The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Pope Francis (2013-
Consistory of October 5, 2019 (VI)

(63) 1. AYUSO GUIXOT, M.C.C.J., Miguel Ángel
(1952-

Birth. June 17, 1952, Sevilla, Spain.

Education. Joined the Comboni Missionaries of the Heart of Jesus (M.C.C.J.). Emitted his perpetual vows on May 2, 1980. He earned a licentiate in Arabic and Islamic studies at Rome's Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies (PISAI) in 1982. He obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology from the University of Granada in 2000. Besides his native Spanish, he knows Arabic, English, French and Italian.

Priesthood. Ordained, September 20, 1982. He was a missionary in Egypt and Sudan from 1982 to 2002. Beginning in 1989, he was professor of Islamic studies, first in Khartoum, then in Cairo, and then President of PISAI from 2005 to 2012. He led interreligious discussions in Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. On November 20, 2007, he was appointed consultor of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. On June 30, 2012, he was named secretary of the Council for Interreligious Dialog. Pope Benedict XVI named him a special auditor at the Synod of Bishops for the Middle East in 2010. He served as the Vatican's principal representative in restoring dialogue with Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb of Cairo's Al-Azhar mosque, which were curtailed in 2011. He reported that the parties were focused on "joint initiatives to promote peace", the right to religious education, and the issue of religious freedom, looking to an agreement that establishes "the sacrosanct right to citizenship" for all, no matter their religion. His work culminated in the joint statement, the Declaration on Human Fraternity, issued by the Grand Imam and Pope Francis in February 2019 in Abu Dhabi. He has represented the Holy See as a member of the board of directors of the King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz International Center for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue (KAICIID), a joint initiative of Saudi Arabia, Austria and Spain, since its founding in Vienna in 2012. Secretary of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, June 30, 2012; Pope Francis confirmed his appointment as secretary on March 29, 2014.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Luperciana, January 29, 2016. Consecrated, March 19, 2016, Papal Vatican Basilica, by Pope Francis, assisted by Cardinal Fernando Filoni, prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, and by Angelo Giovanni Becciu, titular archbishop of Rusella, substitute for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State. His episcopal motto is Secundum Misericriam Tuam. During the illness and after the death of Cardinal Jean-Luois Tauran, president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialog, he ensured continuity in the dicastery's activities. Named president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, May 25, 2019. On August 6, 2019, the Pope named him member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; Nomina di Consultori del Pontificio Consiglio per il Dialogo Interreligioso, in English, Wikipedia; Nomina del Vescovo titolare di Luperciana, in Italian, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 29.01.2016; Keynote Address Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot (Vatican) / Tariq Ramadan, YouTube, published on Jun 22, 2017; Mgr Miguel Angel Ayuso Guixot réagit au décès du cardinal Tauran, YouTue, vaticannews.va, published on Jul 6, 2018; Educare alla pace in una prospettiva cristiana, vaticannews.va, 23 maggio 2019, 07:01; Nomina del Presidente del Pontificio Consiglio per il Dialogo Interreligioso, Sala stampa della Santa Sede, 25.05.2019; Miguel Ángel Ayuso, comboniano español, presidente del Pontificio Consejo para el Diálogo Interreligioso, Ecclesia Digital, 25 de mayo de 2019; Mons. Ayuso Guixot alla guida del Dicastero per il dialogo interreligioso by Sergio Centofanti, vaticannews.va, Città del Vaticano, 25 maggio 2019, 12:00, with audio; Monseñor Ayuso Guixot: solo la fraternidad puede transformar el mundo, Ecclesia Digital, 27 de mayo de 2019; Fedi e armonia sociale. Il vescovo Ayuso Guixot a Singapore, L'Osservatore Romano, 22 giugno 2019; Cardinal-elect Ayuso: will give my life to the Church to promote inter-religious dialogue by Robin Gomes, vaticannews.va, 02 September 2019, 13:58, with audio.

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(64) 2. MENDONÇA, José Tolentino Calaça de
(1965-

Birth. Deember 15, 1965, Madeira Portugal.

Education. He obtained a licentiate in theology from the Universidade Católica Portuguesa in Lisbon in 1989; and a licentiate in biblical sciences at the Pontifical Biblical Institute in Rome in 1992. He obtained a doctorate in biblical theology from the Universidade Católica Portuguesa in Lisbon in 2004.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1990, for the diocese of Funchal, Madeira, by Bishop Teodoro de Faria, bishop of Funchal. He has served as lecturer at the diocesan seminary of Funchal; rector of the Pontifical Portuguese College in Rome; vice rector and lecturer at the Universidade Católica Portuguesa in Lisbon; and visiting lecturer at the Catholic Universities of Pernambuco and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and at the Faculty of Philosophy and Theology of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In addition, he has served as consultor of the Pontifical Council for Culture since 2011. He preached the Lent Retreat to the Roman Curia on February 18 to 23, 2018, in Ariccia. He has published numerous volumes and articles in the fields of theology and exegesis, as well as various poetic works.

Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Suava and appointed Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, June 28, 2018. Consecrated, July 28, at the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, Lisbon, by Cardinal Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente, Patriarch of Lisbon, assisted by Cardinal António Augusto dos Santos Marto, Bishop of Leiria-Fátima, and by Teodoro de Faria, Bishop Emeritus of Funchal. His episcopal motto is Considerate Lilia Agri. He is a Portuguese theologian and poet who’s made a career out of engaging secular thought and who, prior to his nomination by Pope Francis as the Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church, rarely was seen wearing clerical clothes, exuding a spirit of simplicity akin to the pontiff himself.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal deacon in the consistory of June 28, 2019; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the deaconry of in that same consistory.

