The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

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Consistory of November 20, 2010

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November 20, 2010 (III)
Following the general audience of October 20, 1010, the Holy Father announced the names of twenty-four prelates who will be created cardinals in a consistory due to be held on 20 November, eve of the Solemnity of Christ the King. The consistory will be the third of his pontificate.

"Cardinals", said the pope, "have the task of helping Peter's Successor carry out his mission as permanent and visible source and foundation of the Church's unity of faith and communion."
Twenty of the new cardinals, being under the age of eighty, will be electors. Their names are:

(39) 1. Angelo Amato, S.D.B., titular archbishop of Sila, prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints.
(40) 2. Antonios Naguib, patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, Egypt.
(41) 3. Robert Sarah, archbishop emeritus of Conakry, Guinea, president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum.
(42) 4. Francesco Monterisi, titular archbishop of Alba marittima, archpriest of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura.
(43) 5. Fortunato Baldelli, titular archbishop of Bevagna, penitentiary major.
(44) 6. Raymond Leo Burke, archbishop emeritus of St. Louis, United States of America, prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.
(45) 7. Kurt Koch, archbishop-bishop emeritus of Basel, Switzerland, president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity.
(46) 8. Paolo Sardi, titular archbishop of Sutri, pro-patron of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church.
(47) 9. Mauro Piacenza, titular archbishop of Vittoriana, prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy.
(48) 10. Velasio de Paolis, C.S., titular archbishop of Telepte, president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
(49) 11. Gianfranco Ravasi, titular archbishop of Villamagna di Proconsolare, president of the Pontifical Council for Culture and of the Pontifical Commissions for the Patrimony of the Church and of Sacred Archeology.
(50) 12. Medardo Joseph Mazombwe, archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, Zambia.
(51) 13. Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga, archbishop emeritus of Quito, Ecuador.
(52) 14. Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya, archbishop of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
(53) 15. Paolo Romeo, archbishop of Palermo, Italy.
(54) 16. Donald William Wuerl, archbishop of Washington, United States of America.
(55) 17. Raymundo Damasceno Assis, archbishop of Aparecida, Brazil.
(56) 18. Kazimierz Nycz, archbishop of Warsaw, Poland.
(57) 19. Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don, archbishop of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
(58) 20. Reinhard Marx, archbishop of Münich und Freising, Germany.

Having pronounced the names of the new cardinal electors, the pope then indicated that he had also decided to elevate to the dignity of cardinal "two prelates and two priests", all over the age of eighty and hence non-electors, for their "generosity and dedication in the service of the Church." Their names are:
(59) 21. José Manuel Estepa Llaurens, general military vicar emeritus of Spain.
(60) 22. Elio Sgreccia, titular bishop of Zama minore, former president of the Pontifical Academy for Life.
(61) 23. Walter Brandmüller, former president of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences.
(62) 24. Domenico Bartolucci, maestro emeritus of the Cappella Musicale Pontificia Sistina.

Pope Benedict XVI Consistory for new cardinals 20.11.2010, video, CTV, YouTube, published on Sep 10, 2014.


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(39) 1. AMATO, S.D.B., Angelo
(1938-

Birth. June 8, 1938, Molfetta, Italy. His father was a shipbuilder. He was the eldest of four children.

Education. Elementary education at the school of the Salesian Sisters of the Sacred Heart, Bari; secondary education at Nautical School, Bari. Entered the Congregation of St. Francis of Sales of St. John Bosco (Salesians) in Torre Annunziata in 1953; novitiate in Portici Bellavista, from 1955 to 1956; he did his first profession on August 16, 1956. Finished secondary education in 1959, in Gymnasium San Gregorio in Catania; from 1959-1962, studied at the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome (licentiate in philosophy). Made his final profession on June 28, 1962. From 1962 to 1964, he studied at the Salesian University, Brindisi; from 1964 to 1967, at the Pontifical Salesian University, Rome; and at the Pontifical Gregorian University (doctorate in theology, 1974; dissertation: I pronunciamenti tridentini sulla necessità della confessione sacramentale nei canoni 6-9 della Sessione XIV (The Tridentine pronouncements on the need for sacramental confession in canons 6-9, Session XIV), relator was Father Zoltan Alszeghy, S.J. Post graduate studies at the Faculty of Theology of the University of Thessaloniki, from 1978-1979. Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French, Greek and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 22, 1967, Rome. He celebrated his first mass in the chapel of the Eucharist in the patriarchal Vatican basilica. Ordinary professor of dogmatic theology at the Pontifical Salesian University; later, dean of its theological faculty, 1981-1987 and 1994-1999; its vice-rector, 1997-2000. In the late 1970s, he lived for nearly two years (1978-1979) in Greece as a fellow of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, where he deepened his knowledge in Orthodox theology and spirituality. Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity, and of Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialog. Also, counselor of the Pontifical Marian International Academy and of the Pontifical Academy of Theology. From 1996 to 2000, he was member of the Pontificial Historical-Theological Commission for the Jubilee Year of 2000. He has authored numerous books and articles (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sila and appointed secretary of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, December 19, 2002; he worked closely with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of that congregation. Consecrated, January 6, 2003, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Leonardo Sandri, titular archbishop of Cittanova, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Antonio Maria Vegliò, titular archbishop of Eclano, secretary of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. His episcopal motto is Sufficit Gratia Mea. Named prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints, July 9, 2008.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria in Aquiro on that same day. On December 5, 2011, he was named president of the 23rd International Mariological Marian Congress, which took place from September 4 to 9, 2012, at the Auditorium Antonianum, Pontifical Antonianum University, Viale Manzoni 1, Rome. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed "donec aliter provideatur'" (until something else is provided for) as prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization".

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; photograph and biography, in Italian, Wkipedia; photograph and biography, in French, Wikipedia; arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana; Una vita da mediano by Gianni Cardinale, in Italian, 04 - 2004, 30Giorni, mensile internazionale diretto da Giulio Andreotti; Card. Amato: martyred Syrian bishop a model of holiness, audio, Vatican radio, 27/08/2015 15:12; Card. Amato: Mayr-Nusser, martire per aver detto "no" a Hitler, audio, Radio Vaticana, 2017-03-16; Quando i poveri cantano il Magnificat. Ad Aparecida il cardinale Amato parla della pietà popolare dell’America latina, L'Osservatore Romano, 12 agosto 2017; Nuova via per la santità. Il cardinale Amato sul motuproprio «Maiorem hac dilectionem» by Nicola Gori, L'Osservatore Romano, 25 agosto 2017.

(1) Among the books are Trinità in contesto (1994); La Catechesi al traguardo. Studi sul Catechismo della Chiesa Cattolica (1997); Il Vangelo del Padre (1999); Maria e la Trinità. Spiritualità mariana ed esistenza cristiana - Alma Mater (2000); Gesù, il Signore. saggio di cristologia, settima edizione (2008); Gesù, Identità del Cristianesimo (2008); Il Celibato di Gesù (2010); I Santi nella Chiesa (2010); and Catholicism and Secularism in Contemporary Europe, (2010); I santi, testimoni della fede (Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2012).


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(40) 2. NAGUIB, Antonios
(1935-

Birth. March 18, 1935, Samalout, eparchy of Minya of the Copts, Egypt. His father was a merchant and his mother dedicated herself entirely to raising the children. He is the second of seven children, four boys and three girls; the eldest child, Marie Georgette, is today superior general of the Egyptian Congregation of the Sacred Heart. His name before his priestly ordination was Antoun.

Education. Primary schooling at the Franciscan Sisters in Beni-Suef; secondary education at the Coptic Seminary in Cairo; he then entered the Seminary of Maadi; and later, he attended the Pontifical Collegio Urbaniano de Propaganda Fide, Rome, from 1953 until 1958; after finishing his studies, went back to Egypt to serve his military service; then, a year later, he returned to Rome and obtained a licentiate in theology and a diploma in religious sociology in 1962; and one in Sacred Scriptures in 1964, from the Pontifical Biblical Institute. Besides his native Arabic, he knows Italian, French, English and German.

Priesthood. Ordained, October 30, 1960, Minya. He was pastor for a year at El-Fikryak, Minya. Further studies in Rome, 1962-1964. Professor of Sacred Scriptures in the Interritual Seminary of Maadi, Cairo, from 1964. He collaborated with group of Protestant and Orthodox specialists preparing the Arabic translation of biblical texts.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Minya of the Copts, July 26, 1977. Consecrated, September 9, 1977, Minya, by Cardinal Stephános I Sidarouss, C.M., assisted by Youhanna Nuer, bishop of Assiut of the Copts, by Youhanna Kabes, titular bishop of Cleopatride, by Andraos Ghattas, bishop of Luqsor of the Copts, and by Athanasios Abadir, titular bishop of Appia. His episcopal motto is Caritas Veritas. Resigned the pastoral government of the eparchy because of reasons of health, September 29, 2002. Elected patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, March 30, 2006. Pope Benedict XVI granted him the ecclesiastical communio, April 7, 2006. President of the Synod of the Coptic-Catholic Church in Egypt and president of the Catholic Bishops Conference of Egypt. Relator general of the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 10 to 24, 2010; elected member of the Special Council for the Middle East of the Secretariat General of the Synod of Bishops, October 23, 2010.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal patriarch in the consistory of November 20, 2010. As cardinal patriarch of the Oriental Church he was not assigned a title. Instead of the red biretta, he received a black headdress proper of the Oriental rite prelates. On December 31, 2011 he was struck by a brain hemorrhage. Bishop Kyrillos Kamal William Samaan, O.F.M., of Assiut, was named vicar, with full powers, to assist the cardinal patriarch in his duties, according to canon 132 of the Code of Canons of the Oriental Churches. On January 15, 2013, his resignation from the office of patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts was accepted by the Synod of the Catholic Coptic Church, after consultation with Pope Benedict XVI. On that same day, the synod elected Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak, until then bishop of Minya of the Copts, Egypt, new patriarch. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eitghty years old on March 18, 2015.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms and photograph, Araldica Vaticana.


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(41) 3. SARAH, Robert
(1945-

Birth. June 15, 1945, Ourous, district of Koundara, apostolic vicariate of Conakry (now archdiocese), Guinea. He is second-generation Christian. He is the only child of Alexandre Sarah and Claire Nemelo, two exemplary Christians.

Education. Initial studies in Ourous; in 1957, he entered the Seminary of Bingerville, Ivory Coast. On October 2, 1958, Guinea became independent after the referendum of September 28. The Guinean seminarists who were studying in Bingerville returned to the new country and entered the Seminary of Dixinn in 1960, but only for a year because on August 15, 1961, the Democratic Party of Guinea nationalized all the private Catholic schools including the Seminary of Dixinn. After staying in their respective parishes, the seminarians, including Robert Sarah, gathered at the locals of the parish of Sainte Croix, Kindia, waiting for the opening of the Seminary Jean XXIII, situated 135 kilometers from Conakry; after obtaining a baccalaureate in 1964, young Robert was sent to France to study at the Grand Seminary of Nancy. But because of the political relations between France and Guinea, he had to go to Sébikotane, Sénégal, to finish his theological formation. Later, in 1964, he was sent to study at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and at the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum of Jerusalem, where he obtained a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures. He returned to Guinea in 1974. He speaks French, English and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 20, 1969, cathedral of Sainte Marie, Conakry, by Raymond-Maria Tchidimbo, C.S.Sp., archbishop of Conakry. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Conakry. Further studies in Rome and Jerusalem, 1969 to 1974. Upon returning to Guinea, he was parish priest of Boké from 1974 to 1976. Then, director and professor at the Seminary Jean XXIII of Kindia from 1976 to 1978. In April 1978, he became private secretary of Mgr Louis Barry, the apostolic administrator of Conakry. Pastor of the parishes of Boké, Katace, Koundara and Ourous. Apostolic administrator of Kankan from August 23, 1979 until November 17, 1993.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Conakry, August 13, 1979. Consecrated, December 8, 1979, cathedral of Notre-Dame, Conakry, by Cardinal Giovanni Benelli, archbishop of Florence, assisted by Luc Auguste Sangaré, archbishop of Bamako, Mali, and by Jean Pierre Marie Orchampt, bishop of Angers, France. His episcopal motto is Sufficit tibi gratia mea. At that time he was the world's youngest bishop. President of the Bishops' Conference of Guinea. President of the Bishops' Conference of the francophone West-Africa (CERA). Head of the Catholic Bible Federation for Africa and Madagascar (BICAM). Named secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, October 1, 2001. On that same date he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Conakry. Named president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum on October 7, 2010.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giovanni Bosco in via Tuscolana on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 12, 2014. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On November 23, 2014, he was named prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. Appointed member of the Pontifical Committee for the International Eucharistic Councils on March 10, 2015. On October 22, 2015, he was elected member of the 14th Ordinary Council of the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. He is patron of The London Oratory Schola Cantorum.

