Birth. February 28, 1863, in a modest house on Passage Saint-Esprit, Vaucouleurs, diocese of Verdun, France (1). He was the sixth of the eight children of François-Henri Lépicier and Marie-Claire Hette. Some days later, he was baptized with the name Henri. He received first communion on July 5, 1874.
Education. Studied at the School of the religious of Saint-Charles, Vaucouleurs, 1866-1869; at the Institution Saint-Joseph, 1874-1877 (Latin and sciences); joined the Order of Servants of Mary at the priory of Saint Mary, Fulham Road, London; received the religious habit, March 1, 1878; received the subdiaconate on March 2, 1884, from Bishop Robert Coffin, C.SS.R. of Southwork; went to Paris on the following day and remained there for four months; spent a short time at the convent of Bognor and returned to London to study theology and teach philosophy to the Servite students in that house; on March 21, 1885, he received the diaconate; studeid at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, where he earned doctorates in philosophy and theology.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 19, 1885, London, by William Weathers, titular bishop of Amyclae, auxiliary of Westminster. Further studies, November 1885-1890; resided at the church of S. Maria in Via, which was cared for by his order. Master of novices, 1890-1892, Bognor. Professor of dogmatic theology at the Pontifical Urbanian Athenaeum "De Propaganda Fide," Rome, 1892-1913. Rector of the Servite International College of Saint-Alexis Falconiéri, Rome, 1895-1913. Named one of the four consultors general of his order, 1895. General procurator of his order, 1901. In mission to England for the establishment of the metropolitan provinces of Westminster, Liverpool and Birmingham, May 1911. Apostolic visitor and delegate to Scotland, 1912-1913. Elected 94th prior general of his order, May 13, 1913, Florence; occupied the post until May 27, 1920.
Episcopate. Elected titular archbishop of Tarso, May 22, 1924. Consecrated, May 29, 1924, Ascension Thursday, chapel of the College of Propaganda Fide, Rome, by Cardinal Willem Marinus van Rossum, C.SS.R., prefect of the S.C. for the Propagation of Faith, assisted by Francesco Marchetti Selvaggiani, titular archbishop of Seleucia, and by Carlo Raffaele Rossi, O.C.D., titular archbishop of Tessalonica. Apostolic visitor to the Eastern Indies dioceses dependent on the S.C. for the Propagation of the Faith, June 11, 1924. Apostolic visitor to Abyssinia and Eritrea, April 15, 1927.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Susanna, December 22, 1927. Prefect of the S.C. for Religious, December 17, 1928. Papal legate to the celebrations in honor of Sainte-Joan d'Arc, Orléans, France, April 22, 1929; to the National Eucharistic Congress, Carthage, April 25, 1930; to the Plenary Council of Malta, May 8, 1935, through which it was decreed that the Catholic Action should be established in every parish. Resigned the prefecture of the S.C. for Religious, December 31, 1935. Gravely ill, he requested the last sacraments, which were adminstered by the prior general of the Servites, Father Raffaele M. Baldini, on Wednesday May 20, 1936, the same day he died (2). He was a prolific writer whose works include Sacred Scriptures, theology, philosophy, apologetics, ascetics and several opuscules (3).
Death. Wednesday May 20, 1936, at 8:30 pm., of pernicious anemia complicated by bronchial trouble, in his residence in via Mercadante 34, Rome. The funeral took place at the church of S. Andrea della Valle, Rome, on May 25, 1936; the funeral mass was celebrated by Pietro Pisani, titular archbishop of Constantia in Scythia; Msgr. Lorenzo Perosi directed the choir of the Pontifical Chapel; Cardinal Gennaro Granito Pignatelli di Belmonte, bishop of Ostia and Albano, dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, imparted the final absolution. He was buried in the crypt of his order in Campo Verano cemetery, Rome.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 385-386; Lépicier, Augustine M. Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie. 2 vols. Paris, 1946.