Webgraphy. Appointment of the archivist and librarian of the Holy Roman Church, Bulletin, Holy See Press Office; Vatican to Get a new Archivist and Librarian, Zenit, in English, June 26, 2018 photograph, arms, bibliography and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Le père José Tolentino Mendonça, un auteur spirituel portugais aux archives du Vatican by Claire Lesegretain, La Croix, 26/06/2018 à 12h46; Curriculum Vitae; Mons. Tolentino: problema dell’uomo di oggi è quello di una identità sconosciuta by Antonella Palermo, vaticannews.va, Città del Vaticano, 01 novembre 2018, 08:00, with audio; Consistório 2019: Novo cardeal português vai «valorizar o pontificado do Papa Francisco» by D. João Lavrador, Ecclesia, Angra, Set 2, 2019 - 19:06; Vatican archivist, award-winning poet, to be made a cardinal by Junno Arocho Esteves, Crux, Catholic News Service, Vatican City, Sep 8, 2019; Conferência Episcopal Portuguesa congratula-se com nomeação de Tolentino Mendonça para cardeal, Sapo24, Fátima, 10 set 2019 16:04; Bispo de Leiria-Fátima diz que Tolentino Mendonça será importante na reforma da Igreja, Sapo24, 10 set 2019 17:05; Parlamento congratula-se com nomeação de Tolentino Mendonça como cardeal, Sapo24, 11 set 2019 16:50.

(65) 3. HARDJOATMDJO, Ignatius Suharyo
(1950-

Birth. July 9, 1950, Sedayu, Island of Java, Indonesia. From a Catholic family. He was the seventh of ten children. One of his brothers, Ari Suitbertus Sunardi, entered the Order of Trappists in the Hermitage of Saint Mary Rawaseneng, in the city of Waterford, Central Java. Two of his sisters became nuns: Sister Christina Sri Murni, FMM, and Sister María Magdalena Marganingsih, PMY.

Education. He graduated from St. Peter Canisius Minor seminary in Mertoyudan, Central Java in 1968. He completed his undergraduate degree in Philosophy and Theology at Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta in 1971 and doctoral degree from the Pontifical Urbanian University, Rome, in 1981.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 29, 1976, for the archdiocese of Semarang. He joined the faculty of philosophy in Jakarta from 1981 to 1991 and headed the faculty of philosophy and sociology in Santa Dharma from 1983 to 1993. He was dean on the faculty of theology at Santa Dharma from 1993 to 1997.

Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Semarang, April 21, 1997. Consecrated, August 22, 1997, by Cardinal Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja, S.J., archbishop of Jakarta, assisted by Pietro Sambi, titular archbishop of Bellicastro, nuncio to Indonesia, and by Blasius Pujoraharja, bishop of Ketapang. His episcopal motto was Serviens Domino Cum Omni Humilitate. On January 2, 2006, he was named Military Ordinary of Indonesia. Named archbishop coadjutor of the metropolitan see Jakarta, July 25, 2009. Succeeded to the metropolitan see of Jakarta on June 28, 2010. He participated in the 13th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the theme "The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith", October 7 to 28, 2012. Elected president of the Indonesian Episcopal Conference on November 15, 2012; he has been relected for two more three-year terms. On September 13, 2014, he was named member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. He participated in the 15th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the theme "The vocation and the mission of the family in the Church and the contemporary world, October 4 to 25, 2015.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 28, 2019; received the red biretta, the cardinalitial ring and the title of in that same consistory.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Jakarta Archdiocese welcomes new archbishop as cardinal retires, Catholic News Service, Jakarta, Indonesia, 6.30.2010 12:00 AM ET; photogramps and biography, in Spanish, INFOVATICANA, 10 diciembre, 2013; Suharyo wins third term as Indonesian bishops's chief by Katharina R. Lestari, ucanews.com, Jakarta, Indonesia, November 15, 2018; Indonesian prelate's political peace call by Konradus Epa, ucanews.com, Jakarta, Indonesia, April 23, 2019; Pope makes Indonesian archbishop a cardinal by Konradus Epa, ucanews.com, Jakarta, Indonesia, September 2, 2019; Un cardinale nel paese dell’islam asiatico by Paolo Affatato, La Stampa, Vatican Insider, Città del Vaticano, 14 Settembre 2019.

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(66) 4. GARCÍA RODRÍGUEZ, Juan de la Caridad
(1948-

Birth. July 11, 1948, Camagüey, Cuba.

Education. Studied philosophy and theology in the Seminary "San Basilio Magno" of El Cobre; and in the Major Seminary of "San Carlos y San Ambrosio" of La Habana.