Bibliography. Sarah, Robert ; Diat, Nicolas. God or Nothing. San Francisco, California : Ignatius Press, 2015; Sarah, Robert ; Diat, Nicolas. The Power of Silence. Against the Dictatorship of Noise. San Francisco, California : Ignatius Press, 2017.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; his arms, I Nostri Avi, Forum Italiano della Commissione Internazionale permanente per lo Studio degli Ordini Cavallereschi, dell'Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano e di Famiglie Storiche d'Italia; his arms, Araldica Vatciana; Cardinal Robert Sarah: "The Pope supports the freedom of Cuban and Mexican people" by Domenico Agasso Jr., Vatican Insider, 03/23/2012; Cardinal Sarah: The man overseeing the charity works of the Church, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-10 10:00:00; Cardenal africano: Grupos de presión buscan cambiar enseñanza de la Iglesia sobre la homosexualidad by Andrea Gagliarducci, ACI, Roma, 16 Oct. 14 / 06:09 pm; Cardinal Sarah is new Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 11/24/2014; A Pope from Black Africa by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, April 10, 2015; Cardinal Sarah: efforts to 'soften' Christ's teaching ignore the Good News of mercy, The Pilot, Sep 23, 2015, CNA/EWTN News; Cardinal Sarah Warns of 'Eclipse of God' by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, 12/17/2015; The unstoppable rise of Cardinal Sarah by Fr Mark Drew, Catholic Herald, Thursday, 10 Mar 2016; Cardinal Sarah: Priests Don't Have to Wash Women's Feet on Holy Thursday by Diane Montagna, Aleteia, Vatican City, March 15, 2016; Cardenal Sarah: Sacerdotes no están obligados a lavar pies de mujeres en Jueves Santo, ACI, Rome, 17 Mar. 16 / 01:02 pm; 'We must protect the family from the devil's attacks,' Cardinal Sarah tells faithful, Catholic Herald, Wednesday, 18 May 2016; Cardinal Sarah : comment remettre Dieu au cœur de la liturgie by Aymeric Pourbaix, Famille Chrétienne, Núméro 2002, 23/05/2016; Cardinal Sarah: 'How to Put God Back at the Center of the Liturgy', translated by Christine Broesamle, National Catholic Register, 05/30/2016; Vatican liturgy chief urges priests to celebrate Mass facing east, Catholic Herald, Thursday, 26 May 2016; What's Behind Cardinal Sarah's Ad Orientem Call? by Christopher Carstens, National Catholic Register, 06/03/2016; Cardinal Robert Sarah Makes the Case for Christ-Centered Liturgy, National Catholic Register, 06-09-15; Cardinal Sarah Promotes Advent Launch of 'Ad Orientem' Liturgical Renewal by Daniel Blackman, National Catholic Register, London, 07/06/2016; Cardinal Sarah Calls on All Priests to Celebrate Mass Facing East by Edward Pentin, Natiocanl Catholic Register, 07/06/2016; Cardinal Sarah asks priests to start celebrating Mass facing east this Advent by Dan Hitchens, Catholic Herald, Tuesday, 5 Jul 2016; Cardenal Sarah propone importante cambio para la Misa desde Adviento by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI, Londres, 06 Jul. 16 / 01:38 pm; A Pastor Reflects on Cardinal Sarah's Call to Face East Together by Msgr. Charles Pope, National Catholic Register, Washington, D.C., 07/06/2016; Holy See Press Office Communiqué: Some clarifications on the celebration of Mass, 11.07.2016; No están previstas nuevas directivas litúrgicas, explica el portavoz del Vaticano, Zenit, Roma, 11 junio 2016; Vaticano aclara afirmaciones del Cardenal Sarah sobre la celebración de la Misa by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI, Vaticano, 11 Jul. 16 / 12:30 pm; Vatican spokesman wades into ad orientem debate, The Boston Pilot, 7/12/2016; 'Ad Orientem': Right Worship Leads to Right Conduct by Msgr. C. Eugene Morris, National Catholic Register, 07/13/2016; Cardinal Sarah and the Vatican: what people are saying, Catholic Herald, Wednesday, 13 Jul 2016; Battle Over 'Ad Orientem' Mass Heats Up at Vatican by Daniel Blackman, National Catholic Register, 07/14/2016; Cardinal Sarah Blesses Debut Album of London Boys Choir by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Feb. 17, 2017; The London Oratory Schola Cantorum; Cardinal Sarah on Devastation to the Liturgy, Paths to Authentic Reform by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Mar. 31, 2017; True liturgy is a reflection of heaven, Cardinal Sarah says, CNA/EWTN News, Cologne, Germany, Mar 31, 2017 / 05:12 pm; La Misa es un reflejo del Cielo, dice Cardenal Sarah, ACI, Vaticano, 02 Abr. 17 / 02:10 pm; Cardinal Sarah: ‘Liturgy Must Reform Itself to Be More Faithful to Its Mystical Essence’, CNA/EWTN News, National Catholic Register, Vatican, Apr. 3, 2017; Cardinal Robert Sarah Discusses the Sublimity of Silence by Joan Frawley Desmond , National Catholic Register, Apr. 5, 2017; Cardenal Sarah: San Juan de Ávila es ejemplo de vida santa y celo apostólico by Blanca Ruiz, ACI, Madrid, 10 May. 17 / 06:40 am; Cardenal Sarah: El silencio es más importante que toda obra humana porque allí habla Dios by Blanca Ruiz, ACI, Córdoba, 12 May. 17 / 08:12 pm; Benedict XVI: The Liturgy Is in “Good Hands” With Cardinal Sarah by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, May 18, 2017; Benedict XVI: Cardinal Sarah is the right man to guard the liturgy by Nick Hallett, Catholic Herlad, posted Thursday, 18 May 2017; Cardinal Sarah Has the Pope On His Side. But His Name Is Benedict by Sandro Magister, L'Espresso, Maggio 19, 2017; Benedicto XVI: Con el Cardenal Sarah la liturgia está en buenas manos, ACI, Roma, 19 May. 17 / 01:27 pm; Cardinal Sarah: We Need Silence, to Hold to Doctrine and to Pray by Edward Pentin, National Catholi Register, May. 25, 2017; Cardenal encargado de la liturgia en la Iglesia explica qué es el temor de Dios, ACI, Vaticano, 26 May. 17 / 03:37 pm; Cardenal Sarah: La Iglesia se seculariza cuando reduce la fe a la medida humana, ACI, Vaticano, 29 May. 17 / 02:10 am; Cardinal Sarah: Criticisms of Benedict XVI are ‘diabolical’ by Nick Hallett, Catholic Herald, posted Wednesday, 7 Jun 2017; El monje moribundo que inspiró al Cardenal Sarah a escribir su libro sobre el silencio, ACI, Vaticano, 13 Jun. 17 / 03:23 pm; Cardenal Sarah: Obispos y sacerdotes “humillan” a gays al no llamarlos a la castidad by Diego López Marina, ACI, Vaticano, 17 Jun. 17 / 12:53 pm; From Cardinal Sarah, a Humble Lesson on Style by Sandro Magister, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, luglio 20, 2017; Cardinal Sarah’s challenge to traditionalists by Father Raymond de Souza, Catholic Herald, posted Thursday, 20 Jul 2017; Could Cardinal Sarah Bring an End to the Liturgy Wars?, by Kathy Schiffer, National Catholic Register July 22, 2017; Cardinal Sarah: The new revolutionaries are trying to destroy the Christian family by Nick Hallett, Catholic Herald, posted Wednesday, 16 Aug 2017; Cardenal Sarah: Revolucionarios del género quieren destruir a la familia cristiana by Walter Sánchez Silva, ACI, Roma, 18 Ago. 17 / 08:13 pm; Liturgy. The Counterstatement of Cardinal Sarah by Sandro Magister, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, 29 ago 2017; Cardinal Sarah Builds a Bridge to Christ’s True Peace and Joy by Father Gerald Murray, National Catholic Register, Sep 1, 2017; Cardinal Sarah Confutes the Pro-Gay Jesuit by Sandro Magister, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, 01 set 2017; Vatican cardinal critiques Jesuit Martin on homosexuality by Christopher White, Crux, September 1, 2017; Cardenal Sarah aclara a sacerdote jesuita cómo evangelizar a homosexuales, ACI, Washington, 01 Sep. 17 / 05:51 pm; Card. Sarah schools Jesuit homosexualist activist James Martin by Father John Zuhlsdorf, National Catholic Register, 1 September 2017; “Silence and the Primacy of God in the Sacred Liturgy”: Address by His Eminence Card. Sarah by Gregory DiPippo, New Liturgical Movement, Thursday, September 14, 2017; Cardinal Sarah Confirms Vatican Retains Last Word on Translations by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Vatican, Oct. 13, 2017.


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(42) 4. MONTERISI, Francesco
(1934-

Birth. May 28, 1934, Barletta, archbishopric of Trani e Barletta (now archdiocese of Trani-Barletta-Bisceglie), Italy. Son of Domenico Monterisi and Palma Di Paola. His baptismal name is Francesco Marco Nicola. One of his grand-uncles, Nicola, was archbishop of Salerno; and another, Ignazio, was bishop of Potenza e Marsico Nuovo. Another member of the family was Father Giuseppe Filograssi, professor of theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University of Rome.

Education. After his elementary and secondary studies in Barletta, he entered the Pontifical Minor Seminary, Rome; and then, the Pontifical Major Seminary, Rome; later, from 1951 to 1958, he studied at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in theology; after finishing his studies, he returned home; he was called back to Rome in 1961 to study diplomacy at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy; at the same time, he studied canon law at the Pontifical Lateran University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law in 1964. Besides his native Italian, he speaks English, French, German and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 16, 1957, in the cathedral of Barletta. Vice-rector and spiritual director of the Seminary of Biscelgie, 1958-1961. Professor at the Regional Seminary of Molfetta, 1960-1961. Further studies in Rome, from 1961 to 1964. Entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See on July 1, 1964, as addetto di nunziatura, in the apostolic delegation in Madagascar. Two years later, he was named secretary of the nunciature in Egypt. From 1970, he worked at Council for Public Affairs of the Church, at the Vatican.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Alba marittima and appointed nuncio in South Korea, December 24, 1982. Consecrated, January 6, 1983, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, former archbishop of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. His episcopal motto is Fortitudo mea Dominus. Resigned the pro-nunciature in South Korea, June 20, 1987. From 1987 to 1990, official in the Secretariat of State, section relations with states; and professor at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. Named delegate for the pontifical representations on August 28, 1990. He was nuncio to Bosnia i Herzegovina from June 11, 1993 to March 7, 1998; while in that post, he remained as delegate for the pontifical representations. In April 1992, an international armed conflict erupted in Bosnia i Herzegovina; it lasted until December 1995; after it ended, Nuncio Monterisi was recalled to Rome. He was named secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and of the College of Cardinals on March 7, 1998. He was secretary of the conclave of 2005, which elected Pope Benedict XVI. Named archpriest of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, July 3, 2009.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Paolo alla Regola on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches; for the Causes of the Saints; and counselor of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on October 24, 2012. Ceased as archpriest of the papal basilica of S. Paolo fuori le mura on November 23, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On May 25, 2013, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the sixth centennial of the finding of the statue of the "Madonna della Libera", which took place Cercemaggiore, Italy, on July 2, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. Confirmed as counselor of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on May 28, 2014. On February 27, 2016, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the Innocentian Year, called for the fourth centennial of the birth of Pope Innocent XII, which took place in Spinazzola, Italy, on March 13, 2016. On January 5, 2017, he was named special papal envoy to the celebration of the bicentennial of the diocese of Caltagirone, Italy, programmed for January 11, 2017. On October 16, 2017, he was named special papal envoy to the celebrations of the ninth centenary of the arrival of the Icon of Our Lady of Madia to Monopoli, Italy, programmed for December 15 and 16, 2017.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, araldicabarlettana stemmario, Il Cannocchiale; his arms, I Nostri Avi, Forum Italiano della Commissione Internazionale permanente per lo Studio degli Ordini Cavallereschi, dell'Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano e di Famiglie Storiche d'Italia; Ingresso di S.E. Mons. Francesco Monterisi Arciprete della Basilica di San Paolo fuori le mura, discorso del Card. Tarcisio Bertone, segretario di Stato del Santo Padre, Giovedì, 1º ottobre 2009, in Italian, Vatican.va; Archbishop Monterisi: "The Personal Prelature: a Framework which Enriches the Communion of the Church", in English, Opus Dei.


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(43) 5. BALDELLI, Fortunato
(1935-2012)

Birth. August 6, 1935, Valfabbrica, diocese of Assisi (now Assisi-Nocera Umbra-Gualdo Tadino), Italy. Of a numerous family of six boys and one girl.

Education. After finishing his primary education, he entered in 1947 the Seminary of Assisi, where he finished his secondary education; at the death of his parents, he was able to continue his formation because of the help of his brothers and the assistance of Bishop Giuseppe Placido Maria Nicolini, O.S.B., of Assisi. In 1957, the bishop sent him to the Major Roman Seminary; he attended the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, and obtained a licentiate in theology. Sent by his bishop, he studied at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, from 1964 to 1966; he studied diplomacy and obtained a doctorate in canon law. Besides his native Italian, he spoke French, Spanish and Portuguese.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, in the cathedral of S. Rufino of Assisi. From 1961 to 1964, he was vice-rector of the Minor Seminary of Assisi. In 1964, the bishop sent him to Rome to complete his studies and take courses iin diplomacy. Entered the diplomatic serivice of the Holy See in 1966. Addetto in the nunciature in Cuba from 1966 to 1967; and secretary from 1967 to 1970. Secretary in the unciature in United Arab Republic (Egypt) from 1970 to 1975. In 1975, he returned to Rome to work at the Secretariat of State; and later, he was transferred to the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church. In 1979, he was named special envoy, with functions of permanent observer of the Holy See, to the Council of Europe in Strasbourg.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Bevagna (Mevania) and appointed apostolic delegate in Angola, February 12, 1983. Consecrated, April 23, 1983 in the lower basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, assisted by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Sergio Goretti, bishop of Assisi; also concelebrating were Cesare Pagani, archbishop of Perugia; André Muaca, archbishop of Luanda; Cesare Zacchi, titular archbishop of Maura, president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy; Carlo Urru, bishop of Città di Castello; Monsignor Tiziano Scalzotto, undersecretary of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples; and other priests. Named pro-nuncio to São Tomé and Príncipe, remaining as apostolic delegate in Angola, on May 4, 1985, when that republic and the Holy See established diplomatic relations. Named nuncio in the Dominican Republic and apostolic delegate in Puerto Rico, April 20, 1991. Decorated with the grand cross silver plaque of the Order of Duarte, Sánchez y Mella of the Dominican Republic. Named nuncio in Perú, April 23, 1994. Appointed nuncio in France, June 19, 1999. Named commander of the Legion d'honneur of the Republic of France. Named penitentiary major, June 2, 2009. Participated in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, October 4 to 25, 2009, Vatican City, on the theme "The Church in Africa, at the Service of Reconciliation, Justice and Peace: You Are the Salt of the Earth; You Are the Light of the World".

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Anselmo all'Aventino on that same day. Named member of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints on December 29, 2010; and of the second section of the Secretariat of State on January 29, 2011. The pope accepted his resignation for limit of age from the charge of penitentiary major on January 5, 2012. He resided at Domus Internationalis Paolo VI, Rome.

Death. September 20, 2012, in the evening, at Istituto Internazionale del Clero in Rome. Upon learning the news of his death, Pope Benedict XVI prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent his brother a telegram of condolence (1). The funeral took place on Saturday September 22, 2012, at 6 p.m., in the altar of the Cathedra of the papal Vatican Basilica. The mass was presided over by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, who also delivered the homily and imparted the final absolution. Concelebrating were Cardinals Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, and Paul Poupard, president emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture, together with numerous other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. Following the requiem mass, his body was transferred to Casacastalda, where Domenico Sorrentino, archbishop-bishop of Assisi, presided over another mass at Santuario della Madonna dell'Olmo on Sunday September 23, at 9 am. Interment took place at the Cemetery of Valfabbrica.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in French, Wikipedia; his arms and portrait, Araldica Vaticana; Scomparso a 77 anni il cardinale Fortunato Baldelli. Il Papa: esemplare per la sua fedeltà al Vangelo, Radio Vaticana, 2012-09-21 13:12:27.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:

Preg.mo Signor Piero Baldelli
c/o Domus Internationalis Paolo VI
Via della Scrofa 70 00186 Roma

La notizia della pia dipartita del Suo diletto fratello, il venerato Cardinale Fortunato Baldelli, Penitenziere Maggiore emerito, suscita nel mio animo affettuoso rimpianto e desiderio di esprimere sentimenti di profondo cordoglio a Lei e agli altri Familiari e a quanti hanno conosciuto il caro porporato e lo hanno stimato per la sua esemplare testimonianza di vita cristiana e sacerdotale. Nel ricordare il solerte e fedele servizio prestato alla Santa Sede, specialmente in diverse rappresentanze diplomatiche, suscitando ovunque apprezzamento per il fervoroso zelo apostolico e la fedeltà al Vangelo, innalzo preghiere di suffragio affinché, per intercessione della Vergine Santa e di San Francesco dAssisi, il Signore accolga la Sua anima eletta nel Regno eterno della luce e della pace, mentre invio di cuore a Lei, ai Congiunti ed a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa una speciale confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

Benedictus PP. XVI

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(44) 6. BURKE, Raymond Leo
(1948-

Birth. June 30, 1948, Richland Center, diocese of La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States of America. He is the youngest of the six children of Thomas and Marie Burke. He was baptized on July 11, 1948. He was raised in Stratford, Wisconsin.

Education. He entered the Holy Cross Seminary, La Crosse, Wis., in 1966; then, attended The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., where he obtained a bachelor of arts degree in philosophy, in 1970; and a master of arts degree in philosophy, in 1971; sent to study in Rome at the Pontifical Gregorian University, he obtained a bachelor of sacred theology, in 1974; a master of arts degree in theology, in 1975; a licentiate in canon law, in 1982; a diploma in Latin letters, in 1983; and a doctorate in canon law, with specialization in jurisprudence, in 1984.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1975, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Paul VI. Associate rector, cathedral of St. Joseph the Workman, La Crosse, 1975. Instructor of Religion, Aquinas High School, La Crosse, 1977-1980. Moderator of the curia and vice-chancellor of the diocese of La Crosse, 1984. Adjunct judicial vicar of the diocese of La Crosse, 1985. Visiting professor of Canonical Jurisprudence, Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, 1985-1994. Prelate of Honor of His Holiness, 1993. Member of the College of Judges of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature; he became the first American to hold the position of Defender of the Bond of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, the Church's highest court, 1989.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of La Crosse, December 10, 1994. Consecrated, January 6, 1995, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Jorge María Mejía, titular archbishop of Apollonia, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Secundum Cor Tuum. President of the Board of Directors, National Catholic Rural Life Conference, 1996-2001. Knight Commander with Star of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre, March 12, 1997. National Director of the Marian Catechist Apostolate, 2000. President of the board of directors of the Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe, La Crosse, 2001-2008. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Saint Louis, December 2, 2003; ceased as archbishop, June 27, 2008. Apostolic Visitor for Seminaries in the United States, 2005-2006. Awarded a doctorate Honoris Causa by Ave Maria University, May 7, 2005. Named prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, June 27, 2008. He is one of the world's foremost authorities on Roman Catholic canon law. A prolific writer, he has published numerous books and articles (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Agata de' Goti on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On November 8, 2014, he ceased as prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature and was named patron of the Sovereign Order of Malta. On September 26, 2015, he was named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints. He is one of the four cardinals who presented the “dubia” to Pope Francis, seeking clarifications on the postsynodal apostolic exhortation "Amoris Laetitia" (2). In February 2017, he was named presiding judge in a church trial investigating allegations of sexual abuse leveled against Archbishop Anthony Sablan Apuron of Agaña. On September 30, 2017, the pope named him member of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature.