Webgraphy. Photographs, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) In May 1936, the city of Vaucouleurs placed a marble plaque in the house where he was born to perpetuate his memory. This the text of the inscription on the plaque,
taken from Lépicier, Le Cardinal Lépicier des Servites de Marie, II, 208:
Birth. April 6 (1), 1866, Isle-Verte, diocese of Rimouski, Canada. His father, Félix Rouleau, was a farmer; his mother, Luce Irvine, was of Scottish descent. His baptismal name was Félix. His first name is also listed as Raymond-Marie only.
Education. Primary studies in the local school; Seminary of Rimouski, Rimouski, 1879-1885 (classics); received the soutane, September 1885; suffering from consumption, he was cured after making a promise and for this reason, he entered the Order of Preachers, December 8, 1886, Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe; took the name Raymond-Marie; first vows, August 3, 1888; final vows, August 4, 1891; studied theology at the Dominican monastery of Corbara, Corsica (it was the refuge of the French Dominicans expelled from the metropolitan territory); he had Fathers Gardeil and Sertillanges as professors.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 31, 1892, Corte, Corsica, by Paul-Mathieu de la Foata, bishop of Ajaccio. Returned to Canada in 1894 after having obtained the grade of lector in theology. Professor and master of novices at the Dominican Novitiate, Saint-Hyacinthe, 1894-1897; director of studies, 1897-1898; regent of studies, 1898-1900. Prior of the Dominican convent of Ottawa, 1900-1909; regent of studies, 1900-1919; professor of moral and pastoral theology, Sacred Scriptures and canon law; director of spiritual retreats; defender of the matrimonial bond. Accompanied Archbishop Joseph-Thomas Duhamel of Ottawa to the Plenary Council of Québec of 1909 as a theologian. Received the title of master in Sacred Theology on June 12, 1909. Counselor in the apostolic delegation in Canada. Ardent defender of the Franco-Ontarian minority in dispute over Réglament XVII. Dominican provincial in Canada, July 2, 1919 until 1923.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Valleyfield, March 9, 1923. Consecrated, May 22, 1923, cathedral of Ste-Cécile, Valleyfield, by Pietro di Maria, titular archbishop of Iconio, apostolic delegate in Canada, assisted by Félix Couturier, O.P., bishop of Alexandria, and by Georges Gauthier, titular bishop of Filippopoli di Arabia, apostolic administrator of Montréal. His episcopal motto was Caritas veritas. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Québec, July 9, 1926.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Pietro in Montorio, December 22, 1927. Decorated with the grand cross of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, February 11, 1929. Honorary member of the Permanent Committee of the International Eucharistic Congresses, November 18, 1930. He was dangerously bruised and cut when a blowout crashed his automobile into a ditch near Levis in 1930; he received last rites but later convalesced.
Death. May 31, 1931, shortly after 10 a.m., suddenly, of angina pectoris; in the archiepiscopal palace of Québec; he had suffered from angina for several years. The funeral was celebrated on June 6, 1931, by Andrea Cassulo, titular archbishop of Leontopoli di Augustamnica, apostolic delegate in Canada, in the metropolitan cathedral basilica of Québec; it was attended by twenty archbishops and bishops from Canada. His remains were buried in that metropolitan cathedral basilica.
Bibliography. "Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939. Città del Vaticano : Tipografia poliglotta vaticana, 1939, p. 81; LeBlanc, Jean. Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada. Les diocèses catholiques canadiens des Églises latine et orientales et leurs évêques; repères chronologiques et biographiques, 1658-2002. Ottawa : Wilson & Lafleur, 2002. (Gratianus. Série instruments de recherche), pp. 786-788; "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 117; "Necrologie." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1932. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1932, pp. 917-918.
Webgraphy. His photograph, Araldica Vaticana.
(1) This is according to LeBlanc, Dictionnaire biographique des évêques catholiques du Canada, p. 786; and "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931, p. 117; Cardinali defunti." Annuario pontificio per l'anno 1939, p. 81, says that he was born on April 4, 1866.
Birth. December 4, 1880, Carazo, diocese of Osma, Spain. His parents were Santiago Segura Arroyo and Juliana Sáenz Camarero, both school teachers. He was baptized the day after his birth. He had three brothers: Quintín, a priest, Emiliano, and Vidal; and a sister, Elena. His second last name is also listed as Sáez.