Priesthood. Ordained, January 25, 1972, Camagüey, by Adolfo Rodríguez Herrera, bishop of Camagüey. Exercised his priestly ministry in the parish of Morón; and in that of Ciego de Avila. Pastor of the parish of Jatibonico and of Morón. Vicar for the pastoral of the then Vicariate of Vicaria di Ciego-Morón. In 1989, he was named pastor of Florida. He is the founder of and director of the School of Missionaries of the diocese of Camagüey.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Gummi di Proconsolare and appointed auxiliary of Camagüey, March 15, 1997. Consecrated, June 7, 1997, Camagüey, by Adolfo Rodríguez Herrera, bishop of Camagüey, assisted by Mario Eusebio Mestril Vega, bishop of Ciego de Ávila, and by Emilio Aranguren Echeverría, bishop of Cienfuegos. His episcopal motto is Ve y anuncia el Evangelio. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Camagüey on June 10, 2002. President of the Conferencia de Obispos Católicos de Cuba. Participated in the Fifth General Assembly of Latin American and Caribbean Episcopate celebrated in Aparecida, Brazil, in May 2007. Participated in Ordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops on the Family, celebrated at the Vatican in 2014. Transferred to the metropolitan see of San Cristóbal de La Habana on April 26, 2016. He took possession of the see on May 22, 2016.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; Rinuncia dell'Arcivescovo di Camagüey (Cuba) e Nomina del Successore, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 10.06.2002; Rinuncia dell’Arcivescovo Metropolita di San Cristóbal de La Habana (Cuba) e nomina del nuovo Arcivescovo Metropolita, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 26.04.2016; Juan de la Caridad García Rodríguez, arzobispo de La Habana (Camagüey, 1948), 14ymedio.com, La Habana | Diciembre 28, 2016; La eficacia de lo pequeño by Sergio Lázaro Cabarrouy Fernández-Fontecha, Arquidiócesis de La Habana, La Habana, 1ro. de septiembre de 2019; Papa Francisco nombra nuevo cardenal en Cuba, Gramma/Prensa Latina, 2 de septiembre de 2019 14:09:39; Futuro cardeal García Rodríguez: a alegria dos bispos cubanos, vaticannews.va, Cidade do Vaticano, 02 setembro 2019, 16:41; Obispos de Cuba agradecen al Papa Francisco por crear cardenal a Mons. García, ACI Prensa, 2 de septiembre de 2019 9:43 pm; Arzobispo de La Habana: “Gracias al Papa por fijarse en la Iglesia de Cuba” by Mireia Bonilla , vaticannews.va, Ciudad del Vaticano, 04 septiembre 2019, 13:31, with audio; Unassuming pastor who helped rebuild Cuban church will receive red hat by Carol Glatz, The Boston Pilot, CNA, Vatican City, 9/10/2019.

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(67) 5. AMBONGO BESUNGU, O.F.M.Cap., Fredolin
(1960-

Birth. January 24, 1960, Boto, diocese of Molegbe, province of North-Ubangi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Education. Studied philosophy at the Seminary of Bwamanda and theology at the Institute "Saint-Eugène de Mazenod" of Kinshasa. Joined the Order of the Friars Minor Capuchins and pronounced his first vows in 1981; and his perpetual vows in 1987.

Priesthood. Ordained, August 14, 1988. After his ordination, he did his doctoral studies in moral theology at the Accademia Alfonsiana in Rome. Parish priest in Bobito (1988-1989); professor in the Catholic University of Kinshasa; major superior, vice-provincial of the Capuchin Fathers of the Vice-Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo; National President of the Assembly of Major Superiors (ASUMA) and of the Circumscription of Friars Minor Capuchin in Africa (CONCAU).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Bokungu-Ikela on November 22, 2004. Consecrated, March 6, 2005, by Joseph Kumuondala Mbimba, archbishop of Mbandaka-Bikoro, assisted by Giovanni d’Aniello, titular archbishop of Pesto, apostolic nuncio to the Democratic Republic of Congo, and by Cardinal Frédéric Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi, C.I.C.M., archbishop of Kinshasa. His episcopal motto is Les grâces du Seigneur sont avec nous. In 2008, he was named apostolic administrator of the diocese of Kole; a post he occupied until August 9, 2015. At the same time he was president of the Episcopal Commission Iustitia et Pax and of the Episcopal Commission for Natural Resources. On March 6, 2016, he was appointed apostolic administrator of Mbandaka-Bikoro. Named archbishop of Mbandaka-Bikoro on November 12, 2016. In June 2017, he was elected vice-president of the National Episcopal Conference of Congo, CENCO. On February 6, 2018, he was appointed coadjutor archbishop of the archdiocese of Kinshasa. On November 1, 2018, he succeeded to the see of Kinshasa. He started his pastoral ministry in Kinshasa on November 25, 2018.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal priest in the consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; Rinuncia e successione dell’Arcivescovo di Kinshasa (Repubblica Democratica del Congo), Sala stampa della Santa Sede, 01.11.2018; Rd Congo : Mgr Fridolin Ambongo Besungu, nouvel archevêque de Kinshasa, vaticannews.va, 01 novembre 2018, 18:06, with audio; ‘Power is a service’ Congo archbishop tells candidates, Catholic News Agency, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nov 26, 2018 / 03:20 pm; Inauguration du ministère épiscopal de Mgr Ambongo dans l’archidiocèse de Kinshasa by Jean-Paul Kamba, SJ, vaticannews.va, Cité du Vatican, 26 novembre 2018, 17:31; Cardinal-elect Besungu: recognition of their work to give voice to the suffering people by Robin Gomes, vaticannews.va, 02 September 2019, 16:34.