Bibliography. Burke, Raymond Leo ; Alançon, Guillaume. Hope for the World. To Unite All Things in Christ. San Francisco : Ignatius Press, 2016.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs, arms, works and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Official website for the Father John A. Hardon, S.J. Archive and Guild; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Raymond Leo Burke, the "great puppeteer" of American appointees by Marco Tosatti, Vatican Insider, 07/20/2011; The new frontiers of evangelization by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 04/25/2012; Cardinal Raymond Burke writes book on the Eucharist: 'Divine Love Made Flesh'', video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-19 13:00:00; Cardenal Burke: Sacerdotes no deben cambiar oraciones de la Misa, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 11 Jul. 12 / 08:15 pm; Conservative cardinal dropped from key Vatican post by John Thavis, ucanews, December 17, 2013; Burke: "I don't ever put myself in opposition to the Successor of St. Peter" by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 11/ 8/2014; Burke clarifies comments about 'resisting' Pope Francis, CNA/EWTN News, February 10, 2015; Cardinal: Communion for remarried would be 'fundamental' break with Church teaching, Catholic Herald, London, Thursday, 3 Dec 2015; Cardinal Burke leads Italians on 'March for Life' by Catholic News Service, May 10, 2016; Cardinal Burke: it's reasonable to be afraid of Islam's desire to govern the world, Catholic Herald, London, Friday, 22 Jul 2016; My mother was advised to abort me, says Cardinal Burke in new book, Catholic Herald, Monday, 25 Jul 2016; Cardinal Burke's Hope by Kathy Schiffer, National Catholic Register, 07/30/2016; Cardinal Burke Says Catechesis Is Key for the Church Today by Kathy Schiffer, National Catholuc Register, 07/30/2016; Cardinal Raymond Burke on Life, Truth, Mother Teresa, Islam, and Cardinal Sarah by Carl E. Olson, The Catholic World Report, August 30, 2016; Why Muslims need to hear both Pope Francis and Cardinal Burkeby John L. Allen Jr, Crux, September 1, 2016; Cardinal Burke Remembers Mother Teresa by Joseph Pronechen, National Catholic Register, 09/04/2016; Cardinal Burke Speaks on Attendance Drops, Liturgy, Ad Orientem and Islam by Joseph Pronechen, National Catholic Register, 09/06/2016; Church teaching on Communion cannot be changed, says Cardinal Burke, Catholic Herald, December 19, 2016; Pope probes Cardinal Burke's removal of official at center of condom scandal by Nicole Winfield, La Crosse Tribune, Dec 23, 2016; Papal critic Cardinal Burke to headline canon law conference by Dan Morris Young, National Catholic Reporter, Jan. 24, 2017; After the Grand Master, Another Head Is About To Fall: That of Cardinal Burke by Sandro Magister, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, January 29, 2017; Steve Bannon Carries Battles to Another Influential Hub: The Vatican by Jason Horowitz, Rome, The New York Times, Feb. 7, 2017; It's Not Just Cardinal Burke by Massimo Faggioli, Commonweal, February 14, 2017 - 4:19pm; Cardinal Burke sent to Guam to preside over sex abuse trial by Cindy Wooden, Crux, Rome, February 15, 2017; Cardenal Burke es enviado a Guam para supervisar juicio sobre abuso sexual, ACI, Vaticano, 17 Feb. 17 / 08:11 pm; Cardinal Burke Firmly Rejects Account by Order of Malta’s Acting Head by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Reporter, Feb. 18, 2017; Cardinal Burke aims to wrap up Guam abuse probe before summer, Catholic Herald, Monday, 20 Feb 2017; Cardinal Burke Firmly Rejects Account by Order of Malta’s Acting Head by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Feb. 18, 2017; Burke again says Pope must answer ‘Amoris’ questions by Charles Collins, Crux, Rome, March 27, 2017; Cardinal Burke’s 10 Ways to Overcome Crisis of Confusion, Division in the Church by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Aug. 8, 2017; What will Pope Francis do with Cardinal Burke? by Robert Mickens, La Crux International, Rome, August 11, 2017; Cardinal Burke Outlines Formal Correction of Pope Francis’ Teaching by Edward Pentin, Naticonal Catholic Register, Aug. 17, 2017; Cardinal Burke: Cardinal Caffarra Was Solely Inspired By Deep, Pure Love of Christ by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Sep. 6, 2017; El Papa Francisco repone al Cardenal Burke en la “Corte Suprema” del Vaticano, ACI, Vaticano, 30 Sep. 17 / 06:49 am; Pope Re-Names Cardinal Burke to Vatican’s Highest Court by Hanna Brockhaus, CNA National Catholic Register, Vatican, Sep. 30, 2017; Pope names Cardinal Burke a judge on Vatican supreme court by Cindy Wooden, Vatican City, The Pilot, CNS, 10/2/2017; Cardenal Burke: Lefebvristas están en cisma con la Iglesia Católica, ACI, Washington, 02 Oct. 17 / 07:05 pm; Cardinal Burke On His New Appointment to Church’s Highest Court by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Oct. 3, 2017; Cardinal Burke Venerates Relic of the Head of St. Thomas More by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Oct. 17, 2017.

(1) This is a list of his publications:
Divine love made flesh: The Holy Eucharist as the sacrament of charity. Catholic Action for Faith and Family, 2013;
"Prophecy for Justice," America, June 21, 2004; Vol. 190, No. 20;
Commentary on the General Directory for Catechesis. Bardstown: Eternal Life, 2002;
Rechristianize America: Become a Marian Catechist. Bardstown: Eternal Life, 2002;
"Response: Role of Law Award," Proceedings of the Sixty-second Annual Convention, Canon Law Society of America, October 2-5, 2000, pp. 495-500;
"The Bishop as Shepherd," Lay Witness, 20 (1999), No. 8, 54-55. (Reprinted as "Tending God's Flock: The Bishop as Shepherd," in Servants of the Gospel: Essays by American Bishops on Their Role as Shepherds of the Church, ed. Leon J. Surprenant, Jr. Steubenville: Emmaus Road Publishing, 2000, pp. 65-71);
"Thou Hast Given Him Dominion:' God's Plan for Man Within Creation," Be (July-August, 2001), 8-10;
"The Church and the Current Crisis in Rural America: A Time to Act," Catholic Rural Life, 41 (1999), No. 2, 4-7;
"A Crisis in Rural America," America, 181 (1999), No. 13, 8-11;
"Agricultural Ethic from the Perspective of the Christian Faith," Earth Ethics, 9 (1998), Nos. 3 & 4, 10-13;
"The Farm Crisis: What Does the Church Propose?" Origins, 27 (1997), 309-311;
"La confessio iudicialis e le dichiarazioni giudiziali delle parti." In I mezzi di prova nelle cause matrimoniali secondo la giurisprudenza rotale. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1995, pp. 15-30;
"Abogados, uniones matrimoniales irregulares y causas de nulidad matrimonial: Texto y comentario de una respuesta del Tribunal Supremo de la Signatura Apostolica." Revista Española de Derecho Canonico, 51 (1994), 639-645;
"The application of Canon 1095 and sacramental-pastoral activity concerning marriage." In Ius in vita et missione Ecclesiae: Acta Symposii Internationalis Iuris Canonici occurrente X Anniversario promulgationis Codicis Iuris Canonici diebus 19-24 aprilis 1993 in Civitate Vaticana celebrata. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1994, pp. 1095-1102;
"Doubt Concerning the Admission of Advocates Living in an Irregular Union to Patronise Marriage Cases in Diocesan Tribunals: Commentary." Forum 5 (1994), 49-55;
"The Distinction of Personnel in Hierarchically-Related Tribunals." Studia canonica 28 (1994), 85-98;
"Acta Tribunalium S. Sedis: Commentarium de responso in casu particulari de inidoneitate advocatorum qui in unione irregulari vivunt ad patrocinium in causis nullitatis matrimonii exercendum." Periodica de re canonica 82 (1993), 699-708;
"I divorziati risposati in un recente documento della Chiesa in Francia." Quaderni di diritto ecclesiale, 6 (1993), 261-279;
"Presentation", In The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches: A Study and Interpretation (Essays in Honour of Joseph Cardinal Parecattil), eds. Jose Chiramel and Kuriakose Bharanikulangara. Alwaye, India: St. Thomas Academy for Research, 1992, pp. 1-10;
"Il processo di dispensa dal matrimonio rato e non consumato: la grazia pontificia e la sua natura." In I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1992, pp. 135-144;
"La procedura amministrativa per la dichiarazione di nullità del matrimonio." In I procedimenti speciali nel diritto canonico. Città del Vaticano: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1992, pp. 93-105;
"Grave difetto di discrezione di giudizio: fonte di nullità del consenso matrimoniale." Ius Canonicum, 31 (1991), 139-154. Also in: Incapacidad consensual para las obligaciones matrimoniales, ed. José A. Fuentes. Pamplona: Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, S.A., 1991, pp. 135-154;
"The Psychology of the Christian Vocation: Interpretative Key of Canon 1095." In Iustus Iudex: Festgabe f|r Paul Wesemann zum 75 Geburtstag von Seinen Freunden und Sch|lern, eds. Klaus L|dicke, Heinrich Mussinghoff and Hugo Schwendenwein. Essen: Ludgerus-Verlag, 1990, pp. 199-213;
"Vatican Council II and Matrimonial Law: The Perspective of Canon 1095." In Vatican II: Assessment and Perspectives Twenty-Five Years After (1962-1987), Vol. 2. New York: Paulist Press, 1989, pp. 217-230;
"Canon 1095: Canonical Doctrine and Jurisprudence, Part I, Canon 1095, 10 and 20." In Proceedings of the Forty-Eighth Annual Convention, 13-16 Oct. 1986, Washington, D.C.: Canon Law Society of America, 1987, pp. 94-107;
"Canon 1095, 10 and 20", In Incapacity for Marriage: Jurisprudence and Interpretation, Acts of the Third Gregorian Colloquium. Rome: Pontificia Universitas Gregoriana, Gregorian Colloquium, 1987, pp. 79-155;
"Lack of Discretion of Judgment: Canonical Doctrine and Legislation." The Jurist, 45 (1985), 171-209;
"Defectus discretionis iudicii propter schizophreniam: doctrina et recens iurisprudentia rotalis." Periodica de re morali, canonica, liturgica, 73 (1984), 555-570;
Lack of Discretion of Judgment Because of Schizophrenia, Analecta Gregoriana, No. 238. Roma: Editrice Pontificia University, Gregoriana, 1986.
(2) The other three Cardinals were Carlo Caffarra, Joachim Meisner and Walter Brandmüller.


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(45) 7. KOCH, Kurt
(1950-

Birth. March 15, 1950, Emmenbrücke, diocese of Basel, canton of Lucerne, Switzerland.

Education. Studied theology at the University of Lucerne, Switzerland; and at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Münich, Germany. He obtained a diploma in theology in 1975. He worked as pastoral assistant in Sursee from 1975 to 1976. He was research assistant at the Faculty of Theology of the University of Lucerne from 1976 to 1981. He earned a doctorate in theology in 1987 (dissertation: "Der Gott der Geschichte. Theologie der Geschichte bei Wolfhart Pannenberg als Paradigma einer philosophischen Theologie in ökumenischer Perspektive"); he obtained the "Habilitation" in 1989.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 20, 1982, St. Eusebius, Grenchen, by Otto Wüst, bishop of Basel. From 1982 to 1985, he was chaplain in St. Marien in Bern. In 1986, lecturer in dogmatic and moral theology at the Theological Faculty Lucerne (Department of Catechesis). Further studies, 1986-1989. Professor of dogmatics, liturgy and ecumenical theology at the Theological Faculty of the University of Lucerne from 1989 until February 29, 1996. Dean of this faculty and rector of the University of Lucerne, October 1 to December 13, 1995.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Basel by the cathedral chapter on August 21, 1995; confirmed by the pope on December 6, 1995. Consecrated, January 6, 1996, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescocio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, section of General Affairs, and by Jorge María Mejía, secretary of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Ut sit in omnibus Christus primatum tenens / Christus hat in allem den Vorrang. He took possession of the see on February 23, 1996. Since February 29, 1996, Honorary Professor at the Faculty of Theology of the University of Lucerne. Vice-president of the Swiss Bishops Conference for nine years. He has served as a member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity since 2002. He has also been a member of the International Catholic-Orthodox Theological Commission and a member of the International Catholic-Lutheran Dialogue Commission. President of the Swiss Bishops Conference, 2007-2010. He is a member of the Swiss Council of Religions. Appointed president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity and promoted to the rank of archbishop, July 1, 2010. Apostolic administrator of the see until a successor is appointed. He is the author of around 70 ecumenical articles and discussion papers. Among the subjects covered are AIDS, the future of the Church and priests' celibacy. He has authored numerous books (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore in Circo Agonale on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. Confirmed as president of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity on February 19, 2014. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On July 25, 2015, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebrations of the 1500th anniversary of the foundation ot the Abbey of Saint-Maurice, Switzerland, programmed for September 22, 2015.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; bibliography, in German, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Koch: "We cannot exploit the Council for our own ends" by Giacomo Galeazzi, Vatican Insider, 05/ 4/2012; Cardinal Koch: "We can't be Catholic and not accept the Second Vatican Council', video, Rome Reports, 2012-05-17 17:05:38; Le cardinal Koch s'exprime sur Vatican II, l'œcuménisme et Ecône, Apic, Info.Catho.be, mercredi, 01 août 2012; Cardenal Koch: "Sobre el Concilio, los lefebvristas se comportan como Lutero", ACI/EWTN Noticias, 03 Ago. 12 / 09:07 pm.; "Wir brauchen eine Neuausrichtung". Kardinal Koch zu 50 Jahren Vatikanisches Konzil und zur Ökumene, domradio.de, 4.8.2012; Koch: "Il primato del Papa può aiutare comunione" by Luca Rolandi, Vatican Insider, 20/01/2014; Vatican Cardinal: Islamic State is a 'Satanic Terrorist Organization'.by Michael W. Chapman, cnsnews.com, November 19, 2015, 12:53 PM EST; Koch: incontro Francesco-Kirill, passo coraggioso, darà buoni frutti, Radio Vaticana, 2016-02-10; Card.Koch: Pope's comments opened door for encounter with Russian Orthodox leader, Vatican Radio, 2016-02-10; Messaggio da Auschwitz. A colloquio con il cardinale Koch sulla visita di Papa Francesco al campo di sterminio by Gianluca Biccini, L'Osservatore Romano, 09 agosto 2016; Koch e Hilarion celebrano a Friburgo l’incontro un anno fa tra il Papa e Kirill, Radio Vaticana, 2017-02-14; Cardenal Koch: ‘Benedicto XVI nos explicó la ‘sinfonía entre amor verdad y libertad’ by Sergio Mora, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 7 Abr. 2017; Catholic Church must bear its share of blame for the Reformation, says cardinal, Catholic News Service, posted Friday, 2 Jun 2017; Ecumenismo dei martiri. Il cardinale Koch per il ritorno a Bari della reliquia di san Nicola, L'Osservatore Romano, 29 luglio 2017.

(1) Among his books are:
The Strife of Tongues;
The Revival in Indonesia;
Wine of God: Revival in Indonesia;
Architectural Patterns for Woodcarvers;
Complete Guide to Architectural Carving;
Le conflit des langues;
Gelähmte Ökumene. Was jetzt noch zu tun ist;
Aufstand der Hoffnung. Die befreiende Lebenskraft christlicher Feste;
Erfahrungen der Zärtlichkeit Gottes. Mit den Sakramenten leben;
World without Chance;
Insieme responsabili per la nostra diocesi;
Schweigeverbot;
Sympathie Gottes. Meditationen zum Weihnachtsfestkreis;
Christliche Identität im Widerstreit heutiger Theologie : eine..; and
Motifs ornementaux : sculptures sur bois, bas-reliefs.


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(46) 8. SARDI, Paolo
(1934-

Birth. September 1, 1934, Ricaldone, a small village in Piedmont, diocese of Acqui, Italy. His father was a farmer and his mother a teacher at the primary school.

Education. After finishing the primary education in his home village, he entered the Minor Seminary in Acqui for his secondary education. After this, he entered the Major Seminary in Torino; from October 1954, he studied theology and philosophy at the Pontificial Gregorian University in Rome and obtained a licentiate in theology in 1958; later, he studied canon law at the same university and obtained a doctorate in this discipline in 1963; then, he studied jurisprudence at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1958. From 1963 he taught moral theology at the Theological Faculty of the diocese of Acqui; and later he taught the same discipline at the Theological Faculty in Turin until 1976, when he was called to the Vatican to work in the Secretariat of State. On July 30, 1978, he was named chaplain of His Holiness. On December 24, 1987, he was named prelate of honor of His Holiness. In 1992, he was appointed vice assessor of the Secretariat of State; and in 1997, he was appointed assessor.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Sutri and appointed apostolic nuncio with special responsibilities on December 10, 1996. Consecrated on January 6, 1997, in the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the secretariat of State, and by Miroslav Stefan Marusyn, titular archbishop of Cadi, secretary of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. His episcopal motto is Caritas omnia sustinet . Named vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church on October 23, 2004. In 2005 he was decorated as knight grand cross of the Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana. Named pro-patron of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta on June 6, 2009.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Maria Ausiliatrice in via Tuscolana on that same day. Named patron of the Sovereign Military and Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta on November 30, 2010. Ceased as vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, January 22, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life on March 29, 2014. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 1, 2014. On November 8, 2014, the pope accepted his resignation as patron of the Sovereign Order of Malta.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; Archbishop Paolo Sardi pro-patron of the Sovereign Order of Malta, in English, official site of the Order of Malta.


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(47) 9. PIACENZA, Mauro
(1944-

Birth. September 15, 1944, Genoa, Italy.