Education. Secondary education at Piarist Colegio de San Pedro de Cardeña, incorporated to the Conciliar Seminary of Burgos, 1891 to 1894 (he studied three years of Latin); in September 1894, he entered the Pontifical Seminary of Comillas; there he studied two years of Latin; two of humanities and rhetoric; three of philosophy; four of theology and three of canon law, obtaining the highest grades; on December 26, 1906, he obtained a doctorate in theology; on July 16, 1908, in canon law; and on July 20, 1911, in philosophy.
Priesthood. Ordained, June 9, 1906. Pastoral ministry as economous of the parish of Salas de Bureba, in the archdiocese of Burgos, until September 22, 1909, when he was named professor of canon law at the Pontifical University of Burgos; he also taught Greek and sociology. Elected canon doctoral of the cathedral chapter of Valladolid in 1912. Professor of Decretales and member of Colegio de Doctores of the Faculties of Canon Law and Philosophy at the Pontifical University of Valladolid; he was also prefect of studies.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Apollonia and appointed auxiliary of Valladolid, March 14, 1916. Consecrated, June 13, 1916, Comillas, by Cardinal José María Cos Macho, archbishop of Valladolid, assisted by Vicente Santiago Sánchez de Castro, bishop of Santander, and by Julián de Diego y García Alcolea, bishop of Salamanca. Transferred to the see of Coria, July 10, 1920; took possession on October 12, 1920; entered the diocese the following 15th. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Burgos, December 20, 1926; took possession on February 2, 1927. Administrator of Coria, 1926-1927. At the death of Cardinal Enrique Reig y Casananova, archbishop of Toledo and primate of Spain, on August 25, 1927, King Alfonso XIII nominated Archbishop Segura for that see on October 31, 1927, in spite of the reservations that the young archbishop had. Transferred to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo, December 19, 1927; took possession on January 23, 1928; entered the archdiocese on the following day.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red biretta from King Alfonso XIII on December 25, 1927, in the public chapel of the Royal Palace, Madrid; received the red hat and the title of S. Maria in Trastevere, October 28, 1929. On February 14, 1929, the pope named Cardinal Segura pontifical director of the Catholic Action. Expelled from Spain by Interior Minister Miguel Maura of the Republican government, June 15, 1931. Resigned the pastoral government of the archdiocese, September 26, 1931, while in France. Arrived in Rome, December 20, 1931; he resided in the Eternal City for six years; he dedicated his ministry to the poor, specially in the Trastevere region. Transferred to the metropolitan see of Sevilla, September 14, 1937; took possession of the see, October 2, 1937. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He was one of the few, if not the only, discordant voices of the Spanish Catholic Church which confronted the regime of Generalissimo Francisco Franco. His disagreements, in his last years, with the dictator were many and for several reasons. A decided conservative, he was opposed to religious toleration, especially towards Protestants and Franco's limited religious tolerance; and prohibited Sevilla Catholics from attending movies and dances. At the same time, he was a very influential opponent of collaboration with Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Cardinal protopriest, August 30, 1954.
Death. April 8, 1957, in the evening, of kidney ailment aggravated by circulatory difficulties, at the hospital "Nuestra Señora del Rosario", in Madrid, assisted by his chaplain, Santiago Guinea. Franco ordered that the late cardinal receive the honors of captain general. He was laid out in state at the archiepiscopal palace of Sevilla. The exequies were very solemn but without homily or funeral oration. Buried, Cerro del Sagrado Corazón, Sevilla, which he had built, beside his sister Elena, who had died in 1949 (1) (2).
