The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church

Biographical Dictionary
Antipope Felix V (1430-1447)
Consistory of October 2, 1440 (II)


(5) 1. MAZOWIECKI, Aleksander (1400-1444)

Birth. 1400. Member of the Mazowian branch of the House of Piast. Second son of Siemowit IV, duke of Mazowiecki and Alexandra of Lithuania, daughter of Algirdas and sister of Władysław II Jagiełło, grand duke of Lithuania. Uncle of Emperor Frederick III von Ausburg. He is also listed as Alessandro di Masovia. From his early childhood, he was destined for an ecclesiastical career.

Education. He was sent to the court of his maternal uncle, King Władysław II Jagiełło at Kraków, where under his tutelage hebegan his studies. From 1415 to 1422, he studied at the University of Kraków, where he was not an excellent student. He was unable to finish any studies. Nevertheless, at the end of 1422 and thanks to being a relative of the king, he was elected honorary rector, which was contrary to the university laws.

Early life. Thanks to the royal protection, on October 24, 1414 he was named provost of the Gniezno cathedral. In 1422, his uncle the king, tried unsuccessfully to name Alexander to the bishopric of Poznań. Canon of the cathedral chapter of Gniezno in 1423. The king was not discouraged by the failure and in 1423, he managed to obtain from Pope Martin V a different diocese for his nephew, that of Trent, which was located on the border between Italy and Germany.

Priesthood. Ordained, 1423. He then went on the long journey to his diocese.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Trent by Pope Martin V on October 20, 1423. Arrived in Trent on June 25, 1424. Consecrated, September, 27, 1425, by Enrico Scarampi, bishop of Feltre. Aleksander aimed to establish a political center in Trent free from any external influence. The cornerstone of this policy, necessarily hostile to Frederick IV of Tyrol, who, even though he had led him to the episcopal seat, were good relations with Filippo Maria Visconti and with Emperor Sigismund. Aleksander acted, therefore, in the political orbit of the emperor, maintaining at the same time close relations of friendship with Filippo Maria, in an anti-Venetian function. He found himself following Sigismund von Luxemburg during the first part of his Italian journey of 1431-1432; and, a second time, from May 1434 until February 1435, when the emperor returned from Basel to Vienna. The relations with the Count of Tyrol were ruined; the imposition of new taxes and the preferences accorded to the Poles provoked the discontent of the states, culminating in the revolt of February 15, 1435. While Aleksander was occupied in Basel with the Council, the states turned to Frederick; Trent was thus occupied by the Count's officers. The dispute was settled in Vienna in a way that was not advantageous for Aleksander: the dependency relationship of the bishopric from the county of Tyrol was reiterated, implicitly condemning the alliance policy with Milan. This did not prevent the bishop from tightening, a little later (1438), a new pact with Filippo Maria Visconti, and from waging war against Venice, with bad luck. However, in recent years, the political action of Aleksander in Trent passes to a second place with respect to the activity carried out in the service of the Council. Educated in Krakúw, in an environment where the doctrine of the supremacy of the council predominated, Aleksander was always faithful to this. Already in May and June 1432, he had been called to Basel; at the time, however, he had not accepted the invitation, due to the disorders that threatened Trent. Only at the beginning of 1434, could he personally go to Basel, together with other representatives of the diocese, of Polish nationality. He stayed there for five months, at the same time as Emperor Sigismund stayed at the council; he left Basel, and on June 18 he was in Ulm together with the emperor, who followed up to Vienna. Named patriarch of Aquileia on October 2, 1440; occupied the see until his death. After the breakup of Pope Euginius IV with the Fathers of Basel, Aleksander was among the first to recognize the supreme ecclesiastical authority in the Council.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Lorenzo in Damaso. In March 1442, he was named bishop of Coira. He could not enjoy these benefices: instead, until his death, he retained the rich benefice of the presbyterate of Vienna, obtained on October 25, 1442 on the emperor's interest. Antipope Felix V sendt him as a legate to the court of Vienna, with assignments of considerable importance. In May 1442, Aleksander came to sell the bishopric government to Frederick III for a period of two years, which he intended to spend away from the diocese (thus the war broke out again in Trentino, between the imperial citizen party and the Tyrolean nobility). Having also secured the sympathy of the court nobility, Aleksander was able to successfully face, in May 1442, the legte of Pope Eugenius IV, Giuliano Cesarini. In the same year, returning for a short time to Trent, he went to Basel and from there to Lausanne, following Antipope Felix V. On April 5, 1443, he was appointed by the Council legate to Austria, Hungary and Poland. Towards the middle of May of that year, Aleksander again clashed in Vienna with Legate Cesarini, who was at the head of a Hungarian-Polish embassy. Legat Cesarini's intent was the formal conclusion of a truce between the Emperor and Ladislaus III, king of Poland and, de facto of Hungary. This truce should have secured Hungary to the West during the planned expedition against the Ottomans. The Council held that a victorious expedition, conducted under the direction of Rome, would have greatly raised the prestige of the Curia, especially in Hungary and Poland. The failure of peace negotiations were a success of the Council and of Aleksander. The illness prevented him from going to Poland and continuing what could be considered the most important diplomatic work of his life.