Education. After finishing his secondary education, he entered the Major Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa in 1964. After his ordination he was sent to Rome to complete his studies; he attended the Pontifical Lateran University, where he obtained a doctorate, summa cum laude, in canon law.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1969, metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Giuseppe Siri, archbishop of Genoa. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Genoa. Further studies in Rome. Parochial vicar of the parish of Santa Agnese e Nostra Signora del Carmine, 1970-1975. Confessor at the Major Archiepiscopal Seminary of Genoa 1973-1978. Chaplain and later archiepiscopal delegate to the University of Genoa. Professor of canon law at the Theological Faculty of Liguria. Judge at the diocesan ecclesiastical tribunals and at the Ligurian regional tribunal. Archbishop's press officer. Diocesan assistant of the ecclesial Movement of Cultural Commitment. Professor of contemporary culture and history of atheism at the Ligurian Higher Institute of Religious Studies Professor of dogmatic theology at the Diocesan Institute of Theology for the Lay "Didascaleion". He also taught theology at several state lyceums. Named canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Genoa in 1986. In 1990, he entered the service of the Roman Curia and was named capo ufficio and then undersecretary of the Congregation for the Clergy.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Vittoriana and appointed president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church, October 13, 2003. Consecrated, November 15, 2003, metropolitan cathedral of S. Lorenzo, Genoa, by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, archbishop of Genoa, assisted by Cardinal Darío Castrillón Hoyos, prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy and president of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, and by Alberto Tanasini, titular bishop of Suelli, auxiliary of Genoa. His episcopal motto is Una quies in veritate. In addition, he was named president of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archeology on August 28, 2004. Named secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy and promoted to the rank of archbishop on May 7, 2007. Named prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy on October 7, 2010. Named president of the Pontifical Foundation of Aid to the Church in Need on December 6, 2011.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the new deaconry of S. Paolo alle Tre Fontane on that same day. Named president of the Pontifical Foundation "Aid to the Church in Need" on December 7, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On September 21, 2013, the pope named him penitentiary major, transferring him from the post of prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy. He was named member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on September 12, 2014. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization".

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Congregation of the Clergy; Stones, Sounds, Colours of the House of God: Inspiring Principles for the building of churches and places for the celebration and the adoration of the Eucharist by Bishop Mauro Piacenza, in English, Agenzia Fides; Statements by the President H.E. Msgr. Mauro Piacenza, Italian, French and Spanish, Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church; Intervista con S.E. Mons. Mauro Piacenza , in Italian, October 2, 2008, YouTube; Cardinal Piacenza: "The Church loves freedom and modernity" by Andrea Tornielli, in English, Vatican Insider, 03/07/2012; «Il prete non potrà che essere sempre "uomo della misericordia"» by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 4/06/2014; Card. Piacenza: misericordia e verità non sono in contrapposizione by Iacopo Scaramuzzi, Vatican Insider, 15/01/2015; Cardinal Piacenza sends Christmas Message to Confessors, Vatican Radio, 22/12/2015 15:37; Solo los ángeles de Dios conocen el sacrificio de sacerdotes confesores, dice Cardenal, ACI, Roma, 22 Nov. 16 / 11:35 am; Cardenal Piacenza: Poner a las personas ante la verdad es la mayor misericordia by Blanca Ruiz, ACI, Madrid, 22 Feb. 17 / 07:27 pm.


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(48) 10. DE PAOLIS, C.S., Velasio
(1935-2017)

Birth. September 19, 1935, Sonnino, diocese of Latina-Terracina-Sezze-Priverno, Italy.

Education. He entered the congregation of the Missionaries of St. Charles Borromeo (Scalabrinians) at a young age and received his formation in the congregation's seminaries. He made his temporal profession on September 20, 1955, in Crespano del Grappa; and his perpetual profession on October 4, 1958, in Piacenza. After ordination, he went to Rome to continue his academic formation, obtaining n 1965 a doctorate in canon law from the canon law faculty at the Pontifical Gregorian University; a licentiate in theology from the theology faculty at the University of S. Tommaso d'Aquino (Angelicum); and a law degree at La Sapienza University in Rome. He also completed a two-year degree in moral theology at the Alphonsianum Academy.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, Piacenza. Further studies, 1961-1965. From 1965 to 1970, he was a professor of moral theology and canon law at the Theological Faculty of Piazenza and in one his own congregation's centers for philosophical and theological formation. Afterwards, he was named rector of the Scalabrinian Fathers' International College in Rome (1970-1974), while also serving as provincial vicar. In 1974, he was called to the general government of his congregation as counselor and general procurator. From 1971 to 1980, he was an extraordinary professor, and from 1983 onward, an ordinary professor of the canon law faculty at the Pontifical Gregorian University. From 1987 on, he was also named a professor at the Pontifical Urbanian University; and became dean of the Faculty of Theology in 1998. He has authored more than 200 books and articles, and is a regular contributor to the review Periodica de re canonica. He is a member of various associations dedicated to the study of canon law. Throughout all these years, he has dedicated himself to apostolic activities, especially to preaching spiritual exercises.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Telepte and appointed secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature, December 30, 2003. Consecrated, February 21, 2004, at the patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, sub-dean of the College of Cardinals, assisted by Silvano Maria Tomasi, C.S., titular archbishop of Asolo, permanent observer of the Holy See before the United Nations Organization and Specialized Institutions in Genève, and by Francesco Saverio Salerno, titular bishop of Cere, former secretary of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. His episcopal motto was Iustitia in Caritate. Named president of the prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. Promoted to the rank of archbishop, April 12, 2008. Appointed pontifical delegate for the Congregation of the Legionaries of Christ on July 9, 2010.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of Gesù Buon Pastore alla Montagnola on that same day. He is the first Scalabrinian cardinal in history. Member of the Congregations: for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments; of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts; and of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature. On May 4, 2011, he was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. On September 21, 2011, the pope accepted his resignation because of age limit from the charge of president of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. On November 10, 2011, he was named member of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (APSA). Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Causes of the Saints on December 19, 2013. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on September 19, 2015.

Death. September 9, 2017, in the morning, in Rome. Pope Francis sent a telegram of condolence to Angelo De Paolis, brother of the late cardinal (1). The exequies took place on Monday September 11, 2017, at 9 a.m. in the Vatican basilica, presided by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, who also delivered the homily. Concelebrating with him were twenty one cardinals, eight archbishops and bishops and eighty priests. The late cardinal was buried in the chapel of the scalabriniani in the Roman Campo Verano Cemetery.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photographs and biography, in Italian, Santi e Beati; arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Pope's envoy for Legion ends mandate by Nicole Winfield, AP, Yahoo News, February 25, 2014 4:59 PM; Velasio De Paolis: "Chi sbaglia va corretto, la dottrina resta chiara" by Orazio La Rocca, Reppublica, 24 giugno 2015; Si è spento oggi a Roma il card. Velasio De Paolis, Radio Vaticana, 09/09/2017 13:58; Fallece Cardenal que estuvo a cargo de reforma de los Legionarios de Cristo, ACI, Vaticano, 09 Sep. 17 / 09:51 am; Cardinal who led reform of Legionaries, Regnum Christi dead at 81 by Carol Glatz, CNS, Vatican City, 9/11/2017; Le esequie del cardinale Velasio De Paolis, 11 settembre 2017, L'Osservatore Romano, 11-12 settembre 2017.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from L'Osservatore Romano, Anno CLVII n. 208 (47.642), Città del Vaticano, lunedì-martedì 11-12 settembre 2017, p. 6:
Ho appreso con tristezza la notizia della scomparsa del suo amato fratello, il signor cardinale Velasio De Paolis, C.S., dopo lunga e dolorosa malattia, da lui vissuta con animo sereno e fiducioso abbandono alla volontà del Signore. Desidero esprimere a lei, ai fratelli, alla sorella e a tutti i familiari la mia sentita partecipazione al lutto che colpisce quanti conobbero e stimarono il compianto porporato. Voglio ricordare con riconoscenza la sua speciale preparazione e competenza in campo giuridico, offerta in tanti anni di insegnamento nelle università pontificie per la formazione delle giovani generazioni, specialmente dei sacerdoti, come pure negli incarichi svolti al servizio della Santa Sede dapprima quale segretario del Supremo Tribunale della Segnatura apostolica, poi come presidente della Prefettura degli affari economici della Santa Sede, nonché in altri e delicati compiti di fiducia, rendendo ovunque una feconda testimonianza di zelo sacerdotale e di fedeltà al Vangelo. Mentre elevo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Vergine Maria e del beato Giovanni Battista Scalabrini, voglia donare al defunto cardinale il premio promesso ai suoi fedeli servitori, invio di cuore a lei e a quanti ne piangono la dipartita la benedizione apostolica, con un particolare pensiero per coloro che lo hanno amorevolmente assistito in questi ultimi anni.

FRANCISCUS P P.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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(49) 11. RAVASI, Gianfranco
(1942-

Birth. October 18, 1942, Merate, in Brianza, archdiocese of Milan, Italy. His family was originally from Osnago. He is the eldest of three children, the other two were girls. His father was an anti-Fascist tax official who served in Sicily during the Second World War, but later deserted the army; it took him 18 months to return to his family. His mother was a schoolteacher, who loved literature and died relatively early, which was a severe blow for Gianfranco.

Education. He was sent from the countryside to the small town of Merate to study and lived there with an aunt; he attended the Major Seminary of Milan, Venegono, where he earned a licentiate in theology; then he went to Rome and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University and at Pontifical Biblical Institute, obtaining a licentiate in Sacred Scriptures. He spent summers in in Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey, where he worked as an archaeologist with such scholars as Kathleen Kenyon and Roland de Vaux. He studied numerous ancient and modern languages, among them Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 28, 1966, for the archdiocese of Milan, by Cardinal Giovanni Colombo, archbishop of Milan. Professor of exegesis of the Old Testament at the Theological Faculty of Northern Italy. From 1980 until 2002, he had a cycle of encounters on the lectio divina at the Center of Studies "San Fedele" of Milan, in particular during Lent and Advent of each year, in which he had commentaries on the books of the Old and the New Testament. In 1989, he was named prefect of the Ambrosian Library, Milan, founded by Cardinal Federico Borromeo in 1607; he occupied the post until September 2007. Professor of biblical exegesis at the Major Seminary of Milan and at the Theological Faculty of Northern Italy in Milan. Member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission since 1995. Protonotary apostolic supernumerary, June 22, 1995. Asked by Pope Benedict XVI, he wrote the meditations for the Way of the Cross on Good Friday 2007 at the Colosseum. Collaborator of Avvenire, the daily of the Italian Episcopal Conference; of L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican daily; of Il Sole 24 Ore; of the weekly Famiglia Cristiana; of the monthly Jesus; and from 1988, he was the director of the weekly television program "Frontiers of the Spirit", broadcast on Sundays, which is the only program of Italian Channel 5 without commercials. He is a renowned biblical and Hebrew scholar and a prolific author (1). He worked very closely with Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., archbishop of Milan.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Villamagna di Proconsolare and appointed president of the Pontifical Council of Culture and president of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Patrimony of the Church, and of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archeology, September 3, 2007. Consecrated, September 29, 2007, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope Benedict XVI, assisted by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State, and by Cardinal Marian Jaworski, archbishop of Lviv of the Latins. In the same ceremony were consecrated Mieczysław Mokrzycki, archbishop coadjutor of Lviv of the Latins; Francesco Giovanni Brugnaro, archbishop of Camerino-San Severino Marche; Tommaso Caputo, titular archbishop of Otricoli, apostolic nuncio in Malta and Lybia; Sergio Pagano, B., titular bishop of Celene, prefect of the Secret Vatican Archives; and Vincenzo Di Mauro, titular bishop of Arpi, secretary of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. His episcopal motto is Prædica Verbum. On November 20, 2007, he received a doctorate honoris causa in Anthropology and Epistemology of the Religions from the University of Studies of Urbino "Carlo Bo"; he had a lectio magistralis on "La Bibbia come grande codice della cultura occidentale". On March 5, 2010, in Aquino, he received the Premio internazionale Tommaso d'Aquino, for promoting culture, art and Christian humanism; on that occasion, he had a lectio magistralis on the topic "L'umanesimo simbolico e integrale di Tommaso d'Aquino". He is chaplain and knight grand cross of ecclesiastical merit of the Constantinian Sacred Military Order of Saint George. He was decorated with the grand golden medal of the "Anbrogino d'oro"; and with the "Sigillo Longobardo". On September 27, 2012, he received an honorary doctorate from the John Paul II Catholic University in Lublin, Poland.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giorgio in Velabro on that same day. Preached the Lent 2013 spiritual exercises of the pope and the Roman Curia, which took place in the Vatican from February 17 to 23. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. Named doctor honoris causa by the Jesuit University of Deusto, Bilbao, Spain; the investiture took place on March 4, 2014; the cardinal also took part in several faith-culture encounters organized by the diocese of Bilbao. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as president of the Pontifical Council for Culture and named member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and the Societies of Apostolic Life. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization".

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, bibliography and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; A prelate with the mind of Ratzinger and the heart of Roncalli by John L Allen Jr, February 9, 2010, in English, NCR Today; Monsignor Ravasi: Ognuno abbia una Bibbia propria, in Italian, YouTube; Omelia di mons. Ravasi, in Italian, YouTube; Il cardinale a casa del poeta. Intervista con il presidente del Pontificio Consiglio della Cultura, Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, by Paolo Mattei. 30Days In the Church and in the world, international monthly magazine directed by Giulio Andreotti, year XXIX, issue no. 03/04 - 2012; Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi, biblical scholar passionate about culture and dialogue, Rome Reports, 2013-02-22 18:36:13; Ravasi: “La mafia che usa la religione? Una bestemmia”, Vatican Insider, 20/04/2013 alle ore 18:26; Ravasi a Marsiglia per il Cortile dei Gentili: Ho trovato apertura e sensibilità by Domenico Agasso Jr, Vatican Insider, 08/06/2013 alle ore 19:04; El cardenal Ravasi, doctor honoris causa de la Universidad española de Deusto, Zenit, 9 de enero 2014; Ravasi: indissolubilità del matrimonio? Ne discuteva già la Chiesa delle origini by Domenico Agasso Jr, Vatican Insider, 18/09/2014 alle ore 16:07; Ravasi: siamo malati di Apateismo by Monica Mondo, Avvenira, 27 aprile 2015; Un documento di credenti e non sul fine vita: «Tre principi per le cure», Vatican Insider, 18/09/2015 alle ore 18:20; Ravasi: il Brasile ha bisogno di conciliare misericordia e giustizia, Radio Vaticana, 2016-04-11; Cardinal Ravasi meets IOC President over upcoming Vatican conference, Vatican Radio, 2016-04-19; Card. Ravasi: 'El deporte supera límites y en el paralímpico el desafío es aún más grande' by Sergio Mora, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 12 mayo 2016; Card. Ravasi: 'Sirven nuevos modelos económicos más humanos e inclusivos' by Sergio Mora, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 12 septiembre 2016; Entrevista al Car. Ravasi: “La Consulta, finalmente una voz femenina en la Curia romana” by Deborah Castellano Lubov, Zenit, Ciudad del Vaticano, 9 marzo 2017; Chi era costei? by Gianfranco Ravasi, L'Osservatore Romano, 29 maggio 2017; La solemnidad de los protomártires fue celebrada con misa y procesión del Santísimo en Roma, presidida por el cardenal Ravasi, Ecclesia Digital, 2 de julio de 2017.