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(68) 6. HÖLLERICH, S.J., Jean Claude
(1960-

Birth. August 9, 1958, in Differdange, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Education. After his secondary studies in the Classical Lyceum of Diekirch, he began his formation in the diocesan priesthood in Rome, where he stayed at the Pontifical German-Hungarian College and studied at the Pontifical Gregorian University. In 1981, he joined the Society of Jesus and followed the Jesuit training in the Province of Southern Belgium and Luxembourg. After the novitiate in Namur and two years of pastoral training in Luxembourg (1983-1985), he left for Japan where he studied the Japanese language and culture and resumed his study of theology at Sophia University in Tokyo (1985-1989). He finished theology in Frankfurt (Germany) with a license.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 21, 1990, for the Society of Jesus. After his ordination, he completed his studies in German language and literature at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität in Munich, where he obtained license (1990-1994). He held the following positions: pastoral training at the Jeunesse étudiante Chrétienne in Luxembourg and at the Communautés Vie Chrétienne; Teacher in the French Vauban Lyceum of Luxembourg (1983-1985); Spiritual guide for seminarians during the preparatory year for the Luxembourg Major Seminary and Head of the vocation ministry (1990-1994). Since 1994, he has been a member of the Catholic student fraternity, AV Edo-Rhenania zu Tokio and of A. V. Rheinstein Köln. From 1994, he taught German and French languages, and European studies at Sophia University in Tokyo; and from 1999, he was Chaplain of the students of the same University. Also since 2008, he was Rector of the Jesuit community at Sophia University and Vice-Rector of the same University for General Affairs and students. He was also Delegate of the Japanese Episcopal Conference for the preparation and participation in the World Youth Day in Cologne in 2005.

Episcopate. Elected Archbishop of Luxembourg on July 12, 2011. Consecrated, October 16, 2011, metropolitan cathedral of Luxembourg, by Fernand Franck, Archbishop emeritus of Luxembourg, assisted by Cardinal Joachim Meisner, Archbishop of Cologne, and by Cardinal Peter Takeo Okada, Archbishop of Tōkyō. His episcopal motto is Annunciate. He was President of the Conference of European Justice and Peace Commissions from 2014 to 2018; and became President of the Council of Bishops' Conferences of Europe's Commission for Youth in 2017. He is one of the founders of the Catholic Scouts of Europe in Luxembourg. In March 2018, he was elected president of the Commission of the Bishops' Conferences of the European Union (COMECE). He participated in the 15th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, "I Giovani, la Fede e il Discernimento Vocazionale", Vatican, October 3-28, 2018; by papal apointment. He is considered a strong progressive and reliable supporter of Pope Francis among the European bishops. Among other things, he has taken strong positions in favor of lay empowerment and penned a memorable article in the Jesuit-edited journal Civiltà Cattolica opposing populist nationalism.

Cardinalate. Will be created Cardinal in the Consistory of October 5, 2019. He is the first Cardinal from Luxembourg.

Webgraphy. His photograph and biography, in French, Service Communication et Presse, Archevêché de Luxembourg; his photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Rinuncia dell’Arcivescovo di Luxembourg Granducato del Lussemburgo) e Nomina del Successore, Sala Stampa della Santa Sede, 12.07.2011; Jesuit Archbishop Hollerich elected new COMECE president, La Croix, March 9, 2018; Toward the European Elections by Archbishop Jean-Claude Hollerich, SJ, La Civiltà Cattolica, 21 May 2019; Mgr Hollerich nommé cardinal, «une très grande surprise», Le Quotidien, Luxembourg, 02/09/19 9:45; Cardinal-elect Hollerich promises to live his mission with humility, by Manuela Affejee and Linda Bordoni, vaticannes.va, 02 September 2019, 13:10, with audio; Cardinal-Elect on Re-Evangelizing Europe: ‘We Must Be Apostles of Hope’ by Solène Tadié, National Catholic Register, Rome, Sep. 3, 2019; «Être choisi pour une telle charge fait un peu peur» by Nicolas Léonard, Luxembourg, Paperjam, Maison Moderne, 03.09.2019; Nuovi cardinali. Jean-Claude Hollerich: “Europa apriti al mondo” by M. Chiara Biagioni, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 5 settembre 2019.

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(69) 7. RAMAZZINI IMERI, Álvaro
(1947-

Birth. July 16, 1947, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala

Education. He obtained a doctorate in canon law at the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 27, 1971, for the Archdiocese of Guatemala. Professor and Rector of the National Major Seminary of Guatemala. Pastor of one of the largest parishes of the Archdiocese of Guatemala.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of San Marcos, December 15, 1988. Consecrated, January 6, 1989, patriarchal Vatican basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Edward Idris Cassidy, titular archbishop of Amantia, Substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by José Tomás Sánchez, archbishop emeritus of Nueva Segovia, Philippines, Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples. He has held many posts in the Episcopal Conference of Guatemala - of which he was President from 2006 to 2008 - and currently chairs the Commission for Social Communications and the Commission for Penitentiary Pastoral Care. He participated in the Episcopal Conference for Latin America (CELAM) Assembly in Aparecida, Brazil, in 2007; and in the Special Assembly for America of the Synod of Bishops in 1997. On May 14, 2012, he was transferred to the diocese of Huehuetenango. He has been a public advocate for justice, particularly among the country's indigenous population. That population, especially in the area of Huehuetenango, had been marginalized, tortured and targeted for killing in massive numbers during the short regime of Efraín Ríos Montt in the early 1980s. He is a human rights defender whose support for environmental activists has earned him death threats.

Cardinalate. Will be created Cardinal in the Consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy Biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; A church that requires a different kind of bishop by Tom Roberts, National Catholic Reporter, Sep 7, 2013; Cardinal-elect was a Francis bishop before Francis by Tom Roberts, National Catholic Reporter, Sep 3, 2019; “Sarò la voce del Guatemala”: intervista a mons. Ramazzini Imeri, il vescovo di frontiera che sarà cardinale by Bruno Desidera, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 3 settembre 2019; “Ser cardenal es también un trabajo político en el sentido amplio de la palabra” Monseñor Álvaro Ramazzini by Cindy Espina, Guatemala, elPeriódico, 03-09-19; Pauvres et migrants au Guatemala, les priorités du futur cardinal Ramazzini by Griselda Mutual, vaticannews.va, Cité du Vatican, 03 septembre 2019, 18:19.

