation of the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council in the Latvian parishes. Published the first Missal in Latvian language.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Riga, May 8, 1991. Consecrated, June 1, 1991, metropolitan cathedral of Sv. Jākaba, Riga, by Francesco Colasuonno, titular archbishop of Tronto, representative of the Holy See in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, assisted by Jānis Cakuls, titular bishop of Tinista, auxiliary of Riga, and by Vilhelms Nukss, titular bishop of Acci, auxiliary of Riga. His episcopal motto is Ad Jesum per Mariam. Attended the First Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Europe, Vatican City, November 28 to December 14, 1991; the Ninth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994, by papal appointment; the Second Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 1 to 23, 1999. On June 29, 1998, he was elected first president of the Latvian Bishops Conference after it was established November 15, 1997.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal and reserved in pectore, February 21, 1998; published, February 21, 2001; received the red biretta and the title of S. Silvia, February 21, 2001. Attended the Tenth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 27, 2001. On October 26, 1998, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Latvia (Triju Zvaigžņu Ordenis). On April 19, 2004, he was decorated with the cross of merit, third class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana). Participated in the conclave of April 18 to 19, 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. On September 7, 2005, he was decorated with the cross of merit, second class, of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (Krzyź Zasługi). Attended the Eleventh General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 23, 2005. Resigned the pastoral government of the metropolitan see of Riga on June 19, 2010; the pope appointed Father Zbigņevs Stankevičs, spiritual director at the Theological Seminary in Riga and director of the Religion Research Institute of Riga. The cardinal was apostolic administrator of the archdiocese until the installation of his successor on August 21, 2010. Chaplain in the parish of Sāpju Dievmātes in Riga since September 1, 2010. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on November 14, 2010.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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UHAC, Josip
(1924-1998)

Birth. July 20, 1924, Brsec (Moschiena), apostolic administration of Fiume (1), Italy (now archdiocese of Rijeka, Croatia).

Education. Studied at the Seminary of Fiume; at the Seminary of Venice; at the Seminary of Gorizia from 1943 to 1945 (theology); at the Pontifical Roman Seminary; at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, from 1945 to 1954, obtaining doctorates in theology in 1951; and in canon law in 1954; and at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, for two years (diplomacy).

Priesthood. Ordained, April 16, 1949, Rome. In Rome, pastoral ministry in the church of S. Girolamo degli Illirici and further studies, 1949-1954. Joined the Vatican diplomatic service, March 1, 1954. Secretary of the nunciature in Panamá, 1954-. Privy chamberlain supernumerary, March 25, 1955; October 28, 1958; June 21, 1963. Secretary of the nunciature in Egypt (United Arab Republic); auditor of the nunciature in Germany; of the nunciature in Spain; counselor (1967-1970). Prelate of honor of His Holiness, February 16, 1967.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tharros and appointed pro-nuncio in Pakistan, June 23, 1970. Consecrated, September 5, 1970, Rijeka, by Viktor Buric, archbishop of Rijeka-Senj, assisted by Dragutin Nežic, bishop of Porec i Pula, and by Josip Pavlišic, titular archbishop of Petina, coadjutor of Rijeka-Senj. Pro-nuncio in Cameroun and apostolic delegate in Equatorial Guinea, October 7, 1976 and pro-nuncio in Gabon, January 15, 1977. Pro-nuncio in Zaire, June 3, 1981. Nuncio in Germany, August 3, 1984. Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of the Peoples, June 21, 1991. President of the Pontifical Missionary Works, 1991-1995. Attended the Special Assembly of the Synod of Bishops for Africa, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994.

Cardinalate. Was to be created cardinal in the consistory of February 21, 1998, but died January 18, 1998, a few hours before the consistory was announced. He had been informed of his promotion to the cardinalate three days earlier.

Death. January 18, 1998, Rome. Buried, parish church of Saint George, Brsec, archdiocese of Rijeka-Senj, Croatia.

Bibliography. Bergh, Hendrik van. Botschafter des Papstes : 400 Jahre Nuntius in Deutschland, dem Apostolischen Nuntius, Erzbischof Guido Del Mestri, zu seinem Abschied von Deutschland. Berg, Starnberger See 3 : Türmer Verlag, 1984, pp. 299-300.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia.

(1) The apostolic administration of Fiume was erected on April 30, 1920. It became a diocese on April 25, 1925. It was also known by the names of Rijeka, Rieka and Sankt Veit am Flaum. On September 27, 1969, it was elevated to metropolitan see and united with Senj. On May 25, 2000, they were separated. Rijeka remained a metropolitan see and Senj became a diocese with the name of Senj-Gospić. Fiume was originally a Roman settlement and it later was part of the Byzantine Empire. From the 9th century, it became an independent duchy. In the 15th century it was under Austrian control. In the 18th century it became a free port, was united to Croatia, and gained autonomy under the Hungarian crown. It was held by France during the Napoleonic era. After the First World War, it was contended for by Italy and Yugoslavia. Italy occupied it in 1919. A year later, it was set up as an independent free city. In 1922, it was occupied by Italy; and in 1924 it was ceded by Yugoslavia. During the Second World War, it was occupied by Germany from 1943 to 1945, and then liberated by Yugoslavia. It was transferred to Yugoslavia by the Italian peace treaty of 1947. In 1991, it became part of independent Croatia.

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