(1) This is a list of his works:
Gesù, una buona notizia, SEI, Torino 1982;
Qohelet. Il libro piy originale e scandaloso dell'Antico Testamento, edizioni San Paolo, Cinisello Balsamo 1988;
La vite e l'olivo. Lezionario biblico del matrimonio, Commento, Piemme, 1989;
Lettera ai Romani, edizione Dehoniane, Bologna 1990;
Lettere ai Corinzi, edizione Dehoniane, Bologna 1992;
Il Cantico dei Cantici: commento e attualizzazione, Edizioni dehoniane, 1992;
Esercizi spirituali, Piemme, 1994;
Dalla terra e dal cielo. Mattutino, Piemme, 1994;
Il racconto del cielo. Le storie, le idee, i personaggi dell'Antico Testamento, Mondadori, Milano 1995;
I salmi, Piemme, Asti 1996;
La Buona Novella. Le storie, le idee, i personaggi del Nuovo Testamento, Milano 1996;
Il racconto del cielo, Mondadori, 1996;
Celebrare e vivere la Parola, Ancora, 1997;
Quale Dio è così vicino, Mondadori, 1997;
Rifiorirà la speranza. Il canto del malato, Piemme, 1997;
La Bibbia. Risposta alle domande più provocatorie, San Paolo, 1998;
La buona novella, Mondadori, 1998;
Il dio vicino, Mondadori, 1998;
Apocalisse, edizioni Piemme, Casale Monferrato 1999;
Giubileo del 2000, Mondadori, 1999;
La parola e le parole. Viaggio biblico nell'nno liturgico, San Paolo, 1999;
Preghiere. L'ateo e il credente davanti a Dio, Mondadori, 2000;
I monti di Dio. Il mistero della montagna tra parola e immagine, Cinisello Balsamo 2001;
Il libro di Giobbe, edizione Dehoniane, Bologna 2002;
I Comandamenti, edizioni San Paolo, Cinisello Balsamo 2002;
Fino a quando, Signore?, San Paolo Edizioni, 2002;
Breve storia dell'anima, Mondadori, 2003;
Come io vi ho amati, EDB, 2004;
Il linguaggio dell'amore, edizioni Qiqajon, Bose 2005;
Qohelet o le sette malattie dell'esistenza, Qiqajon, 2005;
Ritorno alle virtù, Mondadori, 2005;
Nel segno della parola, with D.Del Giudice, U.Eco, Rizzoli, 2005;
Mattutino, Piemme, 2005;
Il linguaggio dell'amore. Una lettura del Cantico dei cantici, Quiqaion, 2005;
Breviario laico, 366 riflessioni giorno dopo giorno, Mondadori, 2006;
I volti della Bibbia, San Paolo, 2006;
Il tempio e la strada. Meditando Isaia, Ancora, 2006;
Le parole di Paolo, with Raimon Panikkar, San Paolo, 2007;
Il libro della Sapienza, (2CD), edizioni Qiqajon, Bose 2007;
Via Crucis al Colosseo con Benedetto XVI, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2007;
Le porte del peccato, Mondadori, 2007coa;
La Bibbia come grande codice della cultura occidentale. Lectio magistralis tenuta in occasione del conferimento della laurea honoris causa, Urbino, 2007;
Dove sei Signore? Simboli dello spazio nella Bibbia. Cinisello Balsamo : Edizioni San Paolo, 2012. (Dimensioni dello spirito).


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(50) 12. MAZOMBWE, Medardo Joseph
(1931-2013)

Birth. September 24, 1931, Chundamira, parish of St. John in Katete, region of M'bang'ombe, diocese of Chipata, Northern Rhodesia (later Zambia). Son of Joseph Adrian Mazombwe, one of the first catechists of the diocese of Chipata, and Eugenia Phiri, known for her religiosity. He had five brothers (all dead) and two sisters (one is still living).

Education. Primary education in Chasse; secondary education at St. Mary's Seminar in Kasina, Nyasaland (later Malawi). Studied philosophy and theology at the Regional Major Seminary of Kachebere, Nyasaland (later Malawi), and at "Lovanium" University, Leopoldville (later Kinshasa, Republic of Congo), where he obtained a bachelor's in theology; in Chikuni he obtained the "General Certificate of Education" and the "Certificate as a Qualified Teacher", for primary schools; later, he did further specialized studies in education at the civil University of Lusaka.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 4, 1960, Katete Boma. He was coadjutor; and later rector of the school "St. Mary"; diocesan promotor of ecclesiastical vocations; and professor of religion at state secondary school of Chadiza.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Chipata, November 11, 1970. Consecrated, February 7, 1971, cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, by Emmanuel Milingo, archbishop of Lusaka, assisted by Firmin Courtemanche, M. Afr., bishop emeritus of Chipata, and by James Corboy, S.J., bishop of Monze. President of the Episcopal Conference of Zambia, 1972-1975; 1988-1990; and 1999-2002. Chairman of the regional conferences under the Association of Member Episcopal Conferences in Eastern Africa (A.M.E.C.E.A.), 1979-1986. Participated in the Special Assembly of Africa of the Synod of Bishops, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Lusaka, November 30 1996. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Lusaka, October 28, 2006. He was an ardent campaigner who tirelessly advocated for Zambia's debt cancellation in the mid 1980s, through the Jubilee movement campaign and spearheaded several new developmental projects in many parts of the country including the Mumpanshya area in Chongwe District. Received a doctorate honoris causa from the University of Lusaka in 2009. Among some of his numerous pastoral initiatives was the sprawling cathedral of the Child Jesus in Pope Square, Lusaka.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Emerenziana a Tor Fiorenza on that same day. Member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples; and of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum. For the first time in the history of Zambia, an indigenous Zambian became cardinal. The only previous cardinal in Zambia was Adam Kozłowiecki, S.J., archbishop emeritus of Lusaka, named by Pope John Paul II. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when he turned eighty years old on September 24, 2011.

Death. August 29, 2013, around 5:40 p.m., local time, in Lusaka's University Teaching Hospital, after a long battle with cancer. After learning the news of the death of Cardinal Mazombwe, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent a telegram of condolence to Telesphore George Mpundu, archbishop of Lusaka (1). The funeral mass, presided over by Cardinal John Njue, archbishop of Nairobi, Kenya, who also delivered the homily, took place on Tuesday September 3, 2013, at 9 a.m., in the metropolitan cathedral of the Child Jesus, Lusaka. The body of the late cardinal was buried in the grounds of that cathedral after the mass.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede.

(1) This is the text of the telegram, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
The Most Reverend Telesphore George Mpundu
Archbishop of Lusaka
I was deeply saddened to learn of the death of Cardinal Medardo Joseph Mazombwe, Archbishop Emeritus of Lusaka. I offer to you, the clergy, religious and lay faithful of the Archdiocese my heartfelt condolences and the assurance of my prayers. With gratitude to Almighty God, I recall his unfailing commitment to the spread of the Gospel in Africa and his tireless efforts on behalf of the poor. I join you and all who mourn Cardinal Mazombwe in praying that God the Father of mercies may grant him the reward of his labours and welcome his noble soul into the peace and joy of heaven. To all assembled for the solemn funeral Mass, I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing as a pledge of strength and consolation in the Lord.

Franciscus PP.

Analogous telegram was sent by Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone, S.D.B., secretary of State.


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(51) 13. VELA CHIRIBOGA, Raúl Eduardo
(1934-

Birth. January 1, 1934, Riobamba, diocese of Riobama, Ecuador. Fifth of the nine children of Antonio Vela and Carmela Chiriboga.

Education. After finishing his secondary education at Colegio Don Bosco of Riobamba, he entered the Major Seminary of San José, Quito (philosophy and theology). He also did part of his studies in Bogotá, Madrid and Buenos Aires.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1957, by Leonidas Eduardo Proaño Villalba, bishop of Riobamba. Incardinated into the diocese of Riobamba. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Riobamba. General secretary of the episcopal curia of Riobamba from 1957 until 1967. Director of Caritas in Riobamba, from 1967 until 1968. Secretary of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador from 1968 to 1970; general secretary of that conference, from 1970 to 1975.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Ausafa and appointed auxiliary of Guayaquil, April 20, 1972. Consecrated, May 21, 1972, cathedral of Our Lady, Quito, by Cardinal Pablo Muñoz Vega, S.J., archbishop of Quito, assisted by Bernardino Echeverría Ruiz, O.F.M., archbishop of Guayaquil, and by Leonidas Eduardo Proaño Villalba, bishop of Riobamba. His episcopal motto is Cum Maria Mater Jesu. Secretary general of the Episcopal Conference of Ecuador, 1972-1975. Transferred to the see of Azogues, April 29, 1975. Delegate of the Conference of Bishops of Ecuador to the Third General Conference of the Latin America Episcopate celebrated in Puebla de los Ángeles, México, in 1979. Transferred to the titular see of Pauzera and appointed military ordinary of Ecuador, July 8, 1989. Member of the "Junta de Defensa Nacional", as delegate of the archbishopric of Quito. Resigned titular see of Pauzera, March 7, 1998. Promoted to the metropolitan and primatial see of Quito, March 21, 2003. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Quito for having reached the age limit, September 11, 2010. He was given a doctorate honoris causa by the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador. He was in a spiritual retreat when he was told that he had been promoted to the cardinalate.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria in Via on that same day. On August 25, 2012, he was named special papal envoy to the celebation of the 475º anniversary of the first diocese of Perú and South America, the current archdiocese of Cuzco, programmed for October 24, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on January 1, 2014. Named special papal envoy to the Tenth National Eucharistic Congress of Perú, which was celebrated in Piura from August 13 to 16, 2015. On July 4, 2017, he was named special papal envoy to the conclusive celebration of the Archdiocesan Jubilee of Lima, Perú, in program on August 30, 2017, on the occasion of the fourth centennial of the death of Saint Rosa de Lima.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biographical data, in Spanish, Conferencia Episcopal Ecuatoriana; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Holy See Press Office; his arms, Arladica Vaticana; El cardenal ecuatoriano Eduardo Vela Chiriboga, legado papal 475 aniversario de la diócesis de Cusco (Perú), Revista Ecclesia, 25 agosto, 2012; El Papa nombra a su enviado en la clausura del IV Centenario de Santa Rosa de Lima, ACI, Vaticano, 04 Jul. 17 / 06:02 am; Video: Que Santa Rosa de Lima proteja al Perú, pide enviado del Papa Francisco, ACI, Lima, 29 Ago. 17 / 10:01 pm; Fotos: Cardenal pide protección de Santa Rosa de Lima a toda América el día de su fiesta, ACI, Lima, 30 Ago. 17 / 04:06 pm.


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(52) 14. MONSENGWO PASINYA, Laurent
(1939-

Birth. October 7, 1939, Mongobele, district of Bandundu, diocese of Inongo, Congo (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Of one of the royal families of Basakata; his second name, Monsengwo, means "nephew of the traditional chief".

Education. Initial ecclesiastical studies at the Seminary of Bokoro; then, he entered the Major Seminary of Kabwe (philosophy); in 1960, he was sent to Rome to study at the Pontifical Urbanian University; later, he attended the Pontifical Biblical Institute in that city; and the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Jerusalem (first African to obtain a doctorate in biblical studies; the title of his disseration was La notion de nomos dans le grec Pentateuque); he studied under Father Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., future cardinal.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 21, 1963, Rome, by Cardinal Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian, prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith. Pastoral work and faculty member at the Theological Faculty of Kinshasa from 1970 to 1972. Secretary of the Congolese Episcopal Conference, 1972-1976. Secretary general of the Congolese Episcopal Conference, 1976-1980.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Acque nuove di Proconsulare and auxiliary of Inongo, February 13, 1980. Consecrated, May 4, 1980, Kinshasa, esplanade of Palais du Peuple, in open air, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Agnelo Rossi, prefect of the S.C. for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Cardinal Albert Malula, archbishop of Kinshasa. His episcopal motto is In fide veritatis. Transferred as auxiliary to the archdiocese of Kisangani, April 7, 1981. In 1984, still an auxiliary bishop, he was elected to the presidency of the Congolese Bishops Conference; occupied the post until 1992. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kisangani, September 1, 1988. He worked tirelessly in the defense of the people during the period of the long dictatorship of Mobutu Sese Seko and the civil war, which ended in 1997. Between 1991 and 1992, he took, pro tempore, the responsibility of chairing the national conference; and then until 1996, he was head of the parliament of the country, the former Zaire, to lead it to democracy in the delicate political transition after the fall of the dictatorship of Mobutu. Participated in the Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, April 10 to May 8, 1994; elected member of its Council of the General Secretariat, May 6, 1994. From 1994 to 1997, he was vice-president of the Symposium of the Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM); from 1997 to 2003, he was its president. In 2004, he was elected again to the presidency of the Congolese Bishops Conference; occupied the post until 2008. Co-president of Pax Christi International, November 3, 2007. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Kinshasa, December 6, 2007; he has continued to raise his voice in defense of human rights, justice and peace. Special secretary of the Twelfth General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 26, 2008, "The Word of God in the life and the mission of the Church". He is a biblical scholar and an activist on justice and peace issues. He is the author of numerous publications, especially on the question of the inculturation of faith. He is a member of the Studiorum Novi Testaments Societas and was the initiator of the Panafrican Association of Catholic Exegetes (APEC).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria "Regina Pacis" in Ostia mare on that same day. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Culture on December 10, 2011. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on December 29, 2011. Directed the Lent spiritual exercises of the pope and the Roman Curia, which took place between February 26 and March 3, 2012, in the Vatican. Named one of the three presidents delegate of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which took place from October 7 to 28, 2012, on the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of Christian faith" on June 30, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On July 11, 2016, he was named special papal envoy to the Third Congress for Africa and Madagascar on Divine Mercy, to be held in Kigali, Rwanda, from September 9 to 15, 2016.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in French, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in French, Mgr Monsengwo, Site personnel de l'archevêque; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(53) 15. ROMEO, Paolo
(1938-

Birth. February 20, 1938, Acireale, Catania, Italy. He is the fifth of nine siblings.

Education. Elementary education in "Collegio Pennisi" of the Society of Jesus in Acireale; middle studies in the state school "Paolo Vasta"; then, he entered the Episcopal Seminary of Acireale (ginnasio, liceo and began his theological studies); in 1959, he was sent to Rome as student at Almo Collegio Capranica; he attended the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a licentiate in theology; and the Pontifical Lateran University, where he earned a doctorate in canon law. He knows French, Spanish, English and German.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 18, 1961, chapel of the Episcopal Seminary of Acireale. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Acireale. Continued his studies at the university and did pastoral ministry as assistant to the Scouts Group "Roma IX" in "Collegio San Giuseppe in Piazza di Spagna" and diocesan assistant of the association "Silenziosi Operai della Croce". In 1964, he was admitted to the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy on January 1, 1967 and entered the service of the Holy See. Joined the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1967. Worked in the nunciatures in the Philippines, Belgium-Luxemburg and European Community, Venezuela, and Rwanda and Burundi. In 1976, he was called to the Council for Public Affairs of the Church in the Secretariat of State. At the same time, he worked as director of the "Casa Internazionale del Clero" and was regional assistant for the Lazio of the AGESC.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Vulturia and appointed nuncio to Haiti, December 17, 1983. Consecrated, January 6, 1984, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Eduardo Martínez Somalo, titular archbishop of Tagora, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy, archbishop emeritus of Bangalore, secretary of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. His episcopal motto is Caritas omnia sustinet. Nuncio in Colombia, April 24, 1990. Nuncio in Canada, February 5, 1999. Nuncio in Italy and San Marino, April 17, 2001. Participated in the Fourth Conference of the Latin American Episcopate and has been special papal envoy to the inauguration of the presidents of the Republics of El Salvador, Honduras and Ecuador. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Palermo, December 19, 2006. Took possession of the archdiocese on February 10, 2007. Elected president of the Sicilian Episcopal Conference, February 14, 2007. Sicilian grand prior of the lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Maria Odigitria dei Siciliani, deaconry elevated pro hac vice to title, on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named apostolic administrator sede vacante et ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of the eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi, Sicily, Italy, on April 8, 2013. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. On October 27, 2015, he resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Palermo in conformity to canon 401 § 1 of the Code of Canon Law. He was succeeded by Monsignor Corrado Lorefice, of the clergy of the diocese of Noto, until then pastor of the parish of San Pietro and episcopal vicar for Pastoral. On January 21, 2016, he was named president of the Almo Collegio Capranica in Rome.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Palermo; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(54) 16. WUERL, Donald William
(1940-

Birth. November 12, 1940, Pittsburgh, United States of America. He is the second of the four children of Francis J. Wuerl and Mary Anne Schiffauer. The other siblings are Wayne, Dennis and Carol. His mother died when he was just four years old, and his father later remarried Catherine Cavanaugh, who raised Donald and his siblings.

Education. He attended St. Mary of the Mount parish and school in Pittsburgh; later, he entered Saint Gregory Seminary, Cincinnati, where he obtained a bachelor's in philosophy; then, he studied at The Catholic University of America, Washington, as a Basselin scholar in philosophy, earning a master's in philosophy; sent to Rome, he attended the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a master's in theology; and the Pontifical University of S. Tommaso d'Aquinas (Angelicum), where he obtained in 1974 a doctorate in theology. In Rome he lived in the Pontifical North American College. Besides his native English, he speaks French, Italian and Spanish.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 17, 1966, Rome, by Francis Frederick Reh, titular bishop of Macriana in Mauretania and rector of the Pontificial North American College. Incardinated in the diocese of Pittsburgh. Assistant pastor, church of St. Rosalie, Pittsburgh, 1967-1968. Secretary to Bishop John Joseph Wright of Pittsburgh, 1968-1969; when Bishop Wright was created cardinal and named prefect of the S.C. for the Clergy in 1969, he continued in that post. Minutant of the S.C. for the Clergy, 1969-1980. At this time he was also working regularly on the English edition of "L'Osservatore Romano". Vice-rector, St. Paul's Seminary, Pittsburgh, 1980-1981; rector, 1981-1985. Vice-moderator of the diocesan curia of Pittsburgh, 1985.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Rosemarkie and appointed auxiliary of Seattle, November 30, 1985. Consecrated, January 6, 1985, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Cardinal Agostino Casaroli, secretary of State, and by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin, prefect of the Congregation for Bishops. His episcopal motto is Thy kingdom come. He shared power with Archbishop Raymond G. Hunthausen of Seattle, and was given authority by the Holy See over annulments, liturgy, clergy appointments and education, moral issues in health care institutions, and ministry to homosexuals. He resigned as auxiliary of Seattle on May 26, 1987. Transferred to the see of Pittsburgh, February 12, 1988. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Washington, May 16, 2006; he took possession of this see June 22, 2006. In April 2008, he hosted Pope Benedict XVI during his visit in the United States. He is author of several books and various publications, including catechisms and numerous articles on the Catholic faith. He was president of the National Catholic Educational Association and the National Catholic Bioethics Center. In the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the United States he chaired the committees for education, catechesis, evangelization and priestly life and ministry. Presently he is the head of the commission for Catholic health care. He also serves presently as director of the commission for the Doctrine of the Faith and the implementation of the Apostolic Constitution "Anglicanorum coetibus" in the United States.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Pietro in Vincoli on that same day. On October 22, 2011, he was named relator general of the Thirteenth Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, which took place in Vatican City from October 7 to 28, 2012 with the theme "The new evangelization for the transmission of the Christian faith". Named member of the Pontifical Council for Culture on December 10, 2011. Named member of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on April 21, 2012. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named member of the Congregation for Bishops on December 16, 2013. On March 29, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Pontifical Council for Culture until the expiration of his mandate. On June 9, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On November 10, 2014, he was named member of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See.

