Birth. February 8, 1822, Imola. Received the sacrament of confirmation, June 8, 1829.
Education. Studied at the Archgymnasium of Rome, where he earned a doctorate in utroque iuris, both civil and canon law, on May 8, 1848.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1844, Imola. Further studies, Rome. In diocese of Imola, faculty member of its seminary; judge and prosynodal examiner; diocesan visitor; canon theologian of the cathedral chapter.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Macerata et Tolentino, August 4, 1881. Consecrated, August 14, 1881, church of SS. Trinità al Monte Pincio, Rome, by Cardinal Raffaele Monaco La Valletta, vicar general of Rome, assisted by Giulio Lenti, titular archbishop of Side, vice-gerent of Rome, and by Francesco Marinelli, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. In the same ceremony was consecrated Giuseppe d'Annibale, titular bishop of Caristo, assessor of the S.C. of the Inquisition, future cardinal. Promoted to metropolitan see of Ravenna, May 23, 1887.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1890; received the red hat and the title of S. Lorenzo in Panisperna, June 26, 1890.
Death. January 25, 1901, Ravenna. Exposed in the metropolitan cathedral of Ravenna and buried in the city's cemetery.
Birth. September 22, 1824, Carouge, diocese of Geneva, Switzerland. Eldest son of Jacques Mermillod (1793-1871), baker and restaurant operator, and Pernette Mégard (1800-1876), both from Bardonnex. Received the sacrament of confirmation, August 24, 1834.
Education. Studied at the Seminary of Saint-Louis du Mont, Chambéry, 1837-1841; and at the Jesuit College of Saint-Michel, Fribourg, 1841-1847 (philosophy and theology).
Priesthood. Ordained, June 24, 1847. In Geneva, parish vicar, Saint-Germain, the only Catholic church in the city; to procure the means for the building of a second Catholic parish church, he conducted a large-scale collecting activity abroad; this mission led him to Paris in 1851; he soon established lasting contacts with bishops and wealthy aristocratic circles in other parts of Europe. Apostolic missionary; founder of the periodicals L'Observateur Catholique and Les Annales Catholiques. Visited Rome from 1854 to 1855 and gained the trust of Pope Pius IX. Rector of the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1857. Vicar general of the bishop of Lausanne for the canton of Geneva, 1857.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Hebron and named auxiliary of Genève, September 22, 1864. Consecrated, September 25, 1864, Sistine Chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius IX, assisted by Giuseppe Berardi, titular archbishop of Nicea, substitute of the Secretariat of State, and by Francesco Marinelli, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, papal sacristan. In the same ceremony was consecrated future Cardinal Pier Francesco Meglia. Apostolic administrator of the city and canton of Geneva, January 16, 1872. Apostolic vicar of the canton of Genève, January 16, 1873. Expelled by the city council, February 17, 1873. Governed the diocese in exile from Ferney, France. Bishop of Lausanne and Genève, March 15, 1883. Allowed to return to Switzerland but the canton's government never recognized him as the bishop of the diocese.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1890; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo, June 26, 1890. Resigned the pastoral government of the diocese, March 11, 1891.
Death. February 23, 1892, Rome. Exposed in the church of Ss. Vicenzo ed Anastasio a Trevi and buried in the chapel of the Carthusians, Campo Verano cemetery, Rome (or at the Teutonic cemetery at the Vatican). Transferred to the church of Saint-Croix, Carouge, in 1926.
Webgraphy. Biography, in English; biography, in German; his engraving; and his portrait by Hildebrand, Musée de Carrouge.
Birth. March 1, 1817, Stanislaviv, archdiocese of Lviv, Poland. Son of Szymon Dunajewski and Antonina z Blazowskich. He had two brothers, Edward and Julian (1822-1907), who was Austrian minister of Finance (1880-1891).
Education. Studied at the Theological Faculty, Lviv; at the University of Kraków (civil law, 1835-1839); at the Seminary of Kraków; and at Collegio Romano, Rome (theology).
Early life. At the University of Kraków, worked for the university youth and was co-creator of "Mloda Sarmacja" (Young Sarmacy) Union statute. As a member of Polish Democrates, was arrested accused of conspiring, February 8, 1841 and after a protracted investigation sentenced to death, but the court by decree of January 1, 1845 changed the sentence to eight years in prison and later to police supervision until finishing the sentence. He was in the prison of Spielberg in Moravia, then part of Austria, now in the Czech Republic. Freed by amnesty in 1848. In 1849 he worked in Buczacz, Poland, now in Ukraine, as translator of the Kraków District Commission. Later he practiced as a notary in Kraków, 1849-1850, and applied to the Kraków City Tribunal. In 1850 again his home was searched by the police and was the reason why he had to leave his job at the Czas (Time) printing office administration, and he went to work as secretary to count Adam Potocki in Krzeszowice. After the death of his fiancee, he resumed his ecclesiastical studies at the Seminary of Kraków.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 28, 1861, Kraków, by Ludwik Łętowski, titular bishop of Joppe, administrator of the diocese of Kraków. Confessor at St. Mary's church, Kraków, 1861-1862. In the archdiocese of Warsaw, January 10, 1863 to the end of February 1864, professor of moral theology, and rector of its seminary in 1862; and honorary canon of its cathedral chapter, 1862-1864. In the diocese of Kraków, under police supervision, vicar of Wizytki Sisters (Order of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary); prosynodal examiner, 1864; counselor in the episcopal curia; parish vicar of Rudawa; parish vicar in Piasek; parish administrator in Piasek; for three years parish administrator of St. Szczepan, Kraków; referendary of its curia. Domestic prelate of His Holiness, 1877.
Episcopate. Elected prince bishop of Kraków, May 15, 1879. Consecrated, June 18, 1879, cathedral of Kraków, by Lodovico Jacobini, titular archbishop of Tessalonica, nuncio in Austria-Hungary, assisted by Anton Josef Gruscha, archbishop of Vienna, and by Jan Stupnicki, bishop of Przemyśl of the Ukrainians. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, August 16, 1881.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of June 23, 1890; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio, June 4, 1891. He was a charitable patron and well known social activist as well as a humble man, who, among other things avoided the use of a carriage as was customary to his office back then. It was he who ordained to the priesthood Raphael Kalinowski, O.C.D., later canonized by Pope John Paul II on November 17, 1991.
Death. June 18 (1), 1894, Kraków. Exposed and buried in the cathedral of Kraków.
Bibliography. Nitecki, Piotr. Biskupi Kościoła w Polsce w latach 965-1999. Słownik biograficzny. Przedmowa Henryk Gulbinowicz. Warszawa : Instytut Wydawniczy "Pax", Warszawa 2000, col. 84-85; Prokop, Krzysztof Rafał. Polscy kardynałowie. Kraków : Wydawnictwo WAM, 2001, p.195-206.
Webgraphy. Photograph, arms and biography, in Italian, Wikipedia; his engraving, arms and portraits, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to Ritzler, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, VIII, 35; La Gerarchia Cattolica e la famiglia pontificia per l'anno 1903, p. 196, indicates that he died on June 10, 1894.
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