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(70) 8. ZUPPI, Matteo Maria
(1955-

Birth. October 11, 1955, Rome, Italy. Great-grand nephew of Cardinal Carlo Confalonieri (1958).

Education. He entered the Seminary of Palestrina and took the courses of preparation for the priesthood at the Pontifical Lateran University, Rome, where he obtained a bachelor degree in theology. He obtained a doctorate in letters and philosophy at the University of Rome with a thesis in History of Christianity.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 9, 1981, in the cathedral of Palestrina, by Renato Spallanzani, bishop of Palestrina. Incardinated in the diocese of Rome, November 15, 1988. Rector of the church of Santa Croce alla Lungara from 1983 to 2012. He participated with several members of the Community of Sant'Egidio in negotiations that helped end the civil war in Mozambique in 1992 and was made an honorary citizen of that country. Member of the Presbyteral Council from 1995 to 2012; vice-pastor of Santa Maria in Trastevere from 1981 to 2000; from 2000 to 2010 he was the pastor. From 2005 to 2010 he was prefect of the III Prefecture of Rome; from 2000 to 2012, he was general ecclesiastical assistant of the Comunity of Sant'Egidio. From the center of Rome he was later transferred to the immense Roman periphery in 2012, in Torre Angela in the parish of Santi Simone e Giuda Taddeo, one of the most populated parishes of the diocese of Rome. From 2011 to 2012 he has also been prefect of the XVII Prefecture of Rome. He is the author of some publications on pastoral themes. Named chaplain of His Holiness in 2006.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Villanova and appointed auxiliary of Rome, January 31, 2012. Consecrated, April 14, 2012, by Cardianl Agostino Vallini, vicar of Rome, assisted by Giovanni Battista Pichierri, archbishop of Trani-Barletta-Bisceglie, and by Vincenzo Paglia, bishop of Terni-Narni-Amelia. His episcopal motto is Gaudium Domini Fortitudo Vestra. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Bologna, October 27, 2015. Made the solemn entrance in the archdiocese on December 12, 2015. He is a strong advocate for immigrants and the poor. He wrote a forward to Jesuit Father James Martin's book, Building a Bridge: How the Catholic Church and the LGBT Community Can Enter into a Relationship of Respect, Compassion, and Sensitivity.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Photograph and biography, in Italian, archdiocese of Bologna; photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, archdiocese of Bologna; Passione del Signore: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “sotto la croce sentiamo quanto sono inaccettabili violenza e discriminazione che umiliano l’uomo”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 30 marzo 2018 @ 20:00; Diocesi: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “una Chiesa senza vera e umana fraternità è condominio di persone che condividono ideali”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 19 maggio 2018 @ 21:00; Incidente Bologna: mons. Zuppi (arcivescovo), “questa tragedia sarà affrontata con il concorso di tutti”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 6 agosto 2018 @ 17:05; Diocesi: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “rendiamo migliore la nostra città custodendo con amore i suoi figli più fragili”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 4 ottobre 2018 @ 17:02; Immacolata: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “proteggere il dono della vita dal suo inizio alla sua fine”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 8 dicembre 2018 @ 16:47; Messa Notte Natale: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “ci sveglia dal sonno dell’indifferenza. È Vangelo, non narcotico”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 24 dicembre 2018 @ 23:00; Mercoledì delle ceneri: mons. Zuppi (Bologna), “partiamo da noi: il mondo cambia se io cambio”, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 6 marzo 2019 @ 17:30; Eravamo quattro amici al bar. L’arcivescovo Matteo Zuppi ricorda la mediazione in Mozambico, L'Osservatore Romano, 03 agosto 2019; Diocesi: Bologna, l’arcivescovo Zuppi celebrerà domenica la Messa al Villaggio senza Barriere Pastor Angelicus per la festa della famiglia, Servizio Informazione Religiosa, 23 agosto 2019 @ 18:03; Mozambico, monsignor Zuppi a Patrizio Roversi: "Migranti, alzare muri è miope e fallimentare", La Repubblica, 31 agosto 2019, video; Mons. Zuppi diventerà cardinale, Dodici Porte, published on Sep 4, 2019, YouTube; Zuppi: “Portare la porpora per servire gli ultimi” by Federico Piana, vaticannews.va, Città de Vaticano, 05 settembre 2019, 13:16, with audio; Bologna. Il ricordo di Zuppi: Caffarra chiaro e rigoroso, Marella luce nella povertà by Chiara Unguendoli, Avvenire, Bologna sabato 7 settembre 2019; Matteo Zuppi visto da vicino by Marco Roncalli, La Stampa, Roma, 15 Settembre 2019.

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(71) 9. LÓPEZ ROMERO, S.D.B., Cristóbal
(1952-

Birth. May 19, 1952, Vélez-Rubio, diocese of Almería, Spain.

Education. Joined the Congregation of Saint Francis of Sales of Saint John Bosco (Salesians) in 1964. He studied at the Salesian Seminaries of Gerona and Barcelona, ​​studying philosophy from 1973 to 1975 and theology from 1975 to 1979. He earned a licenciate in Information Sciences, Journalism section, at the Autonomous University of Barcelona in 1982. He took his first vows as a Salesian on August 16, 1968 and made his solemn profession on August 2, 1974.