Bibliography. McDowell, John B. The life of Most Reverend Donald W. Wuerl, S.T.D. : eleventh Bishop of Pittsburgh. [S.l. : s.n.], 2005; Wuerl, Donald W. The Catholic way : faith for living today. New York : Doubleday, 2001. Wuerl, Donald W. ; Aquilina, Mike. The mass : the glory, the mystery, the tradition. New York : Doubleday Religion, 2011; Wuerl, Donald W. The gift of Blessed John Paul II : a celebration of his enduring legacy. Frederick, MD : Word Among Us Press, 2011; Wuerl, Donald W. Seek first the Kingdom : challenging the culture by living our faith. Huntington, IN : Our Sunday Visitor, 2011.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, archdiocese of Washington; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms, archdiocese of Washington; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Cir che ci rende una cosa sola, in Italian, A cura di Giovanni Cubeddu. Il testo di questa omelia tenuta in San Pietro in Vincoli, a Roma, il 18 aprile 2012, 30 Giorni, tratto dal n. 05 - 2012; Cardinal Wuerl, educator and passionate crusader, .Rome Reports, 2013-02-22 13:58:50; Cardinal Wuerl: Confronting secularism a priority for next pope by Francis X. Rocca, Catholic News Service, Feb-25-2013; Solidarity grows from social justice tradition, says Wuerl by Tom Roberts, National Catholic Reporter, Jun. 17, 2015; I cardinali Wuerl e Nichols leggono «Amoris laetitia» - Magistero di carità pastorale, L'Osservatore Romano, 2016-05-04; Wuerl says teaching and pastoral judgment 'not the same thing', by Mark Zimmermann, Crux, May 9, 2016; Cardinal Wuerl marks 50 years of priesthood, thanks God for his vocation by Mark Zimmermann, The Boston Pilot, CNS, Washington, 12/27/2016; Wuerl: 'Amoris Laetitia' about accompanying couples amid life's challenges by Mark Zimmermann, The Boston Pilot, CNS, Washington, 1/24/2017; Cardinal Wuerl: ‘Amoris Laetitia is part of Church’s faithful and living tradition’ Catholic Herald, by Catholic News Service, posted Wednesday, 25 Jan 2017.


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(55) 17. ASSIS, Raymundo Damasceno
(1937-

Birth. February 15, 1937, in a small chácara, two kilometers from Capela Nova, archdiocese of Mariana, Brazil. Of a modest family. One of the ten children of Francisco Solano de Assis, a small farmer, and Carmen Damasceno de Assis. He attended the catechism and served as an acolyte in his parish church. His last name also listed as Damasceno Assis.

Education. In 1948, he entered the Juvenato São José of the Marist Brothers, in the city of Mendes, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, where he completed his basic elementary education; then he discerned that his vocation was for the priesthood and returned home to Conselheiro Lafaiete, archdiocese of Mariana, where the family had moved. In 1955, he entered the Minor Seminary of the archdiocese of Mariana, where he did his secondary studies; and then the Major Seminary, where he studied philosophy; in 1960, Archbishop Oscar de Oliveira, of Mariana, sent him to the newly established archdiocese of Brasília, as a help to that new local church, inaugurated on April 21 of that same year; in 1961, the archbishop of Brasília, José Newton de Almeida Baptista, sent him to Rome to study theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, where he obtained a licentiate; he resided at Colegio Pío Brasileño; during those years, the Second Vatican Council was celebrated in Rome. In 1965, he was sent to Germany, where he concluded his formation at the Superior Institute of Catechesis in Münich. He returned to Brazil in 1968. He did post graduate studies in the philosophy of science at the University of Brasília and at the Pontifical Catholic University of Mina Gerais.

Priesthood. Ordained, March 19, 1968, in Conselheiro Lafaiete, by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, archbishop of Brasília. In the archdiocese of Brasília, he was coordinator of catechesis; pastor of the parish of Santíssimo Sacramento; archdiocesan chancellor; co-founder and professor of the Major Seminary Nossa Senhora de Fatima; and professor in the Department of Philosophy of the University of Brasília. During those years, the military dictatorship that ruled the country exercised a strict control over all the citizens including priests and bishops.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Novapietra and appointed auxiliary of Brasília, June 18, 1986. Consecrated, September 15, 1986, cathedral Nossa Senhora Aparecida, Brasília, by José Freire Falcão, archbishop of Brasília, assisted by José Newton de Almeida Baptista, archbishop emeritus of Brasília, and by Geraldo do Espírito Santo Ávila, titular bishop of Gemellae in Numidia, auxiliary of Brasília. His episcopal motto is In Gaudium Domini. He was vicar general of the archdiocese and director of the Superior Course of Theology for the Lay. Secretary general of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM), 1991-1995; during those years he was allowed by the archbishop to reside in Bogotá, Colombia. Named by Pope John Paul II secretary general of the Fourth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate, celebrated in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 12 to 28, 1992. Participated in the First Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, April 10 to May 8, 1994. Participated, by papal appointment, in the Ninth General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 2 to 29, 1994. Secretary general of the Conference of Bishops of Brazil, 1995-2003. Participated in the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, November 16 to December 12, 1997. In November 2003, he was elected member of the Academy of Letters of Brasília; he took possession of his chair on June 23, 2004. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Aparecida, January 28, 2004. He is the fourth archbishop of that see. Participated in the Fifth General Conference of the Latin American Episcopate (CELAM), May 13 to 31, 2007, in Aparecida, Brazil. Elected president of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM), for a quadrennium (2007-2011), during its 31st Ordinary Assembly, celebrated in La Habana, Cuba, in July 2007; occupied the post until May 18, 2011. Participated, by papal appointment, in the Second Special Assembly for Africa of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 14 to 25, 2009. Participated, by papal appointment, in the Special Assembly for the Middle East of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 10 to 24, 2010.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of Immacolata al Tiburtino on that same day. Elected president of the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil (Confêrencia Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil) for a quadrennium, 2011-2015, May 13, 2011. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Confirmed as member of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America on January 15, 2014. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization"; he was one of the three president delegates. He was named one of the four president delegates of the 14th General Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops that was celebrated in the Vatican from October 4 to 25, 2015, on the theme "The vocation and the mission of the family in the Church and in the world", on November 21, 2014. His resignation from the the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Aparecida was accepted by the pope on November 16, 2016. Lost the right to participate in the conclave when turned eighty years old on February 15, 2017.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Portuguese, arquidiocese de Aparecida; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Raymundo Damasceno: the strategy of the church in Latin America, in English, YouTube; Arcebispo de Aparecida será nomeado cardeal pelo Papa, photograph, biography and video, in Portuguese, Globo Comunicação e Participações; Cardinal Raymundo Damasceno, Benedict XVI host during trip to Brazil, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-10 09:00:00.


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(56) 18. NYCZ, Kazimierz
(1950-

Birth. February 1, 1950, Stara Wieś, diocese of Bielsko-Źywiec (archdiocese of Kraków, since 1992), Poland. Eldest son of Franciszek Nycz and Waleria Młynarska. He has a younger sister, Małgorzata, and a younger brother, Stanisław. He was baptized on February 19, 1950, in the church St. Crux in Stara Wieś.

Education. Primary school in Stara Wieś; Lyceum of Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Czechowice-Dziedzice (graduated in 1967); he then entered the Major Seminary of Kraków. On May 8, 1972, he was ordained a deacon by Cardinal Karol Wojtyła in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków; in 1976, he obtained a licentiate of theology at the Faculty of Theology of Papieska Akademia Teologiczna (Pontifical Academy of Theology), of Kraków; then, in 1977, he started his doctoral studies at the Catholic University of Lublin, where in 1981, he earned a doctorate in catechetical studies (dissertation: "Implementation of catechetical renewal of the Second Vatican Council in the Archdiocese of Kraków", written under the direction of Professor Fr. Mieczysław Majewski).

Priesthood. Ordained, May 20, 1973, for the archdiocese of Kraków, in Kaniów, by Julian Groblicki, titular bishop of Fildadlefia di Arabia, auxiliary of Kraków. From 1973 until 1975, he was vicar in the parish of St. Elizabeth at Jaworzno, Szczakowa district; and then in the parish of St. Margaret at Raciborowice. After obtaining his doctorate in 1981, he worked in the office for catechetics in the metropolitan curia of Kraków; and collaborated in the pastoral work of the parish of "Divine Mercy" in Skawina. In 1987, he was named vice-rector of the Major Seminary of Kraków.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Villa del re and named auxiliary of Kraków, May 14, 1988. Consecrated, June 4, 1988, metropolitan cathedral of Kraków, by Cardinal Franciszek Macharski, archbishop of Kraków, assisted by Jerzy Ablewicz, archbishop-bishop of Tarnów, and by Stanisław Nowak, bishop of Częstochowa. His episcopal motto is Ex hominibus pro hominibus. From 1988 until 2004, he served as the vicar general of the archdiocese of Kraków. He organized three visits of Pope John Paul II to Kraków. On November 26, 1999, he was named chairman of the Committee for Catholic Education; his main interest was to seek ways to find the opportunities offered by schools for catechetical activities and to search for forms of parish catechesis. As chairman of the Commission for Education of the Conference of the Polish Episcopate, the center of his activities was adapting the Polish catechesis to the post-Vatican II catechetical documents of the Church, especially the Catechism of the Catholic Church and the General Directory for Catechesis; and to correlate the teaching of religion in the school with the requirements of the reformed schools. Under his direction, On June 20, 2001, Conference of the Polish Episcopate validated the "Core curriculum of catechism of the Catholic Church in Poland", the "Catechetical Directory of the Catholic Church in Poland" and the "Program of religious education". In 1999, he received the honorary Citizenship of the city and the district of Skawina. For six consecutive years, he lectured catechetics in the Pontifical Theological Academy of Kraków. Transferred to the see of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg, June 9, 2004. He introduced in the parishes catechesis in small groups for secondary school students in preparation to receive the sacrament of Confirmation; and recommended care of young students by parish communities. He is known for its openness to the clergy, laity, and media. Since November 26, 2004 president of the Commission for Catholic Education of the Polish Episcopal Conference. From December 2004, he was a member of the Permanent Council of the Polish Episcopal Conference. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Warsaw on March 3, 2007. He took possession of the see on April 1, 2007. On June 9, 2007, he was named ordinary for Eastern-rite Catholics in Poland who do not have their own ordinary. He received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI at the papal Vatican basilica on June 29, 2007. On November 15, 2007, he became an honorary member of the Knights of Columbus.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of Ss. Silvestro e Martino ai Monti on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Named member of the Pontifical Council for Culture on March 29, 2014. On June 9, 2014, he was confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Clergy.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Polish, Wikipedia; photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana;


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(57) 19. PATABENDIGE DON, Albert Malcolm Ranjith
(1947-

Birth. November 15, 1947, Polgahawela, diocese of Kurunegala, Sri Lanka (then Ceylon). He is the only son of Don William and Mary Winifreeda. He is also listed as Malcolm Ranjith and as Albert Malcolm Ranjith only.

Education. Initial studies at De La Salle School, in Mutwal; he then entered St. Aloysius Seminary in Borella in 1965; from 1966 to 1970, he studied theology and philosophy at the National Seminary in Kandy; later, he was sent by Cardinal Thomas Cooray, archbishop of Colombo, to continue his studies in Rome, where he graduated from the Pontifical Urbanian University with a baccalaureate in theology. After his ordination, he did post graduate studies at the Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome, obtaining a licentiate in Sacred Scripture in 1978; he wrote his thesis on the Epistle to the Hebrews; at the Institute, he studied under Fathers Carlo Maria Martini, S.J., and Albert Vanhoye, S.J., future cardinals; he also attended the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, undertaking scriptural research as a post graduate scholar. He is fluent in ten languages; Italian, German, French, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Spanish, English, Sinhala and Tamil.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1975, at St Peter's square, by Pope Paul VI, together with 358 other deacons. After returning to Sri Lanka in 1978, he became assistant pastor in Pamunugama; he later served as a pastor in Payagala and Kalutara, parishes of poor but religious people in fishing villages; this experience led him to become involved with social justice; he also established "Seth Sarana," a center for poor relief in the archdiocese of Colombo. In 1983, he was named the National Director of Pontifical Mission Societies. He revived the Society of the Holy Childhood and, as diocesan coordinator for Human Development, he introduced bold initiatives in areas such as housing, fisheries and various self-employment projects.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Cabarsussi and appointed auxiliary of Colombo, June 17, 1991. Consecrated, August 31, 1991, by Nicholas Marcus Fernando, archbishop of Colombo, assisted by Thomas Savundaranayagam, bishop of Mannar, and by Oswald Thomas Colman Gomis, titular bishop of Mulia, auxiliary of Colombo. His episcopal motto is Verbum caro factum est. He was named vicar general charged with Parochial Apostolate and Lay Apostolate, occupying the post from 1991 until 1995. He was elected secretary general of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Sri Lanka and chairman of the Episcopal Commission for Justice and Peace in the same year. He also was chairman of the Organizing Committee for the Beatification of Ven. Joseph Vaz and for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Sri Lanka in January 1995. Transferred to the see of Ratnapura, November 2, 1995. On October 1, 2001, he was named adjunct secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples and president of the Pontifical Mission Societies; resigned the see of Ratnapura and was promoted to the rank of archbishop on that same date. Named nuncio in Indonesia and East Timor and transferred to the titular see of Umbriatica, April 29, 2004. Named secretary of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, December 10, 2005. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Colombo, June 16, 2009. He received the pallium on June 29, 2009. He took formal canonical possession of the metropolitan see of Colombo in a private ceremony on August 5, 2009; and celebrated the mass for the solemn beginning of his pastoral ministry as archbishop of Colombo on August 8, 2009, when he was publicly installed.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Lorenzo in Lucina on that same day. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On September 12, 2015, he was named special papal envoy to the National Eucharistic Congress of India, programmed for November 12 to 15, 2015 in Mumbai.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms and photographs, Araldica Vaticana; Malcolm Ranjith, the Cardinal who lived through the 2004 Tsunami, video, Rome Reports, 2013-03-07 11:43:23; Cardinal Ranjith calls for unity among Sri Lankans, ucanews.com Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 14, 2016; Sri Lankan cardinal calls for continued reconciliation , ucanews.com, February 5, 2016; Colombo cardinal champions fight to curb drug use among students by Niranjani Roland, ucanews.com, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Colombo cardinal praises Buddhist monk who died aged 102, ucanews.com, Colombo Sri Lanka, April 10, 2017; Colombo cardinal speaks out after garbage dump collapse, ucanews.com, Colombo, Sri Lanka, April 21, 2017; Sri Lankan prelate condemns waste dumping in wetlands, ucanews.com, July 4, 2017.


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(58) 20. MARX, Reinhard
(1953-

Birth. September 21, 1953, Geseke, archdiocese of Paderborn, Germany. Son of Franz Marx, who was a locksmith, and his wife Berta. He has an older brother, Werner, and a younger sister, Eva.