Death. June 2, 1444, Vienna, surrounded by a group of compatriots. Buried, Saint Stephen's cathedral, Vienna. In the left of the Chancel in Frauenchor still remained his beautiful tombstone built into a wall.

Bibliography. Bąkowski, Ludwik. Ksiâżé Mazowiecki Aleksander, biskup trydencki (Duke Alexander of Masovia, bishop of Trent), in Przegla̢d Historyczny, XVI (1914), pp. 1-34 and 129-163; Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. 10, 11, 64 and 245; Woś, Jan Władysław. Alessandro di Masovia vescovo. principe di Trento (1423-1444): un profilo introduttivo. Nuova edizione riveduta e ampliata. Milan : Giardini, 1994.

Webgraphy. Biography by Domenico Caccamo, in Italian, Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani - Volume 2 (1960), Treccani; effigy in his tomb and biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana; Patriarchs of Aquileia, in Italian, Wikipedia.

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(6) 2. MONCADA I DE LUNA, Otón de (1390-1473)

Birth. 1390, Serós, Spain.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (No information found). Provost of Valencia.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Tortosa by Antipope Benedict XIII, December 18, 1415; occupied the see until his death. Consecrated (no information found). After the election of Pope Martin V, he was part of the delegation to ask Antipope Benedict XIII to resign, but the antipope refused and Bishop Moncada abandoned the antipope. He participated in the Council of Tortosa, during which the schism was finished. In 1434, he was transferred to the diocese of Tarragona, but the transfer did not take place. He participated in the Council of Basel and was very active in it presideing over two general sessions of the Council in 1441. In particular, he was a collator beneficiorum, apostolic penitentiary and camerlengo (head of the Ministry of Finance). He was one of the bishops, who elected Antipope Felix V.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Pudenziana. Resigned the promotion on April 13, 1445.

Death. February 20, 1473, Tortosa. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biography, in French, Wikipédia.

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(7) 3. ORNÓS, Jordi d' (ca. 1380-1452)

Birth. Ca. 1380, Perpignan.

Education. Began his studies in liberal arts at the University of Perpignan around 1394; later, obtained a doctorate in laws.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). Prior of the monastery of Sant Pere de Casserres; and later, archdeacon in the cathedrals of Elne and Barcelona.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Vic in 1424; he resigned the see in 1445. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. Opted for the title of S. Anastasia on October 2, 1440. Opted for the title of S. Maria in Trastevere in 1441. Transferred to the see of Carpentras in 1449 by Pope Nicholas V; occupied the see until his death.

Death. 1452, Carpentras. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Catalan, Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(8) 4. MEEZ, O.S.B.Clun., François de (?-1444)

Birth. (No date or place found). His last name is also listed as Metz. He came from the Emmion family which owned the seigneury of Metz, located north of Annecy. Nephew of Pseudocardinal Jean Allarmet de Brogny (1385).

Education. He entered the Order of Saint Benedict Clun. (Benedictines>.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further informaion found). He was prior of Talloires; and abbot of Saint-Claude (or Saint-Oyand de Joux) in the Jura. Between 1426 and 1428 and from 1443 he led the papal chancery.

Episcopate. He was elected bishop of Genève, Switzerland, by Pope Martin V, on March 4, 1426. Consecrated in 1427 (?). He participated in 1431 in the Council of Basel. He took part in the election of Antipope Felix V.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Marcello.

Death. March 7, 1444. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biogarphy, in French, Wikipédia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(9) 5. LA PLANCHE, O.S.B.Clun., Bernard de (?-ca. 1448-1449)

Birth. (No date found), France, from the noble family of the signori de la Planche.

Education. Joined the Order of Saint Benedict (Clun) in the Monastery of Clairac in 1411. In 1414, he obtained from the Antipope John XXIII the transfer to the post of sacristan of the Monastery of Sainte-Croix de Bordeaux. Obtained a doctorate in canon law in 1416.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). He became prior of Soulac in 1417.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Dax, February 26, 1427, after the death of Bishop Francesco Piccolpasso. Consecrated (no information found). He actively participated in the Councils of Constance and Basil. He was removed from the see of Dax by Pope Eugenius IV on September 9, 1439.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, October 12, 1440. Opted for the title of Ss. Quattro Coronati, 1441.