Priesthood. Ordained, May 19, 1979. After his priestly ordination he held the following positions from 1979 to 1984, Minister for the marginalized in La Verneda, in Barcelona; 1984-1986: Youth Ministry in the Salesian Colegio of Asunción, Paraguay; 1986-1992: Provincial Delegate for vocational youth ministry in Asunción; 1991-1992: Director of the Salesian Bulletin in Asunción; 1992-1994: Parish priest in Asunción; 1994-2000: Provincial of the Salesian Province of Paraguay; 2000-2002: Director of the Community, of the pastoral and teacher in the Colegio of Asunción; 2002-2003: Ministry in the Missions in Paraguay; 2003-2011: Director of the Community, of parish and scholastic pastoral care in the vocational training center in Kénitra, Morocco; 2011-2014: Provincial of the Salesian Province of Bolivia; from 2014: Provincial of the Salesian Province of María Auxiliadora in Spain.

Episcopate. Elected Archbishop of Rabat, December 29, 2017. Consecrated, by Cardinal Juan José Omella Omella, Archbishop of Barcelona, assisted by Cardinal Carlos Amigo Vallejo, O.F.M., Archbishop Emeritus of Sevilla and by Vito Rallo, Titular Archbishop of Alba, Apostolic Nuncio to Morocco. His episcopal motto is Adveniat regnum Tuum. On May 24, 2019, he was named Apostolic Administrator of the Archdiocese of Tangier.

Cardinalate. He will be created Cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019. Although a Spaniard by birth, he became a Paraguayan citizen and is happily claimed by Paraguay as its first cardinal. He sees his appointment as a nod to the Kingdom of Morocco, which, he says, has done much to foster moderate Islam.

Webpgraphy. His arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; Morocco - Ordination of Archbishop of Rabat, Msgr. Cristóbal López, SDB: "The principle service ... is the service of love", Agenzia Info salesiana (ANS), 12 March 2018; Morocco: Archbishop Describes a ‘Samaritan’ Church by María Lozano, Zenit, March 27, 2019 16:43; Entrevista al neocardenal Cristóbal López: «Mi nombramiento es un impulso al diálogo con el islam» by Ricardo Benjumea, Alfa y Omega, Semanario Católico de Información, 02 de Septiembre de 2019; Cristóbal López, arzobispo de Rabat y futuro cardenal: "El Papa quiere darnos coraje a las iglesias del norte de África", Madrid, Europa Press, 06 sep, 2019 10:40; Red hat for Rabat gives greater visibility to minority church in Morocco by Carol Glatz, Crux, Catholic News Service, Sep 7, 2019.

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(72) 10. CZERNY, S.J., Michael
(1946-

Birth. July 18, 1946, Brno, Czech Republic (then Czechoslovakia). He migrated with his family to Canada when he was two years old.

Education. Joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1963. In 1978 he received his doctorate in Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Chicago.

Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1973, for the Jesuit Province of Canada. In 1979, in Toronto, he founded the Jesuit Center for Faith and Social Justice and directed it until 1989 when, following the Jesuit killing at the Central American University (UCA), he moved to San Salvador where, in 1991 he held the position of Vice-Rector of the UCA and Director of the Institute for Human Rights of the same Center. Fron 1992 to 2002 he was Secretary for Social Justice in the General Curia of the Society of Jesus; and successively, he operated in Africa as founder and Director of the African Jesuit AIDS Network (AJAN), Support network for African Jesuits committed to responding to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In 2005 he taught at Hekima College, in the Catholic University of Eastern Africa, in Nairobi, collaborating with the Episcopal Conference of Kenya. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI named him auditor (expert) of the Second Synod of Bishops for Africa. In 2010, he was named Consultor of the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax. On December 14, 2016, Pope Francis named him Under-Secretary of the Section for Refugees and Migrants of the Dicastery for the Promotion of Integral Human Development. Participated in the member of the 15th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, Vatican City, October 3 to 28, 2018, on the topic The Youth, Faith and the Vocational Discernment; by papal appointment. On May 4, 2019, he was named special secretary of the Special Synod for the Pan-Amasonic Region. He has been the pope’s right-hand man on migrant and refugee issues from his perch at the Vatican’s Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.

Episcopate. Will be consecrated by Pope Francis on October 4, 2019, at 5 p.m., in the Papal Vatican Basilica.

Cardinalate. Will be created Cardinal in the Consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Conference of Michael Czerny on the “Laudato Si'” encyclical, Canadian Religious Conference, Quebec, 29 September 2016; Pope Francis appoints Jesuit and Scalabrini priests to new Vatican department for refugees by Gerard O’Connell, America the Jesuit Review, December 14, 2016; Pope Francis Appoints Fr. Michael Czerny, SJ, to New Vatican Office for Refugees and Migrants, Jesuit, December 16, 2016; Statement of Father Michael Czerny, S.J., Undersecretary of the Section for Migrants and Refugees Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development, Fourth Informal Thematic Session: Contributions of migrants and diaspora to all dimensions of sustainable development, including remittances and portability of earned benefits. New York, 24-25 July 2017, United Nations Headquarters, Trusteeship Council Chamber; Jesuit repeats call for care of our common home by Michele Jurich, The Catholic Voice, August 14, 2017; Fr. Michael Czerny, S.J., Integral Voices, Jan 1, 2018; Pope’s right-hand man on migrants asks synod to see them as paradigmatic by Christopher White, Crux, Oct 15, 2018; 50 Years of Justice and Reconciliation - Michael Czerny SJ, Jesuits Global, published on Jul 5, 2019, YouTube; Father Michael Czerny, S.J., on Church’s Commitment to Amazonia by Larissa I. López, Zenit, August 02, 2019 16:50; Cardinal-elect Czerny: new mission, new service, great honour by Robin Gomes, vaticannews.va, 02 September 2019, 15:15; The Global Compact for Migration by Michael Czerny, S.J., La Civiltà Cattolica, 5 September 2019; Czerny: nombramiento me encontró en una periferia de las que habla Francisco by Manuel Cubías, vaticannews.va, Ciudad del Vaticano, 11 septiembre 2019, 12:07, with video and audio.