Education. He finished his secondary education with "Abitur" in 1972 at "Antonianum", Geseke; he is a member of the Catholic Student Fraternity "Unitas" (Verband der Wissenschaftlichen Katholischen Studentenvereine Unitas); he completed his philosophical and theological studies at the Theological Faculty of Paderborn and at "Institut Catholique de Paris". Between 1981 and 1989, he continued his doctoral studies at Ruhr-Universität Bochum and Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, obtaining a doctorate in theology in 1989 (dissertation, under the supervision of Professor Hermann-Josef Pottmeyer: Ist Kirche anders? Möglichkeiten und Grenzen einer soziologischen Betrachtungsweise). He was ordained deacon by Paul Nordhues, titular bishop of Cos and auxiliary of Paderborn, in the church St. Kilian, Paderborn, on February 11, 1978.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 2, 1979, in the cathedral of Paderborn, by Johannes Joachim Degenhardt, archbishop of Paderborn. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Paderborn. From 1979 to 1981, he was vice-pastor of the parish of Sankt Johannes Baptiste, in Arolsen. Further studies, 1981-1989. From 1981 to 1986, he was ecclesiastical assistant of the Social Institute "Kommende", the social institute of the archdiocese of Paderborn, in Dortmund. From 1986 to 1988, he was chaplain of the parish of Sankt Marien, in Witten. In 1989, he was named director of the Social Institute "Kommende" and chaplain in Sankt Ewaldi, Dortmund-Aplerbeck. From 1989 until 1996, he was head of the theological advisory board of "Unitas". He was also professor of social doctrine of the Church at the Theological Faculty of Paderborn. Chaplain of His Holiness, June 21, 1993. Professor of "Christliche Gesellschaftslehre" (Christian Social Ethics) at the Theological Faculty of Paderborn in 1996.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Pedena and appointed auxiliary of Paderborn, July 23, 1996. Consecrated, September 21, 1996, metropolitan cathedral of Paderborn, by Johannes Joachim Dagenhardt, archbishop of Paderborn, assisted by Hans Leo Drewes, titular bishop of Vina, auxiliary of Paderborn, and by Paul Consbruch, titular bishop of Gor, auxiliary of Paderborn. In the same ceremony was consecrated Heinz-Josef Algermissen, now bishop of Fulda. His episcopal motto is Ubi spiritus Domini ibi libertas. In 1997, he was given the charge of the Bishops' Chaplaincy for Society, Culture and Science. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Paderborn until 2001. From 1999-2008, he was president the German Commission Iustitia et Pax. From 2001, he was vice-president of the council "International Church" of the German Episcopal Conference. Transferred to the see of Trier, the oldest German diocese, December 20, 2001; took possession of the see on April 1, 2002. From 2004, president of the council "Christian Social Ethics" of the German Episcopal Conference. From 2006, delegate of the German Episcopal Conference before the Commission of the Episcopates of the European Community; from 2009, its vice-president. From 2006, grand prior of the German Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. From 2007 member of the senate of the "Deutsche Nationalstiftung" (German National Foundation). Promoted to the metropolitan see of München und Freising, November 30, 2007. Took possession of the see, February 2, 2008. Since that day, he automatically became president of the Bishops Conference of Bavaria ("Freisinger Bischofskonferenz"). Received the pallium from Pope Benedict XVI on June 29, 2008, at the papal Vatican basilica. Received the honorary citizenship of his birthtown, Geseke, on December 27, 2008. Received an honorary doctorate from the Philosophical-Theological University of Vallendar on January 22, 2009. From 2009, member of the senate of the Foundation "Wittenberg-Center for Global Ethics"; and of the senate of the Foundation "Ordo Socialis - Scientific Society to promote Social Ethics". On October 1, 2010, he became grand chancellor of the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt; on the following November 15, he was presented to the university comunity as such. He has authored numerous publications in the field of social ethics (1).

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the new title of S. Corbiniano on that same day. At the time of his creation, he was the youngest member of the College of Cardinals. Special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 350th anniversary of the Marian Shrine of Werl, archdiocese of Paderborn, Germany, which took place on July 2, 2011. Named honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of Trier on October 3, 2011. He received the "Bayerische Verfassungsmedaille in Gold" (Gold Medal of the Bavarian Constitution) on December 1, 2011. Named member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches on March 7, 2012. Elected president of the Commission of the Episcopates of the European Community (Comece) on March 23, 2012; reelected on March 20, 2015. Participated in the conclave of March 12 to 13, 2013, which elected Pope Francis. On April 13, 2013, he was named by Pope Francis member of a group of cardinals to advise him in the government of the universal Church and to study a plan for revising the apostolic constitution on the Roman Curia, Pastor Bonus. He was confirmed as member of the Congregation for Catholic Education on November 30, 2013. He was named member of the Pontifical Council for the Laity on February 6, 2014. Confirmed as member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, until the expiration of his term, on February 19, 2014. He was named member and coordinator of the Council for the Economy for a quinquennium on March 8, 2014. He was elected chairman of the German Bishops' Conference on March 12, 2014. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization". On December 17, 2014, he was decorated with the Bavarian Order of Merit. On July 28, 2015, he was named honorary canon of the cathedral chapter of the diocese of Troyes, France.

Bibliography. Bransom, Jr., Charles N. Revue des ordinations épiscopales. Mango, Florida : Bransom, 1997, n. 5-6, p. 46-47.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in German, archdiocese of München und Freising; photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph amd biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; "Pelzig unterhdlt sich" mit Bischof Marx 1/2 , in German, YouTube; "Pelzig unterhält sich" mit Bischof Marx 2/2 , in German, YouTube; Reinhard Marx, Geburtstagsgrüße zum 150er - TSV 1860 München, You Tube, Uploaded by 60wird150 on Apr 26, 2010; Kardinal Marx ermutigt Christen zur Initiative. Den Kopf nicht hdngen lassen, domradio.de, 24.7.2012; Card. Marx: andare oltre il capitalismo, che deve servire l'uomo, Vatican Insider, 9/01/2014; German Catholic bishops pick pope aide as new leader by Alexandra Hudson, Reuters, Berlin, Wed Mar 12, 2014 1:15pm EDT; US: "A social market economy needs to be established," says Archbishop Marx by Maria Teresa Pontara Pederiva, Vatican Insider, 01/22/2015; Cardenal Marx se pronuncia sobre agresiones sexuales a mujeres en Alemania, Berlín, ACI/EWTN Noticias, 08 Ene. 16 / 06:17 pm; German cardinal denied entry to visit Vietnam diocese, ucanews.com correspondent, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, January 19, 2016; Secondo il cardinale Marx - Quattro sfide per l'Europa di Charles de Pechpeyrou, L'Osservatore Romano, 2016-05-04; Cardinal Marx: Society must create structures to respect gay rights by Sarah Mac Donald, National Catholuc Reporter, Dublin, Jun. 28, 2016; Cardinal Marx: Pope’s Line in Amoris Laetitia is “Very Clear” by Edward Pentin, National Catholic Register, Feb. 7, 2017; Cardinal Marx: Always loyal to the Pope, video, Rome Reports, 2017-02-15; Cardinal calls for global Church led by both men and women by Christa Pongratz-Lippitt, La Croix International, Grermany, July 1, 2017; Folle rinunciare al talento delle donne. Il cardinale Marx incoraggia la presenza femminile nella Chiesa, L'Osservatore Romano, 05 luglio 2017; Cardinal's plan for laypeople to lead parishes by Christa Pongratz-Lippitt, La Croix International, August 17, 2017.

(1) Among them are his books "Ihr seid der Brief Christi" : Priestersein im Zeugnis von Therese von Lisieux, Johannes XXIII. und Romano Guardini, Paderborn 1999; Christliche Sozialethik: Konturen - Prinzipien - Handlungsfelder, Paderborn 2002; Wir haben Christi Sinn": Heilige als Vorbilder priesterlicher Spiritualität, Paderborn 2002; Gerechtigkeit ist möglich: Zwischenrufe zur Lage des Sozialstaats, Freiburg 2004; Gerechtigkeit vor Gottes Angesicht. Worte, die weiterführen, Freiburg 2006; Das Kapital: Eine Streitschrift, Pattloch Verlag München 2008, for which he received the international book award "Corine".


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(59) 21. ESTEPA LLAURENS, José Manuel
(1926-

Birth. January 1, 1926, Andújar, diocese of Jaén, Spain.

Education. He studied philosophy at the Pontifical University of Salamanca; and theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, where he obtained a doctorate in pastoral theology; he obtained a licentiate in pastoral catechesis at the Institut Catholique, Paris, in 1956.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 27, 1954, Madrid. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Madrid. He was chaplain of Colegio Mayor Universitario Guadalupe of Madrid, from 1956 until 1960. Professor at the Hispanicamerican Theological Seminary of Madrid, from 1956 to 1964. Director of the Department of Pastoral of Obra de Cooperación Sacerdotal Hispanoamericana (OCSHA) from 1957 to 1961. Assessor to the presidency of the Episcopal Council of Latin America (CELAM) from 1958 to 1967. He also collaborated with the Catholic Action. From 1965 until 1971, he was national director of catechesis of the Spanish Episcopal Conference; as well as general delegate of the Episcopal Commission for Education. Consultor of the Congregation for the Clergy, 1971.

Episcopate, Elected titular bishop of Tisili and appointed auxiliary of Madrid, September 5, 1972. Consecrated, October 15, 1972, at the parish church of the Asunción, Madrid, by Cardinal Vicente Enrique y Tarancón, archbishop of Madrid, assisted by Marcelo González y Martín, archbishop of Toledo, and by José López Ortiz, O.S.A., titular archbishop of Grado, general military vicar of Spain. His episcopal motto is Pax Hominibus. From 1972 to 1983, he was vicar general for the southern part of the archdiocese of Madrid and rector of its Theological Seminary. In 1977, he was special secretary of the Fourth Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, September 30 to October 29, 1977. He was president of the Episcopal Subcommission of Catechesis between 1981 and 1998. Nominated general military vicar of Spain and promoted to titular archbishop of Velebusdo, July 30, 1983. Transferred to the titular see of Italica, with personal title of archbishop, November 18, 1989. Participated, by papal appointment, in the First Special Assembly for Europe of the Synod of Bishops, November 18 to December 14, 1991, Vatican City. Resigned the titular see of Italica, March 7, 1998. Resigned the military vicariate, October 30, 2003. In Rome, he was member of the Commission of six bishops that redacted the Catechism of the Catholic Church. He formed part of the international councils of the Holy See for catechesis and for the military vicars. He is the author of numerous books and articles, particularly on pastoral care. He is currently in charge of religious assistance to military veterans, as a counselor of "Hermandad Nacional de veteranos" and the Spanish Guardia Civil. He is also grand prior of the Western Lieutenancy of the Equestrian Order of the Spain of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the title of S. Gabriele Arcangelo all'Acqua Traversa on that same day. He was older than eighty years at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate and thus not eligible to participate in a conclave.

Linka. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; Monseñor Estepa regala su biblioteca: un ejemplo a imitar by Tomás de la Torre Lendínez, in Spanish, InfoCatólica; José Manuel Estepa Llaurens, cardenal, in Spanish, Ecclesia Digital; José Manuel Estepa Llaurens, el cardenal del Rey por José Manuel Vidal, in Spanish, Periodista Digital; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.


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(60) 22. SGRECCIA, Elio
(1928-

Birth. June 6, 1928, Nidastore Arcevia, district of Ancona, diocese of Fossombrone (now Fano-Fossombrone-Cagli-Pergola), Italy. He is the youngest of six children of a farmer.

Education. Primary education in his native village; secondary education at the Minor Seminary of Fossombrone, in 1939. then, at the Theological Seminary of Fano. After finishing his theological studies, he earned a doctorate in letters and philosophy at the University of Bologna in 1963. He also studied bioethics.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 29, 1951, by Vincenzo Del Signore, bishop of Fano. Incardinated in the diocese of Fano. From 1952 to 1954, he was spiritual assistant of the Azione Cattolica; from 1954 to 1972, he was vice-rector, professor and finally rector of the Pontifical Regional Seminary "Pio XI" of Fano; this seminary was later transferred to Ancona. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, November 24, 1972. In 1972 he was incardinated in the diocese of Fossombrone. From 1972 to 1973, he was vicar general of the diocese of Fossombrone. For ten years, from 1974 until 1984, he was spiritual assistant of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the Catholic University in Rome. From 1974, he was redactor and later vice-director of the journal "Medicina e Morale"; in 1984, he became its co-director. In 1984, he was made responsible for the teaching of bioethics in the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the Catholic University Sacro Cuore; on November 1, 1990, he was named ordinary professor of bioethics; and in 2000, he was named director of the Institute of Bioethics of the same faculty. From 1985 to 2006, he was director of the Bioethics Center of the Catholic University Sacro Cuore of Milan. From 1990 until 2006, he was member of the National Committee for Bioethics. In 1991, he received in Campidoglio, Rome, the "Premio Giunchi" for medicine, instituted by the Pio Sodalizio dei Piceni in Roma. He is the author of an important handbook of bioethics for clinicians and biologists, in two volumes, which had four editions and many reprints; and has also been translated into French, Spanish, Portuguese, English, Russian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Arabic and Korean.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Zama minore and appointed secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Family, November 5, 1992. Consecrated, January 6, 1993, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, titular archbishop of Vescovio, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Justin Francis Rigali, titular archbishop of Bolsena, secretary of Congregation for Bishops and secretary of College of Cardinals. His episcopal motto is Ut vitam habeant. Named vice-president of the Pontifical Academy for Life, June 1, 1994, when the academy was founded. On December 10, 1994, he was named grand officer of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. On April 3, 1996, the pope accepted his resignation as secretary of the Pontifical Council of the Family as he had requested in order to be able to dedicate more time to the promotion of the activities of the Pontifical Academy for Life and to the Bioethics Institute of the Catholic University Sacro Cuore of Milan. From 1998 until 2005, he was director of the Center for International Cooperation of the Catholic University Sacro Cuore. In October 1999, he received the title of profssor de honor of the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina in Buenos Aires. He was decorated by the president of Italy knight grand cross of the Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana on March 6, 2000. In 2001, he became member of the Commission for Guidelines on Counseling and Genetic Testing "in the Ministry of Health. On October 11, 2001, he was named "Miembro Correspondiente" of the Mexican Academy of Bioethics. From 2003, president of the International Federation of Centers and Institutes of Bioethics of Personalist Inspiration (FIBIP). Since 2004, he has been president of the Foundation "Ut Vitam Habeant", of canonical institution, civilly recognized for the diffusion of the truth at the service of the pastoral for life. Since 2004, he has also been president of the Association "Donum Vitae", recognized as "Associazione pubblica di fedeli" by the diocese of Rome. On November 4, 2004, he received a doctorate honoris causa from Anahuac University, Mexico City. Named president of the Pontifical Academy for Life, January 3, 2005. On March 5, 2005, he received the International Prize "San Valentino d'Oro", Terni. On March 16, 2005, he received a doctorate honoris causa from the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. On June 15, 2007, he received the "The Mystery of Life Award 2007" of the Episcopal Conference of South Korea. Resigned the presidency of the Pontifical Academy for Life, for reasons of having attained the age limit, June 17, 2008. He is a leading voice for the Church in its opposition to controversial ethical issues such as abortion, contraception, embryonic stem cell research and euthanasia. He is considered the founder of the School of Personalist Bioethics. On May 9, 2008, he was given the "Premio Occidente per la Bioetica", from the University of Ancona. The Institute of Bioethics of the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina granted him an honorary doctoral degree on June 12, 2008. He is a member of the editorial board of the National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly. He has authored numerous works in bioethics, medical ethics, pastoral of health and the family (1). On November 10, 2010, he was awarded the 2010 European Prize for Life "Madre Teresa di Calcuta". On June 13, 2017, the pope named him member ad honorem of the Pontifical Academy for Life.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Angelo in Pescheria on that same day. He was older than eighty years at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate and thus not eligible to participate in a conclave. Participated in Third Extraordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 5 to 19, 2014, on the theme "The pastoral challenges of the family in the context of the Evangelization", by papal appointment.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photograph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Intervista Mons. Elio Sgreccia, March 12, 2008, video Google; Sgreccia: "The contrast between evolution and creation is absurd", Vatican Insider, 03/13/2012; Belgio, mons. Sgreccia: "L'eutanasia ai minori, un gesto disumano", in Italian, Vatican Insider, 27/11/2013; Sgreccia: "No alla a liberalizzazione della cannabis", Vatican Insider, 8/01/2014; Sgreccia: «La domenica "dei 4 Papi" ha dato coraggio al mondo» by Domenico Agasso jr, Vatican Insider, 5/05/2014.

(1) Among his works are Manuale di bioetica Fondamenti ed etica biomedica, 2 vols., Editrice Vita e Pensiero (it has been translated into Spanish, Ukrainian, Portuguese, French, Romanian, Russian and Arabic); The human embryo before implantation. Scientific aspects and bioethical considerations, with Jean Laffitte, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2009; Procreazione assistita e fecondazione artificiale tra scienza, bioetica e diritto, with M. Luisa Di Pietro, Editrice La Scuola, 1999; L'embrione umano nella fase del preimpianto : aspetti scientifici e considerazioni bioetiche : atti della dodicesima Assemblea generale della Pontifica Accademia per la vita : Città del Vaticano, 27 febbraio-1 marzo 2006; La bioetica nel quotidiano, Editrice Vita e Pensiero, 2006; Nuova genetica ed embriopoiesi umana. Prospettive della scienza e riflessioni etiche with Angelo Serra and M. Luisa Di Pietro, Editrice Vita e Pensiero, 1991; La trasmissione della vita nell'insegnamento di Giovanni Paolo II, with di M. Luisa Di Pietro, Editrice Vita e Pensiero, 1989; Alongside the incurably sick and dying person. He has also published numerous works on Italian and foreign journals (in English, German, Spanish, French, Portuguese, Polish and Russian, for a total of over 370 contributions). In particular, recently published are volumes of the series "Science Medicine and Ethics" of the Editrice Vita e Pensiero and volumes of the series of the Pontifical Academy for Life by the Libreria Editrice Vaticana.