-Barrios, Manuel. La Sevilla del Cardenal Segura. Sevilla : Ediciones Espuela de Plata, 2004;
=Bastarrika, Iñaki. "Segura y Sáenz, Pedro." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Prepared by an editorial staff at the Catholic University of America. 19 vols. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1967-1996, p. 50;
-Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986; (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 78;
-Garriga, Ramón. El Cardenal Segura y el Nacional-Catolicismo. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1977. (Espejo de España, 37);
-Gil Delgado, Francisco. Pedro Segura, un cardenal de fronteras. Madrid : Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2001. (Biblioteca de autores cristianos ; 616);
-Martínez Sánchez, Santiago. Los papeles perdidos del cardenal Segura, 1880-1957. Pamplona : Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, 2004. (Colección histórica);
-Montilla, Francisca. "El Carcenal Segura, primer maestro de España". Revista Española de Pedagogía, Vol. 7, No. 25 (Enero-Marzo 1949), p. 107-129; -Núñez Beltrán, Miguel Ángel. "El Cardenal Segura y su acción sinódico-conciliar en Sevilla: el Sínodo Diocesano 1943 y el Concilio Provincial de 1944." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia andaluza, Vol. 1, (2008), 253-279;
-Núñez Beltrán, Miguel Angel. "El Cardenal Segura y su acción sinódico-conciliar en Sevilla: el Sínodo Diocesano 1943 y el Concilio Provincial de 1944." Anuario de Historia de la Iglesia andaluza, I (2008), 253-279;
-Requejo San Román, Jesús. El Cardenal Segura. Con prólogo de Ramiro de Maeztu. Madrid : Imp. Juan Bravo 3, 1932;
-Ros, Carlos. Pedro Segura y Sáenz: Semblanza de un Cardenal Selvático. Madrid : Letras de Autor, 2016;
-Sánchez, Santiago. Los papeles perdidos del Cardenal Segura, 1880-1957. Pamplona : Ediciones Universidad de Navarra, 2004. (Histórica / Ediciones Universidad de Navarra).
Webgraphy. Biography by Vicente Cárcel Ortí, in Spanish, Diccionario Biográfico Español, DB~e; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; biography, in Spanish, summary by José María Lorenzo Amelibia of the book Pedro Segura. Un cardenal de Fronteras, by Francisco Gil Delgado; LIBROS: Pedro Segura (El Cardenal de fronteras), Comentarios de Javier Nagore Yarnoz al libro de Francisco Gil Delgado; biography by J. M. Cuenca Toribio, in Spanish, Gran Enciclopedia Rialp; El Cardenal Pedro Segura y Sáenz (1880-1957), doctoral thesis by Santiago Martínez Sánchez, in Spanish; photograph and biography, in Spanish, Wikipedia; his portrait, Corbis Images; photographs and arms, Araldica Vaticana; El Cardenal Pedro Segura y Sáenz (1880-1957) by Santiago Martínez Sánchez. Tesis doctoral dirigida por Prof. Dr. Gonzalo Redondo Gálvez, Pamplona, noviembre de 2002, Universidad de Navarra, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Historia; Segura, el cardenal que expulsó la II República by José María García de Tuñón Aza, El Catoblepas, número 88, junio 2009, página 13; El cardenal Segura. La púrpura irreductible by Diego J. Geniz, Diario de Sevilla, 03 Abril, 2016 - 05:03h; Lista de Schindler del Cardenal Segura by Antonio Burgos, El Recuadro, ABC de Sevilla, 4 de abril de 2016.(1) This is the text of the plaque on his tomb, kindly provided by Mr. Mark West, from London:
Birth. April 8, 1869, at 11 a.m., Juvigny, diocese of Soissons, France. Eldest of the eight children of Edmond Binet, a farmer, and Marie Louise Hélène Sampité. The other siblings were Marie Elise Appoline (born in 1871); Joseph Léon (born in 1872); Paul Marie Edmond (born in 1875); Léon Albert Joseph (born in 1877); Edmée Marie Thérèse (born in 1878); Clémence Marie Thérèse (born in 1880); and Jeanne Marie Augustine Gabrielle (born in 1886).
Education. Seminary of Saint-Sulpice, Paris; Seminary of Notre Dame des Champs, Paris.
Priesthood. Ordained, October 22, 1893, Soissons. Pastoral ministry in the diocese of Soissons, 1893-1895. Faculty member of the Seminary of Soissons, 1895-1914. Diocesan archivist, 1900; honorary canon, 1901. Director of Semaine Religieuse, 1909-1914. In the French Army during W.W. I, 1914-1919. Vicar general and archdeacon of the diocese of Laon, February 13, 1919.