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(73) 11. FITZGERALD, M. Afr., Michael Louis
(1937-

Birth. August 17, 1937, Walsall, England, from a Catholic family of Irish descent.

Education. Initially, he attended Queen Mary's Grammar School. Wishing from an early age to become a priest and a missionary, he joined the Junior Seminary of the Missionaries of Africa (White Fathers) at the age of twelve, first in Scotland, then in the South of England. He studied philosophy for two years, the first in England and the second in Ireland. He did his novitiate in the Netherlands from 1956 to 1957; and pursued his theological studies from 1957 to 1961 in Tunisia, where he began learning Arabic and acquiring some knowledge of Islam. Upon ordination in 1961, he was sent to Rome to study Dogmatic Theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University. Among his teachers was Jesuit theologian Bernard Lonergan. This was the time of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) which provided the opportunity of attending lectures by theologians such as Karl Rahner and Yves Congar, future Cardinal. He completed his doctorate in Theology in 1965 on the missionary intention in the writings of the Latin apologists. In 1965 he started a BA in Arabic at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, graduating in 1968, whereupon he became a lecturer at the IPEA (Institut Pontifical d'Études Arabes), later renamed the Pontifical Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies (PISAI). Besides his native English, he speaks French and Italian; has knowledge of Arabic; and some German.

Priesthood. Ordained, February 3, 1961, by Cardinal William Godfrey, Archbishop of Westminster, England. After one year lecturing at the PISAI, in 1969, he was appointed lecturer in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Makerere, Kampala, Uganda, where he taught courses on Islam to Muslim as well as to Christian students. In 1971 he returned to Rome to pursue his teaching and scholarly interests at the PISAI. From 1972 to 1978, he was Director of the PISAI. During this period, Father Fitzgerald was involved in the creation of Encounter, Documents for Christian-Muslim Understanding, a periodical publication on Islam, and supervised the launch of Islamochristiana, a scholarly journal specialised in Christian-Muslim relations and interreligious dialogue. In 1972, he became consultor of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, then known as Secretariat for Non-Christians. In 1978, he returned to Africa to carry out parish work in Sudan, in the town of New Halfa (Archdiocese of Khartoum). His duties included ministering to the Christian population while also cooperating with the Muslim community. In 1980, he was elected to the General Council of the Missionaries of Africa in Rome, where he spent six years managing and organizing. On January 22, 1987, he was appointed Secretary of the then Secretariat for Non-Christians, called since 1988 Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue (PCID). In that capacity, he helped draft Dialogue and Proclamation, one of the Catholic Church's documents concerning the relationship between dialogue and evangelization.

Episcopate Elected Titular Bishop of Nepte, December 16, 1991. Consecrated, January 6, 1992, Patriarchal Vatican Basilica, by Pope John Paul II, assisted by Giovanni Battista Re, Titular Archbishop of Vescovio, Secretary of the Congregation for Bishops, and by Josip Uhac, Titular Archbishop of Tharros, Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of the Peoples. On October 1, 2002 he was appointed President of the same Pontifical Council and promoted to Archbishop. On November 23, 2002, Pope John Paul II appointed him a member of the Pontifical Council for the Promotion of Christian Unity; in 2004 the Pope appointed him a member of the Pontifical Council for Culture. Confirmed in that post by the new Pope Benedict XVI on April 21, 2005. On February 15, 2006, he was named Apostolic Nuncio to the Arab Republic of Egypt and Delegate to the League of Arab States; occupied the post until the resignation presented by age limit on October 23, 2012. In retirement he remained at the Missionaries of Africa in Ste Anne, Jerusalem until early in 2019, when he returned to England to work in a Liverpool parish. He has published Signs of Dialogue (with Robert Caspar); Christian Encounter with Muslims (1992); Dieu rêve d'unité; Les catholiques et les religions: les leçons du dialogue; Entretiens avec Annie Laurent (2005); Interfaith Dialogue (with John Borelli); A Catholic View (2006); and of numerous articles in Concilium, Islamochristiana, Pro Dialogo, Gregorianum, Origins, among others.

Cardinalate. Will be created Cardinal in the Consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; Michael Louis Fitzgerald, Curriculum vitae, Monastic Interreligious Dialog, 18.3.2013; Archbishop Fitzgerald reflects on the Arab Spring by Gerard O'Connell, La Stampa, June 10, 2013; Islam expert brings red hat to multicultural ministry in Liverpool by Carol Glatz, Philadelphia, Vatican City, CatholicPhilly, Catholic News Service, September 13, 2019; British Catholic Archbishop to become Cardinal, by Premier Journalist, Sat 14 Sep 2019.

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(74) 12. TAMKEVIČIUS, S.J., Sigitas
(1938-

Birth. November 7, 1938, in the village of Gudonys (district of Lazdijai), Lithuania.