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(61) 23. BRANDMÜLLER, Walter
(1929-

Birth. January 5, 1929, Ansbach, Germany. His father was an officer. He was born a Protestant and converted to Roman Catholicism as a teenager.

Education. Studied at the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Münich; in 1963, he earned a doctorate (doctoral thesis: Das Wiedererstehen katholischer Gemeinden in den Fürstentümern Ansbach und Bayreuth); and he obtained the "habilitation" in 1967 with the dissertation Das Konzil von Pavia-Siena (1423-1424).

Priesthood. Ordained, July 26, 1953, Bamberg, by Joseph Otto Kolb, archbishop of Bamberg. Incardinated in the archdiocese of Bamberg. Pastoral work in the church of Sankt Johannes, Kronach, 1953-1957; and in the church of Sankt Martin, Bamberg, 1957-1960. Further studies in Münich. Professor of Church History and Patrology, University of Dillingen, from October 30, 1969 until 1971. He taught from October 7, 1970 until his retirement in 1997 as professor of Modern and Medieval Church History at the University of Augsburg. From 1971 until 1998, he was parish priest in Maria Himmelfahrt, Walleshausen, diocese of Augsburg. Specializing in conciliar history, he is a founder and editor of the journal Annuarium conciliorum historiae (Paderborn, 1969); and of the series "Konziliengeschichte "(1979), which has published thirty seven volumes so far. He also published the "Handbook of the Bavarian Church History" (St. Ottilie, 1991-1999, 3 vols in 4). From 1981 to 1998, he was member of the Pontifical Committee of Historical Sciences. Knight of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem in 1981. Prelate of honor of His Holiness, July 17, 1983. On July 22, 1990 he received the Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany from President Richard von Weizsäcker. President of the International Commission for Contemporary Church History from 1998 until 2006. He is a canon of the chapter of the patriarchal Vatican basilica since 1997. From June 13, 1998 until December 3, 2009, he was president of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences. Since April 2006, he has been a member of the Catholic fraternity Katholische Akademische Verbindung, Capitolina Rome in Cartellverband. He has lectured at the Institute for Universal History of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow; at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome; and at the German Historical Institute in Paris. He has authored numerous works (1).

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Cesarea di Mauretania, November 4, 2010. Consecrated, November 13, 2010, in the church of S. Maria dell'Anima, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Farina, S.D.B., archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, assisted by Ludwig Schick, archbishop of Bamberg, and by Giuseppe De Andrea, titular archbishop of Anzio, apostolic nuncio and assessor of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. His episcopal motto is Ignem in Terram. Archbishop Schick of Bamberg brought to Rome the staff of Archbishop Kolb, who ordained the future cardinal to priesthood, as a loan; Archbishop Brandmüller is to use it during pontifical liturgies, and after his death, the archdiocese of Bamberg will receive it back.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of S. Giuliano dei Fiaminghi on that same day. He was older than eighty years at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate and thus not eligible to participate in a conclave. On October 5, 2013, Pope Francis named him special papal envoy to the celebrations of the 450th anniversary of the closing of the Ecumenical Council of Trent, programmed in the duomo of Trent, Italy, on December 1, 2013. He is one of the four cardinals who presented the “dubia” to Pope Francis, seeking clarifications on the postsynodal apostolic exhortation "Amoris Laetitia" (2).

Bibliography. Bransom, Jr., Charles N. Revue des ordinations épiscopales. Mango, Florida : Bransom, 2011, n. 20, p. 28, no. 162; and p. 37; Brandmüller, Walter. Eventi eloquenti. L'agire della Chiesa nella storia,. Città del Vaticano : Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2014.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; photgraph and biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; his arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in German, archdiocese of Bamberg; bibliography, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek; Conversación en Roma con Walter Brandmüler by Luis Martínez Ferrer, Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia, año/vol. IX, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, España, p. 383-394; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; You can't help the Pope by committing crimes, says German cardinal by Andrea Tornielli, Vatican Insider, 05/30/2012; Trento, un Concilio che parla ancora oggi by Maria Teresa Pontara Pederiva, Vatican Insider, 2/12/2013; Brandmüller: 'El Vaticano II está lejos de su realización en la vida de la Iglesia by Salvatore Cernuzio, Zenit, el mundo visto desde Roma, 05 de junio de 2014; 'Eventi eloquenti': alcune tappe storiche illustrate dal cardinale Brandmüller by Luca Caruso, Papaboys 3.0, 3, Missionari di parabole antiche e sempre nuove, giugno 2014; Brandmüller: "The Resignation of the Pope Is Possible, But May It Never Happen Again" by Sandro Magister, L'Espresso, Rome, July 18, 2016

(1) Among some of his most important ones are Galilei und die Kirche: Ein "Fall" und seine Lösung. MM-Verlag, Aachen 1994; Wer ist Jesus Christus? Mythen, Glaube und Geschichte. [zusammen mit (Bishop) Karlheinz Dietz, (Cardinal) Leo Scheffczyk, Peter Stuhlmacher, Luise Abramowski, Franz Courth], MM-Verlag, Aachen 1995; Das eigentlich Katholische. MM-Verlag, Aachen 1997; Christus in den Sakramenten der Kirche. MM-Verlag, Aachen 1998; Das Konzil von Konstanz, 1414-1418. Verlag Schöningh, Paderborn. - Bd. 1: Bis zur Abreise Sigismunds nach Narbonne, 2. Aufl. 1999; Bd. 2: Bis zum Konzilsende, 1997; Das Konzil von Pavia-Siena 1423-1424. Verlag Schöningh, Paderborn 2002; Briefe um das 1. Vaticanum. Verlag Schöningh, Paderborn 2005; Der Fall Galilei und andere Irrt|mer : Macht, Glaube und Wissenschaft [zusammen mit Ingo Langner], Sankt-Ulrich-Verlag, Augsburg 2006; Licht und Schatten. Sankt-Ulrich-Verlag, Augsburg 2007.
(2) The other three Cardinals were Joachim Meisner, Carlo Caffarra and Raymond Leo Burke.


bartolucci7.jpg

(62) 24. BARTOLUCCI, Domenico
(1917-2013)

Birth. May 7, 1917, Borgo San Lorenzo, archdiocese of Florence, Italy. His father, a laborer, was a passionate singer, and always took Domenico with him when he went to sing in church in the choir of the Compagnia dei Neri, a lay confraternity of Borgo San Lorenzo. He was baptized by Father Canuto Cipriani on the day of his birth in Pieve di San Lorenzo.

Education. When very young, after finishing his elementary studies, he entered the Archiepiscopal Seminary of Florence, where he was chosen as cantore. In 1939, he obtained the diploma in composition in the Conservatory of Florence. In 1942, in Rome, he obtained the diploma at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music; and at Accademia Nazionale di S. Cecilia, after taking the course of perfezionamento in composizione imparted by Ildebrando Pizzetti.

Priesthood. Ordained, December 23, 1939, for the archdiocese of Florence, by Cardinal Elia Dalla Costa, archbishop of Florence. At the death of Maestro Francesco Bagnoli, he succeeded him as director of the choir of the cathedral of Florence. In those years he began to compose his first Masses, early motets, organ music, madrigals and chamber music. At the end of 1942, he went to Rome to deepen his knowledge of sacred music. Having served as vice-maestro of the choir of the patriarchal Lateran basilica, in 1947 he became Maestro of the Cappella Musicale Liberiana of the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore, succeeding Maestro Licinio Refice. In 1952, on the advice of Maestro Lorenzo Perosi, he was appointed vice-maestro of the Sistine Chapel. When Maestro Perosi died in 1956, Pope Pius XII gave him the position of perpetual director of the Cappella Musicale Pontificia "Sistina". Prelate of honor of His Holiness, January 21, 1965. Member of the National Academy of Santa Cecilia. The Cappella Musicale Pontificia Sistina was in poor condition at the death of Maestro Perosi. The situation was improved thanks to the commitment of Maestro Bartolucci and the interest of Pope John XXIII. In 40 years of his leadership he alternated the papal liturgies with tours in various countries such as Austria, Germany, Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Philippines, Australia, Canada, United States, Turkey, Poland and Japan. In the years of the Second Vatican Council, Maestro Bartolucci, who was against abandoning Latin, was committed to ensure that the liturgical reform would not take a hostile direction toward sacred music. His references in music were the polyphonic tradition of Palestrina and the Gregorian chant. In 1997 he was replaced, in contravention of the papal appointment in perpetuity, as director of the Sistine Chapel, by Monsignor Giuseppe Liberto. This event aroused some controversy in the context of liturgical music; the option was for innovation of the style that best reflected the celebration of the mass preferred by Pope John Paul II; according to many, Bishop Piero Marini, master of papal liturgical celebrations, was responsible for the change. Among those most against the decision was Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, future Pope Benedict XVI, who recalled Monsignor Bartolucci to direct a concert in the Sistine Chapel, on June 24, 2006, in which the maestro offered music from the repertoire of sacred polyphony of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina alongside his own compositions including the six-voice motet "Oremus pro Pontifice Nostro Benedicto" dedicated to the pope. He has also directed the choir of RAI (Radiotelevisione italiana) and the main Italian complex symphonic-chorals in Rome, Venice, Trieste, Palermo, among others. He was considered the best interpreter of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. His works were published in forty nine volumes of Edizioni Cappella Sistina (1).

Episcopate. He requested to be dispensed from the requirement of episcopal ordination and the dispensation was granted by Pope Benedict XVI.

Cardinalate. Created cardinal deacon in the consistory of November 20, 2010; received the red biretta and the deaconry of SS. Nomi de Gesù e Maria in via Lata on that same day. His cardinalitial motto was Psallam Deo meo. He was older than eighty years at the time of his promotion to the cardinalate and thus not eligible to participate in a conclave.

Death. November 11, 2013, very early in the morning, in his Roman residence in Via del Monte della Farina, 64. Upon learning the news of the death of Cardinal Bartolucci, Pope Francis prayed for the eternal repose of his soul and sent his nephews, Sandro and Stefano Bartolucci, a telegram of condolence (2). On Wednesday November 13, 2013, the exequies of the late cardinal were celebrated at 3:30 p.m. at the Altar of the Cathedra of the papal Vatican basilica, by Cardinal Angelo Sodano, dean of the College of Cardinals, together with other cardinals, archbishops and bishops. At the end of the eucharistic celebration, Pope Francis presided the rites of the Ultima Commendatio and the Valedictio. After the funeral the body of the late cardinal was taken to his native town, Borgo San Lorenzo. The arrival was around 9 p.m. and the body was placed in the Oratory of S. Omobono, where a Rosary was recited. The following day, November 14, the oratory was opened for prayers from 8 to 11 a.m. After this, the coffin was brought to Misericordia Cemetery in that town to be buried temporarily. As soon as the tomb is ready, the body will be buried in the church of Pieve di Santa Maria at Montefloscoli, according to his personal wish, and placed in a specially built vault in the center of the Pieve.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede; biography, in English, Holy See Press Office; photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana; Fondazione Domenico Bartolucci; I Had a Dream: The Music of Palestrina and Gregory the Great Had Come Back by Sandro Magister, Chiesa, July 21, 2006; Mons. Bartolucci interviene sulla riforma liturgica e sulla "riforma della riforma", in Italian, Disputationes Theologicae, August 19, 2009; Domenico Bartolucci is on Facebook; Domenico Bartolucci: Salve Regina, YouTube, Uploaded on Aug 30, 2007; Domenico Bartolucci - Crux Fidelis, YouTube, Uploaded on Mar 18, 2008; Cardinal Bartolucci Conducts in St. Peter's Basilica, You Tube, Uploaded on May 31, 2011; Cardinal Domenico Bartolucci greets the Pope Benedict XVI. , You Tube, Uploaded on Sep 3, 2011; Il canto nuovo del Maestro Domenico Bartolucci by Sandro Magister, in Italian, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, 11 novembre 2013; Quando Ratzinger incontrò Bartolucci by Michelangelo Nasca, in Italian, Vatican Insider, 11/11/2013; Cardinal Domenico Bartolucci dies at the age of 96, video, Rome Reports, 2013-11-11 14:50:02; Centennial of Domenico Bartolucci. Like a Harp in a Strange Land by Sandro Magister, Settimo Cielo, L'Espresso, 16 giugno 2017.

(1) This is a list of his works, taken from Wikipedia, linked above:

Mottets
* Primo libro dei Mottetti (Antifone Mariane), 30 mottetti a 4 voci e Litanie Lauretane
* Secondo libro dei Mottetti, 25 canti a 1-2-3-4 voci uguali con organo
* Terzo libro dei Mottetti, 44 mottetti a 4 voci
* Quarto libro dei Mottetti, 35 mottetti a 5-6-7-8 voci
* Quinto libro dei Mottetti, 24 mottetti a 4-5-6 voci e organo
* Sesto libro dei Mottetti, 20 mottetti a 4-5-6-7-8 voci a cappella o con organo
* Cantica varia, 7 composizioni a 4-5-6 voci a cappella o con organo
* Sacrae Cantiones, 46 mottetti a piy voci

Hymns
* Inni, 36 inni a 3-4-5-6 voci per l'anno liturgico
* Magnificat, 4 cantici a 2-3-4 voci a organo e 8 cantici a 5 voci a cappella sugli 8 modi modali
* Natale, 26 composizioni a 1-2-3-4-5-6 voci
* Settimana Santa, messe, mottetti e responsori a 4-5 voci

Lauds and Madrigals
* Laudi Mariani, 24 laudi a 3-4-7 voci
* Primo libro dei Madrigali, 18 madrigali a 3-4-5-6 voci
* Secondo libro dei Madrigali, 13 madrigali a 3-4 voci e pianoforte
* Miserere, per baritono solo, coro a 6 voci e orchestra; riduzione per canto e pianoforte

Masses
* Messe (alternate al canto Gregoriano) 8 messe a 4-5 voci
* Primo libro delle Messe, 5 messe a 1-2-3-4 voci
* Secondo libro delle Messe, 5 messe a 2-3-4 voci
* Terzo libro delle Messe, 6 messe a 3-4 voci
* Quarto libro delle Messe (Dominicis infra annum), 5 messe a 3 voci
* Messa Jubilaei, per coro a 4 voci, organo e piccola orchestra
* Messa Assumptionis, a 6 voci con orchestra
* Messa in onore di S. Cecilia, per soprano, coro a 4 voci, organo e piccola orchestra
* Messa pro Defunctis, per soli, coro a 8 voci e orchestra; riduzione per canto e pianoforte
* Messa de Angelis, per soli, coro a 4 voci e orchestra

Operas and Oratories
* Brunellesco, opera lirica in tre atti, per coro e orchestra
* Baptisma, poemetto sacro per soprano e basso solista, coro a 3 voci di soprani contralto e orchestra;
* La Nativit`, oratorio per soli, coro a 8 voci e orchestra;
* La Passione, oratorio per soli, coro a 6 voci e orchestra;
* La tempesta sul lago, oratorio per soli, coro a 4-7 voci, e orchestra;
* Gloriosi Principes, oratorio per soli, coro a 6 voci e orchestra;

Other compositions
* Trittico Mariano, per organo
* Organo, composizioni per organo e per clavicembalo
* Sinfonia rustica (Mugellana)
* Concerto in mi, per pianoforte e orchestra
* Romanza, con variazioni, per violino solo
* Sonata in sol, per violino e pianoforte
* Trio in la, per violino, violincello e pianoforte

(2) This is the text of the telegam, taken from the Press Office of the Holy See:
Preg.mi Signori Sandro e Stefano Bartolucci
Roma
Appresa la notizia della morte del venerato Cardinale Domenico Bartolucci, desidero esprimere all'omonima Fondazione, ai familiari e alla comunitß diocesana fiorentina sentimenti di profondo cordoglio pensando con affetto a questo caro e stimato sacerdote, illustre compositore e musicista, che ha esercitato il suo lungo e intenso ministero specialmente mediante la musica sacra che nasce dalla fede ed esprime la fede. Ricordo con viva gratitudine la sua feconda opera quale Direttore della Cappella Sistina e la valorizzazione sapiente del prezioso tesoro della polifonia, tesa ad elevare il cuore nella lode a Dio. Innalzo fervide preghiere al Signore affinché, per intercessione della Beata Vergine Maria, accolga questo suo generoso servitore e insigne uomo di Chiesa nel gaudio e nella pace eterna, e di cuore imparto a quanti ne piangono la scomparsa la confortatrice Benedizione Apostolica.

FRANCISCUS P P.

Analogous telegram was sent by Archbishop Pietro Parolin, secretary of State.


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