Episcopate. Elected bishop of Soissons (-Laon-Saint-Quentin), June 16, 1920. Consecrated, August 24, 1920, cathedral of Soissons, by Cardinal Louis-Henri-Joseph Luçon, archbishop of Reims, assisted by Joseph-Marie Tissier, bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, and by Ernest Neveux, titular bishop of Arsinoe, auxiliary of Reims. His episcopal motto was Ut nobis in laboris laetitia Da robur fer auxilium. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Besançon, October 31, 1927; concurrently, he became apostolic administrator of Soissons until May 1, 1928.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of S. Prisca, December 22, 1927. Papal legate to the celebration for 75th Anniversary of apparition of Our Lady of Lourdes, January 28, 1933; to the Centennial celebrations of Our Lady of Liesse, Soissons, July 12, 1934.
Death. July 15, 1936, of uremia, Besançon. Buried in the metropolitan cathedral of Besançon.
Bibliography. Chapeau, O.S.B. André and Fernand Combaluzier, C.M. Épiscopologe français des temps modernes, 1592-1973. Paris : Letouzey et Ané, 1974, p. 195-196.
Webgraphy. His portrait, photograph and arms, Araldica Vaticana.
Birth. April 23, 1884, Deáki, archabbey of Saint Martin of the Sacred Pannonhalma, Hungary (now Diakovce, archdiocese of Bratislava-Trnava, Slovakia). He was the youngest of the eleven children of Mihály Szapucsek (he Magyarized the last name to Serédi) and Julia Oroszlán. One of his brothers, Mihály, also became a Benedictine monk. His last name is also listed as Szeredy.
Education. Initial education from Vicar Gulyás Elek; from 1895, he attended the Catholic high school in Bratislava; motivated by the example of his brother, he joined the Order of Saint Benedict on August 6, 1901, Pannonhalma; took the name Jusztinián; professed on July 10, 1905. Received his formation at Benedictine houses of studies in Hungary and Rome.
Priesthood. Ordained, July 14, 1908, abbey church of Pannonhalma. Member of the community of the abbey of Pannonhalma. In the Fall of 1908, he returned to Rome as professor of canon law at the International Collegio S. Anselmo. He assisted Cardinal Pietro Gasparri in the preparation of the new Code of Canon Law, which was published on May 27, 1917. In 1918, he was for a short time pastor of a military camp in Esztergom (1). Procurator general of his order in Rome; and counselor to the Hungarian legation in Rome, 1920-1927.
Episcopate. Elected archbishop of Esztergom, November 30, 1927. Consecrated, January 8, 1928, Sistine chapel, at the Vatican, by Pope Pius XI, assisted by Carlo Cremonesi, titular archbishop of Nicomedia, privy almoner of His Holiness, and by Agostino Zampini, O.S.A., titular bishop of Porfireone, sacristan of His Holiness. His episcopal motto was Non recuso laborem. Enthroned the following January 28. Prince primate and senator of Hungary by his own right, when he became archbishop of Esztergom, primatial see of Hungary.
Cardinalate. Created cardinal priest in the consistory of December 19, 1927; received the red hat and the title of Ss. Andrea e Gregorio al Monte Celio, December 22, 1927; during the consistory, the pope called him the "Benjamin" of the Sacred College of Cardinals, because the cardinal, at forty three, was the youngest member of the Sacred College. Papal legate to the National Eucharistic Congress, Budapest, September 16, 1928. He was strongly opposed to Nazism, issuing a statement in 1934 saying no Catholic priest could support its principles. Participated in the conclave of 1939, which elected Pope Pius XII. He led the church in Hungary in its opposition to the attack on the Jews. At the end of the Second World War, he was carried off as a hostage by the Nazis just before the Soviet armies took Budapest (2). He founded the Pontifical Institute of Hungary and did much to expand the Hungarian holdings of the Vatican Library.
Death. Holy Thursday March 29, 1945, at 2 p.m., of a heart attack, in his library, in Esztergom. His auxiliary bishop, Zoltán Lajos Meszlényi, titular bishop of Sinope, administered the last sacraments. His funeral was held in the crypt of the then nearly destroyed metropolitan and primatial cathedral of Esztergom, by Angelo Rotta, titular archbishop of Tebe, nuncio to Hungary. Buried in that cathedral (3).