Death. Ca. 1448-1449. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(10) 6. RAGUSA, O.P., Giovanni di (between 1390 and 1395-1443)

Birth. Between 1390 and 1395, Dubrovnik, Republic of Ragusa. He is also listed as Ivan Stojković de Corvatia; as Johannes Stoyci; as John Stoicowic; as Giovanni Stojković di Ragusa; as Johannes de Ragusio; and as Jean de Raguse. Sometimes he is confounded with Juan de Segovia.

Education. He entered the Dominican Order and devoted himself to the observance of the rule of his order and the study of the sacred sciences. By reason of his great attainments in theology, Scripture, and the Oriental languages, he was considered an oracle in his native Dalmatia. In 1420 he became a master of theology at the University of Paris.

Priesthood. Ordained (no further information found). In 1426 he was appointed procurator general of the Dominican Order, and went to reside in Rome under Pope Martin V. There he received marks of honor and esteem from the pope and the College of Cardinals, and the former eventually named him papal theologian for the General Council of Basle. He was, moreover, chosen to open the Council, in place of Cardinal Giuliano Cesarini, who was detained by other business.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Ardjisch (Arges or Argesch), Walachia. Consecrated, February 8, 1439 (no further information found). He was president of the Council of Basle, and legate to Constantinople.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Sisto.

Death. October 20, 1443, Lausanne, Switzerland. Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biography by Albert Reinhart, in English, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; brief biographical entry, in Italian, Enciclopedia on line, Treccani; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(11) 7. GRŨNWALDER, Johann (1390-1452)

Birth. 1390, Germany. Illegitimate son of John II, duke of Bavaria, and Anna Pirsser.

Education. He studied in Vienna and in Padua.

Early life. Vicar general of Freising, Germany.

Sacred orders. (No information found).

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Freising, January 15, 1448. Consecrated (no information found).

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Martino ai Monti. Resigned cardinalate, January 15, 1448.

Death. December 2, 1452. Buried, (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. His portrait, arms and biography, in German, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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(12) 8. SEGOVIA, Juan de (towards the end of the 14th century-1458)

Birth. Towards the end of the fourteenth century, Segovia, Spain.

Education. (No information found).

Sacred orders. (Ordained, no information found). Archdeacon of Villaviciosa, Oviedo, Spain. Canon of the metropolitan cathedral of Toledo. Professor of theology at the University of Salamanca. In 1432, the University of Salamanca and King Juan II of Castilla sent him as their representative to the Council of Basle, where he was one of the ablest defenders of the superiority of the council over the pope. At first, he tried to mitigate the conflict between the Council and Pope Eugenius IV, with whom he spent some time at Florence in 1435, but afterwards he became one of the chief supporters of the revolutionary party at the council. He took part in the twenty-eighth session, held on October 1, 1437), at which Pope Eugenius IV was declared contumacious, and in the thirty-third session, held on May 16, 1439, at which the pope was declared a heretic. In March, l439, he represented the Council at the Diet of Mainz.

Cardinalate. Created pseudocardinal priest by Antipope Felix V in Genève on October 12, 1440; received the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. By 1444 he had made his submission to Pope Nicholas V.

Episcopate. Elected bishop of Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, France, July 24, 1449. Consecrated (no information found). When the Schism ended in 1449, he resigned the cardinalate. Transferred to the see of Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, October 13, 1451. Transferred to the titular see of Cæsarea, January 20, 1453. He retired to a monastery. He spent much of his retirement advocating peaceful dialogue with the Islamic world and the translation of the Koran into Western languages, specially Castilian, with the assistance of the Islamic scholar Ice de Gebir (spelled Isâ Ibn Jabîr (عيسى بن جابر) in Arabic). His most important literary work is an extensive history of the Council of Basle, written between 1449 and 1453. Other works were a treatise in favor of the Immaculate Conception of our Lady, printed at Brussels in 1664; a refutation of the Koran, entitled "De mittendo gladio in Saracenos"; a defense of the "Filioque" against the Orthodox entitled "De processu Spiritus Sancti" (Basle, 1476); a Biblical concordance, "Concordantiae biblicae vocum indeclinabilium" (Basle, 1476); and a few works defending the superiority of a general council over the pope.

Death. May 24, 1458, (no place found). Buried (no information found).

Bibliography. Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 4 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1677, II, col. 945 and 976; "Essai de liste générale des cardinaux. VII. Les cardinaux de la fin du XVe siècle". Annuaire Pontifical Catholique 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, p. 150; Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi. Volumen II (1431-1503). Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1914; reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, pp. .

Webgraphy. Biography by Michael Ott, The Catholic Encyclopedia; biography, in English, Wikipedia; his arms, Araldica Vaticana.

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