Education. After having graduation in the secondary school in Seirijai in 1955, he entered the Interdiocesan Seminary in Kaunas. In 1957, he had to interrupt his studies in the seminary because of the obligatory military service. He continued his studies of theology after the military service and graduated 1962.

Priesthood. Ordained, April 18, 1962, by Petras Mazelis, Titular Bishop of Celenderis, Apostolic Administrator of Telšiai. In the following years, he ministered as vicar in the parishes of Alytus, Lazdijai, Kudirkos Naumiestis, Prienai, Simnas. In 1968, he entered the Society of Jesus. At that time Catholic religious congregations were illegal according to Soviet law. He was among the initiators of the petition action protesting against the Soviet discriminating restrictions considering the conditions of the Interdiocesan Theological Seminary in Kaunas. Because of that, Soviet authorities forbade Father Tamkevičius to exercise his priestly ministry. He worked in the factory and in the land reclamation area for one year. In 1972, while being vicar of Simnas parish, he the underground publication, The Chronicle of the Catholic Church of Lithuania. The Chronicle registered and made public in the West the facts of religious discrimination in Soviet Lithuania. The underground publication was severely persecuted by Soviet repressive authorities, mainly the KGB. Father Tamkevičius was the editor of The Chronicle for 11 years until his arrest in 1983. He was the pastor of Kybartai parish from 1975 until 1983. In 1978, together with four other Lithuanian priests he founded The Catholic Committee for the Defense of the Believers’ Rights. In 1983, Father Tamkevičius was arrested and brought to trial accused of alleged anti-Soviet propaganda and agitation. He was sentenced to a ten-year-term of prison and exile. He spent his prison term in the labor camps of Perm and Mordovia. In 1988, he was exiled to Siberia. Thanks to liberalization of Soviet politics caused by perestrojka, Father Tamkevičius was set free. In 1989, the Lithuanian Bishops' Conference appointed him spiritual director in the Interdiocesan Seminary of Kaunas. In 1990, he was appointed rector of the Seminary.

Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Turuda and appointed auxiliary of Kaunas, May 8, 1991. Consecrated, May 19, 1991, by Cardinal Vincentas Sladkevicus, M.I.C., archbishop of Kaunas, assisted by Vladas Michelevicius, titular bishop of Tapso, by Antanas Vaičius, bishop of Telšiai, by Romualdas Krikšciunas, titular bishop of Amaia, and by Juozas Preikšas, titular bishop of Egnatia. His episcopal motto is Dominus Illuminatio Mea. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Kaunas, 1996. From 1999 to 2002 and from 2005 to 2014, he was president, and from 2002 to 2005, vice-president of Lithuanian Bishops' Conference. From 2005 to 2015, he served as president of the Commission for Media of Social Communication; and from 2011 to 2014, he was chairman of the Council for Social Affairs of Lithuanian Bishops‘ Conference. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese of Kaunas on June 11, 2015. The Pope appointed Lionginas Virbalas, S.J., until then bishop of Panevėžys, archbishop of Kaunas. In 2018, he joined Pope Francis on a prayerful tour of the former KGB headquarters in Vilnius.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019.

Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Lituanian Bishops' Conference, Archbishop Sigitas Tamkevicius SJ. The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, Brangūs Bernardinai.lt, Kovo 12 d., 2012 (March 12, 2012); his photograph, arms and biography, in Lithuanian, Kauno arkivyskupija, 2017; Tamkevičius: il cardinale venuto dal GULag by Paolo Polesana, La Nuova Europa, Bergamo, Italia, 4 Settembre 2019.

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(75) 13. DAL CORSO, P.S.D.P., Eugenio
(1939-

Birth. May 16, 1939, Lugo di Valpantena di Grezzana, diocese of Verona, Italy. He was the second of the six children of Rodolfo Dal Corso and Teresa Bellorio; he was given the name Eugenio to honor Pope Pius XII who had been elected Pope two months earlier.

Education. From the age of ten he attended the Don Calabria Institute and there decided to become a missionary. He made his religious profession in the Poor Servants of the Divine Providence (P.S.D.P.) religious congregation in 1956.

Priesthood. Ordained, July 7, 1963, in the Casa di Nazareth. He then completed his studies in dogmatics while he also doing pastoral work in the Madonna di Campagna parish in Verona as well as in Naples. He also taught theology from 1967 to 1968. He began his career as a missionary in the city of Laferrere in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in January 1975, where he helped educate new priests. After just over a decade there, he was assigned to the missions in Luanda, Angola, in March 1986. One of his projects there was the construction of a seminary in Uíje. In 1991 he was appointed the Provincial Superior of his Order in Angola.

Episcopate. Elected Coadjutor Bishop of Saurimo, Angola, December 15, 1995. Consecrated, March 3, 1996, by Félix del Blanco Prieto, Titular Archbishop of Vannida, Apostolic Delegate to Angola, assisted by Andrea Veggio, Titular Bishop of Velia, Auxiliary Bishop of Verona, Italy, and by Pedro Marcos Ribeiro da Costa, Bishop of Saurimo. His episcopal motto is Sapientia.

Cardinalate. Will be created cardinal in the consistory of October 5, 2019. He is the first Cardinal of his religious congregation.

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; Diocese di Saurimo, Conferência Episcopal de Angola e São Tomé, Rua Comandante Bula, 118 - C.P. 3579 Bairro São Paulo - Luanda - Angola; Resignation of bishop of Benguela, Angola, and appointment of successor, Holy See Press Office, 26.03.2018; Il Papa nomina cardinale il veronese mons. Eugenio Dal Corso, Verona Sera, 01 settembre 2019 16:57.

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