Bibliography. Beke, Margit. Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003. Budapest : Szent Istvan Tarsulat, 2003, pp. 389-395; "E. Seréredi (Justinien-Georges)" in "Liste des cardinaux par order alphabétique." Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1929. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1929, p.99-100; Tusor, Péter. Purpura Pannonica : az esztergomi "bíborosi szék" kialakulásának elozminyei a 17. században = Purpura Pannonica : the "Cardinalitial See" of Strigonium and its Antecedens in the 17th Century. Budapest : Róma : Research Institute of Church History at Péter Pázmány Catholic University, 2005. (Collectanea Vaticana Hungariae, Classis I, vol. 3), pp. 210 and 330.
Webgraphy. Photographs, portrait and biography, in Hungarian, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in English, Wikipedia; photograph and biography, in Hungarian, Portá Történelem; bibliography and biography, in Hungarian, second entry on page, Magyar Katolikus Lexikon; Dr. Serédi Jusztinián életrajza, in Hungarian, Temesvári Pelbárt Ferences Gimnázium és Kollégium; Serédi Jusztinián, akiböl majdnem pápa lett, in Hungarian, szentek.wordpress.com; his photograph, portrait and arms, Araldica Vaticana; 125 éve született Serédi Jusztinián, archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest.
(1) During the difficult years of the First World War, although he was far from his homeland, he did not forget the suffering Hungarian prisoners of war in the camps.
Although not personally exposed to them, he taught Hungarian to the Italian military chaplains so that they could understand his compatriots. He also edited a prayer book, which was
delivered to the camps along with other educational and entertaining books.
(2) According to Beke, Esztergomi érsekek 1001-2003, p. 393, the cardinal was diabetic, and the fact that the city was besieged by the Red Army made it impossible for him to get his dose of insulin, leading eventually to his death.
(3) This is the text of the inscription on his vault, kindly provided by Mr. Eman Bonnici, from Malta:
TIT. SS. ANDREÆ ET GREGORI PRESBYTER
CARD. SERÉDI O.S.B.
AEPPUS STRIGONIENSIS PRINCEPS
NATUS D.23.APR.1884. IN DEÀKI OBIT. D.29.MART.1945
ROMÆ IURA DOCUIT. IN CODICE J.C. CONCINNANDO
ACUTISSIMI INGENII MIRÆQUE DILIGENTIÆ ADFUIT
OPERIUS SOCIUS. AD SEDEM STRIGON. EVECTUS
18 ANN. SPATIO ECCLESIÆ IN HUNGARIA PRAEERAT
PASTOR ANIMARUM MITIS, JUSTITIÆ CULTOR
IURUMQUE ECCLESIÆ DEFENSOR INTREPIDUS.
Birth. April 27, 1860, Burgos, Spain.
Education. He began his studies in Burgos; and later, he studied theology at the Major Seminary of Toledo; he obtained doctorates in theology (January 1884) and utroque iure, both canon and civil law.
Priesthood. Ordained, September 21, 1883. Named vice-secretary of the archdiocese of Burgos, October 1883. Professor of canon law at the University of Valladolid in 1884; and at Universidad Central in 1886. From 1884 until 1891, he studied civil law obtaining a licentiate in June 1890; and doctorate on November 5, 1891 at Universidad Central. Professor of canon law and Sacred Scriptures at the Seminary of San Jerónimo of Burgos. Grand chaplain of the Sisters of the visitation. In 1896, he obtained the doctoral canonship of the metropolitan cathedral chapter of Burgos; and two years later, he obtained the lectoral canonship of that cathedral chapter; he also was fiscal, judge, provisor and vicar general of the archdiocese.
Episcopate. Elected titular bishop of Olimpo and appointed auxiliary bishop of Toledo, December 19, 1907. Consecrated, March 29, 1908, at the cathedral of Burgos, by Cardinal Gregorio María Aguirre y García, O.F.M., archbishop of Burgos, assisted by José María Escudero y Ubago, bishop of Osma, and by Antolín López Peláez, bishop of Jaca. At the death of Cardinal Ciriaco María Sancha y Hervás, archbishop of Toledo, on February 26, 1909, he was named general apostolic commisary of the Bula de la Cruzada. Transferred to the see of Vitoria on July 18, 1913. Took possession of the see on the following November 27; enthroned, the following December 7. In the Legislature of 1916-1917, he was senator for the archdiocese of Burgos; in the Legislature of 1921-1922, he was senator for the archdiocese of Toledo; and in the Legislature of 1923, he was senator for the archdiocese of Valencia. Transferred to the see of Madrid-Alcalá, December 4, 1916; took possession, March 29, 1917; enthroned, the following April 22. Promoted to the metropolitan see of Valencia, December 14, 1922. He took possession of the see on June 1, 1923; enthroned, the following July 8. As soon as he took possession of the archdiocese, he began a pastoral visit of the vast geography of his see, attending to all the needs of the faithful. He was concerned with the care of the priests, guiding them with his pastoral letters and circulars, about the behavior they observed in their pastoral ministry.
Cardinalate. According to an article by ecclesiastical historian Msgr. Vicente Cárcel y Ortí, in a letter written in 1928, King Alfonso XIII asked Pope Pius XI that Valencia would again be a cardinalitial see (its last cardinal, Archbishop Enrique Reig y Casanova, had been transferred in 1922 to the metropolitan and primatial see of Toledo) and to promote the current archbishop to the cardinalate. Msgr. Cárcel Ortí found the letter in the Secret Vatican Archive in the fund pertaining to that pontiff. The pope responded in writing saying that at the moment he could not make the promotion because Spain already had the habitual number of cardinals, four, two of them fixed, Toledo and Sevilla; and the other two variable. The pope recommended that the monarch wait for a future occasion but the time passed, and because of the circumstances, it was not possible. During his episcopate, an important liturgical movement took place, which had a beneficial impact on the renewal of the clergy and the parishes of the diocese. Realizing the importance of the lay apostolate in the Church and in society, he promoted the Catholic Action, ordering a census of the existing works for a more perfect organization. He celebrated a Diocesan Assembly of the Feminine Catholic Action and urged women to attend the National Congress. He also promoted a week for the training of chaplains in the Catholic Action movements. Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, October 21, 1933. When the Spanish Civil War started in 1936, he was in Burgos, his hometown. With great pain he saw the churches of the archdiocese of Valencia being desecrated and the worship suppressed. After the death of the meritorious Rafael Ramón Llin, there were assassinated 352 diocesan priests, hundreds of religious and countless lay Catholics. When the Civil War ended in 1939, despite his advanced age, he began the restoration of the archdiocese, giving impetus to all diocesan structures, in need of renovation. Apostolic administrator of Segorbe, 1939 to 1944. In 1942, he made the arrangement of parishes and held in that year an open competition of parishes, thereby normalizing the abnormal situation in which many of them were. Realizing the need of a new seminary building, which would be in line with the times, he laid the first stone of the building in the town of Moncada on May 15, 1944.
Death. October 31, 1945, Valencia. Buried in the main altar of the metropolitan cathedral of Valencia, which he had restored.
Bibliography. Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1920. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1920, p. 248-249; Annuaire Pontifical Catholique de 1931. Paris : Maison de la Bonne Presse, 1931, p. 361; Echeverría, Lamberto de. Episcopologio español contemporáneo, 1868-1985 : datos biográficos y genealogía espiritual de los 585 obispos nacidos o consagrados en España entre el 1 de enero de 1868 y el 31 de diciembre de 1985 . Salamanca : Universidad de Salamanca, 1986. (Acta Salmanticensia; Derecho; 45), p. 70, no. 169; Pięta, Zenonem. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Volumen IX (1903-1922). Patavii : Typis et Sumptibus Domus Editorialis "Il Messaggero di S. Antonio" apud Basilicam S. Antonii, 2002, pp. 245, 279 and 392.
Webgraphy. Portrait and biography, in Spanish, archdiocese of Valencia.
©1998-2019 Salvador Miranda.